Researchers from MIT and elsewhere have developed a system that measures a patient’s pain level by analyzing brain activity from a portable neuroimaging device. The system could help doctors diagnose and treat pain in unconscious and noncommunicative patients, which could reduce the risk of chronic pain that can occur after surgery.
Pain management is a surprisingly challenging, complex balancing act. Overtreating pain, for example, runs the risk of addicting patients to pain medication. Undertreating pain, on the other hand, may lead to long-term chronic pain and other complications. Today, doctors generally gauge pain levels according to their patients’ own reports of how they’re feeling. But what about patients who can’t communicate how they’re feeling effectively — or at all — such as children, elderly patients with dementia, or those undergoing surgery?
In a paper presented at the International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, the researchers describe a method to quantify pain in patients. To do so, they leverage an emerging neuroimaging technique called functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), in which sensors placed around the head measure oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations that indicate neuron activity.
For their work, the researchers use only a few fNIRS sensors on a patient’s forehead to measure activity in the prefrontal cortex, which plays a major role in pain processing. Using the measured brain signals, the researchers developed personalized machine-learning models to detect patterns of oxygenated hemoglobin levels associated with pain responses. When the sensors are in place, the models can detect whether a patient is experiencing pain with around 87 percent accuracy.
“The way we measure pain hasn’t changed over the years,” says Daniel Lopez-Martinez, a PhD student in the Harvard-MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology and a researcher at the MIT Media Lab. “If we don’t have metrics for how much pain someone experiences, treating pain and running clinical trials becomes challenging. The motivation is to quantify pain in an objective manner that doesn’t require the cooperation of the patient, such as when a patient is unconscious during surgery.”
Traditionally, surgery patients receive anesthesia and medication based on their age, weight, previous diseases, and other factors. If they don’t move and their heart rate remains stable, they’re considered fine. But the brain may still be processing pain signals while they’re unconscious, which can lead to increased postoperative pain and long-term chronic pain. The researchers’ system could provide surgeons with real-time information about an unconscious patient’s pain levels, so they can adjust anesthesia and medication dosages accordingly to stop those pain signals.
Joining Lopez-Martinez on the paper are: Ke Peng of Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital, and the CHUM Research Centre in Montreal; Arielle Lee and David Borsook, both of Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital, and Massachusetts General Hospital; and Rosalind Picard, a professor of media arts and sciences and director of affective computing research in the Media Lab.
Focusing on the forehead
In their work, the researchers adapted the fNIRS system and developed new machine-learning techniques to make the system more accurate and practical for clinical use.
To use fNIRS, sensors are traditionally placed all around a patient’s head. Different wavelengths of near-infrared light shine through the skull and into the brain. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin absorb the wavelengths differently, altering their signals slightly. When the infrared signals reflect back to the sensors, signal-processing techniques use the altered signals to calculate how much of each hemoglobin type is present in different regions of the brain.
When a patient is hurt, regions of the brain associated with pain will see a sharp rise in oxygenated hemoglobin and decreases in deoxygenated hemoglobin, and these changes can be detected through fNIRS monitoring. But traditional fNIRS systems place sensors all around the patient’s head. This can take a long time to set up, and it can be difficult for patients who must lie down. It also isn’t really feasible for patients undergoing surgery.
Therefore, the researchers adapted the fNIRS system to specifically measure signals only from the prefrontal cortex. While pain processing involves outputs of information from multiple regions of the brain, studies have shown the prefrontal cortex integrates all that information. This means they need to place sensors only over the forehead.
Another problem with traditional fNIRS systems is they capture some signals from the skull and skin that contribute to noise. To fix that, the researchers installed additional sensors to capture and filter out those signals.
Personalized pain modeling
On the machine-learning side, the researchers trained and tested a model on a labeled pain-processing dataset they collected from 43 male participants. (Next they plan to collect a lot more data from diverse patient populations, including female patients — both during surgery and while conscious, and at a range of pain intensities — in order to better evaluate the accuracy of the system.)
Each participant wore the researchers’ fNIRS device and was randomly exposed to an innocuous sensation and then about a dozen shocks to their thumb at two different pain intensities, measured on a scale of 1-10: a low level (about a 3/10) or high level (about 7/10). Those two intensities were determined with pretests: The participants self-reported the low level as being only strongly aware of the shock without pain, and the high level as the maximum pain they could tolerate.
In training, the model extracted dozens of features from the signals related to how much oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin was present, as well as how quickly the oxygenated hemoglobin levels rose. Those two metrics — quantity and speed — give a clearer picture of a patient’s experience of pain at the different intensities.
