Tag Archives: 1959

Theory of diffraction in microwave interferometry, D. M. Kerns and E. S. Dayhoff x (August 25, 1959)

Microwave Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers are respectively considered as
instances of: (1) A “reflection system”, consisting of a radiating-receiving system and a
reflecting object (e.g., a finite mirror) ; and (2) a “transmission system”, consisting of a
radiating system and a receiving system with an object (e.g., a Fabry-Perot etalon) inter-
posed. The basic theoretical objective is the calculation of the amplitude and phase of the
(time-harmonic) received signal in the systems considered. The electromagnetic field in
space transmission paths is represented in terms of continuous angular spectra of vectorial
plane waves, and the elements of the systems are described by means of suitable tensor
scattering matrices (having both discrete and continuous indices). Needed scattering
matrices are considered known; relationships to experimentally determinable data are
outlined. The general case of either the reflection or transmission system is soluble 1 formally
in terms of a series of integrals stemming from the Liouville- Neumann series solution of
certain integral equations. Formulas are obtained for models of the Michelson and Fabry-
Perot instruments with arbitrary radiating and receiving characteristics. The theory and
various features of the instruments considered, including Fresnel-region (or quasi-optical)
behavior, are illustrated by means of examples obtained by choosing relatively simple and
rather hypothetical analytical expressions for the radiating and receiving characteristics.
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