Importantly, the model also automatically generates “personalized” submodels that extract high-resolution features from individual patient subpopulations. Traditionally, in machine learning, one model learns classifications — “pain” or “no pain” — based on average responses of the entire patient population. But that generalized approach can reduce accuracy, especially with diverse patient populations.
The researchers’ model instead trains on the entire population but simultaneously identifies shared characteristics among subpopulations within the larger dataset. For example, pain responses to the two intensities may differ between young and old patients, or depending on gender. This generates learned submodels that break off and learn, in parallel, patterns of their patient subpopulations. At the same time, however, they’re all still sharing information and learning patterns shared across the entire population. In short, they’re simultaneously leveraging fine-grained personalized information and population-level information to train better.
The personalized models and a traditional model were evaluated in classifying pain or no-pain in a random hold-out set of participant brain signals from the dataset, where the self-reported pain scores were known for each participant. The personalized models outperformed the traditional model by about 20 percent, reaching about 87 percent accuracy.
“Because we are able to detect pain with this high accuracy, using only a few sensors on the forehead, we have a solid basis for bringing this technology to a real-world clinical setting,” Lopez-Martinez says.
— Read on news.mit.edu/2019/detecting-pain-levels-brain-signals-0912
Living sensors at your fingertips
Cell-infused gloves and bandages light up when in contact with certain chemicals.
Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
February 15, 2017
Engineers and biologists at MIT have teamed up to design a new “living material” — a tough, stretchy, biocompatible sheet of hydrogel injected with live cells that are genetically programmed to light up in the presence of certain chemicals.
In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers demonstrate the new material’s potential for sensing chemicals, both in the environment and in the human body.
The team fabricated various wearable sensors from the cell-infused hydrogel, including a rubber glove with fingertips that glow after touching a chemically contaminated surface, and bandages that light up when pressed against chemicals on a person’s skin.
Xuanhe Zhao, the Robert N. Noyce Career Development associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT, says the group’s living material design may be adapted to sense other chemicals and contaminants, for uses ranging from crime scene investigation and forensic science, to pollution monitoring and medical diagnostics.
“With this design, people can put different types of bacteria in these devices to indicate toxins in the environment, or disease on the skin,” says Timothy Lu, associate professor of biological engineering and of electrical engineering and computer science. “We’re demonstrating the potential for living materials and devices.”
The paper’s co-authors are graduate students Xinyue Liu, Tzu-Chieh Tang, Eleonore Tham, Hyunwoo Yuk, and Shaoting Lin.
Infusing life in materials
Lu and his colleagues in MIT’s Synthetic Biology Group specialize in creating biological circuits, genetically reprogramming the biological parts in living cells such as E. coli to work together in sequence, much like logic steps in an electrical circuit. In this way, scientists can reengineer living cells to carry out specific functions, including the ability to sense and signal the presence of viruses and toxins.
However, many of these newly programmed cells have only been demonstrated in situ, within Petri dishes, where scientists can carefully control the nutrient levels necessary to keep the cells alive and active — an environment that has proven extremely difficult to replicate in synthetic materials.
“The challenge to making living materials is how to maintain those living cells, to make them viable and functional in the device,” Lu says. “They require humidity, nutrients, and some require oxygen. The second challenge is how to prevent them from escaping from the material.”
To get around these roadblocks, others have used freeze-dried chemical extracts from genetically engineered cells, incorporating them into paper to create low-cost, virus-detecting diagnostic strips. But extracts, Lu says, are not the same as living cells, which can maintain their functionality over a longer period of time and may have higher sensitivity for detecting pathogens.
Other groups have seeded heart muscle cells onto thin rubber films to make soft, “living” actuators, or robots. When bent repeatedly, however, these films can crack, allowing the live cells to leak out.
A lively host
Zhao’s group in MIT’s Soft Active Materials Laboratory has developed a material that may be ideal for hosting living cells. For the past few years, his team has come up with various formulations of hydrogel — a tough, highly stretchable, biocompatible material made from a mix of polymer and water. Their latest designs have contained up to 95 percent water, providing an environment which Zhao and Lu recognized might be suitable for sustaining living cells. The material also resists cracking even when repeatedly stretched and pulled — a property that could help contain cells within the material.
The two groups teamed up to integrate Lu’s genetically programmed bacterial cells into Zhao’s sheets of hydrogel material. They first fabricated layers of hydrogel and patterned narrow channels within the layers using 3-D printing and micromolding techniques. They fused the hydrogel to a layer of elastomer, or rubber, that is porous enough to let in oxygen. They then injected E. coli cells into the hydrogel’s channels. The cells were programmed to fluoresce, or light up, when in contact with certain chemicals that pass through the hydrogel, in this case a natural compound known as DAPG.
The researchers then soaked the hydrogel/elastomer material in a bath of nutrients which infused throughout the hydrogel and helped to keep the bacterial cells alive and active for several days.
To demonstrate the material’s potential uses, the researchers first fabricated a sheet of the material with four separate, narrow channels, each containing a type of bacteria engineered to glow green in response to a different chemical compound. They found each channel reliably lit up when exposed to its respective chemical.
Next, the team fashioned the material into a bandage, or “living patch,” patterned with channels containing bacteria sensitive to rhamnose, a naturally occurring sugar. The researchers swabbed a volunteer’s wrist with a cotton ball soaked in rhamnose, then applied the hydrogel patch, which instantly lit up in response to the chemical.
Finally, the researchers fabricated a hydrogel/elastomer glove whose fingertips contained swirl-like channels, each of which they filled with different chemical-sensing bacterial cells. Each fingertip glowed in response to picking up a cotton ball soaked with a respective compound.
The group has also developed a theoretical model to help guide others in designing similar living materials and devices.
“The model helps us to design living devices more efficiently,” Zhao says. “It tells you things like the thickness of the hydrogel layer you should use, the distance between channels, how to pattern the channels, and how much bacteria to use.”
Ultimately, Zhao envisions products made from living materials, such as gloves and rubber soles lined with chemical-sensing hydrogel, or bandages, patches, and even clothing that may detect signs of infection or disease.
This research was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health.
— Read on news.mit.edu/2017/living-sensors-your-fingertips-0215
Stretchy optical fibers for implanting in the body
Biocompatible fibers could use light to stimulate cells or sense signs of disease.
Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
October 17, 2016
Researchers from MIT and Harvard Medical School have developed a biocompatible and highly stretchable optical fiber made from hydrogel — an elastic, rubbery material composed mostly of water. The fiber, which is as bendable as a rope of licorice, may one day be implanted in the body to deliver therapeutic pulses of light or light up at the first sign of disease.
The researchers say the fiber may serve as a long-lasting implant that would bend and twist with the body without breaking down. The team has published its results online in the journal Advanced Materials.
Using light to activate cells, and particularly neurons in the brain, is a highly active field known as optogenetics, in which researchers deliver short pulses of light to targeted tissues using needle-like fibers, through which they shine light from an LED source.
“But the brain is like a bowl of Jell-O, whereas these fibers are like glass — very rigid, which can possibly damage brain tissues,” says Xuanhe Zhao, the Robert N. Noyce Career Development Associate Professor in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering. “If these fibers could match the flexibility and softness of the brain, they could provide long-term more effective stimulation and therapy.”
Getting to the core of it
Zhao’s group at MIT, including graduate students Xinyue Liu and Hyunwoo Yuk, specializes in tuning the mechanical properties of hydrogels. The researchers have devised multiple recipes for making tough yet pliable hydrogels out of various biopolymers. The team has also come up with ways to bond hydrogels with various surfaces such as metallic sensors and LEDs, to create stretchable electronics.
The researchers only thought to explore hydrogel’s use in optical fibers after conversations with the bio-optics group at Harvard Medical School, led by Associate Professor Seok-Hyun (Andy) Yun. Yun’s group had previously fabricated an optical fiber from hydrogel material that successfully transmitted light through the fiber. However, the material broke apart when bent or slightly stretched. Zhao’s hydrogels, in contrast, could stretch and bend like taffy. The two groups joined efforts and looked for ways to incorporate Zhao’s hydrogel into Yun’s optical fiber design.
Yun’s design consists of a core material encased in an outer cladding. To transmit the maximum amount of light through the core of the fiber, the core and the cladding should be made of materials with very different refractive indices, or degrees to which they can bend light.
“If these two things are too similar, whatever light source flows through the fiber will just fade away,” Yuk explains. “In optical fibers, people want to have a much higher refractive index in the core, versus cladding, so that when light goes through the core, it bounces off the interface of the cladding and stays within the core.”
Happily, they found that Zhao’s hydrogel material was highly transparent and possessed a refractive index that was ideal as a core material. But when they tried to coat the hydrogel with a cladding polymer solution, the two materials tended to peel apart when the fiber was stretched or bent.
To bond the two materials together, the researchers added conjugation chemicals to the cladding solution, which, when coated over the hydrogel core, generated chemical links between the outer surfaces of both materials.
“It clicks together the carboxyl groups in the cladding, and the amine groups in the core material, like molecular-level glue,” Yuk says.
The researchers tested the optical fibers’ ability to propagate light by shining a laser through fibers of various lengths. Each fiber transmitted light without significant attenuation, or fading. They also found that fibers could be stretched over seven times their original length without breaking.
Now that they had developed a highly flexible and robust optical fiber, made from a hydrogel material that was also biocompatible, the researchers began to play with the fiber’s optical properties, to see if they could design a fiber that could sense when and where it was being stretched.
They first loaded a fiber with red, green, and blue organic dyes, placed at specific spots along the fiber’s length. Next, they shone a laser through the fiber and stretched, for instance, the red region. They measured the spectrum of light that made it all the way through the fiber, and noted the intensity of the red light. They reasoned that this intensity relates directly to the amount of light absorbed by the red dye, as a result of that region being stretched.
In other words, by measuring the amount of light at the far end of the fiber, the researchers can quantitatively determine where and by how much a fiber was stretched.
“When you stretch a certain portion of the fiber, the dimensions of that part of the fiber changes, along with the amount of light that region absorbs and scatters, so in this way, the fiber can serve as a sensor of strain,” Liu explains.
“This is like a multistrain sensor through a single fiber,” Yuk adds. “So it can be an implantable or wearable strain gauge.”
The researchers imagine that such stretchable, strain-sensing optical fibers could be implanted or fitted along the length of a patient’s arm or leg, to monitor for signs of improving mobility.
Zhao envisions the fibers may also serve as sensors, lighting up in response to signs of disease.
“We may be able to use optical fibers for long-term diagnostics, to optically monitor tumors or inflammation,” he says. “The applications can be impactful.”
“Hydrogel fibers are very interesting and provide a compelling direction for embedding light within the human body,” says Fiorenzo Omenetto, a professor of biological engineering at Tufts University, who was not involved in the work. “These efforts in optimizing and managing the physical and mechanical properties of fibers are necessary and important next steps that will enable practical applications of medical relevance.”
This research was supported, in part, by the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Defense.
— Read on news.mit.edu/2016/stretchy-optical-fibers-implanting-body-1017
MIT engineers can now 3-D print a “living tattoo, with a combination of hydrogel and genetically engineered bacterial cells.
Robotic thread is designed to slip through the brain’s blood vessels
Magnetically controlled device could deliver clot-reducing therapies in response to stroke or other brain blockages.
Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
August 28, 2019
MIT engineers have developed a magnetically steerable, thread-like robot that can actively glide through narrow, winding pathways, such as the labrynthine vasculature of the brain.
In the future, this robotic thread may be paired with existing endovascular technologies, enabling doctors to remotely guide the robot through a patient’s brain vessels to quickly treat blockages and lesions, such as those that occur in aneurysms and stroke.
“Stroke is the number five cause of death and a leading cause of disability in the United States. If acute stroke can be treated within the first 90 minutes or so, patients’ survival rates could increase significantly,” says Xuanhe Zhao, associate professor of mechanical engineering and of civil and environmental engineering at MIT. “If we could design a device to reverse blood vessel blockage within this ‘golden hour,’ we could potentially avoid permanent brain damage. That’s our hope.”
Zhao and his team, including lead author Yoonho Kim, a graduate student in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, describe their soft robotic design today in the journal Science Robotics. The paper’s other co-authors are MIT graduate student German Alberto Parada and visiting student Shengduo Liu.
In a tight spot
To clear blood clots in the brain, doctors often perform an endovascular procedure, a minimally invasive surgery in which a surgeon inserts a thin wire through a patient’s main artery, usually in the leg or groin. Guided by a fluoroscope that simultaneously images the blood vessels using X-rays, the surgeon then manually rotates the wire up into the damaged brain vessel. A catheter can then be threaded up along the wire to deliver drugs or clot-retrieval devices to the affected region.
Kim says the procedure can be physically taxing, requiring surgeons, who must be specifically trained in the task, to endure repeated radiation exposure from fluoroscopy.
“It’s a demanding skill, and there are simply not enough surgeons for the patients, especially in suburban or rural areas,” Kim says.
The medical guidewires used in such procedures are passive, meaning they must be manipulated manually, and are typically made from a core of metallic alloys, coated in polymer, a material that Kim says could potentially generate friction and damage vessel linings if the wire were to get temporarily stuck in a particularly tight space.
The team realized that developments in their lab could help improve such endovascular procedures, both in the design of the guidewire and in reducing doctors’ exposure to any associated radiation.
Threading a needle
Over the past few years, the team has built up expertise in both hydrogels — biocompatible materials made mostly of water — and 3-D-printed magnetically-actuated materials that can be designed to crawl, jump, and even catch a ball, simply by following the direction of a magnet.
In this new paper, the researchers combined their work in hydrogels and in magnetic actuation, to produce a magnetically steerable, hydrogel-coated robotic thread, or guidewire, which they were able to make thin enough to magnetically guide through a life-size silicone replica of the brain’s blood vessels.
The core of the robotic thread is made from nickel-titanium alloy, or “nitinol,” a material that is both bendy and springy. Unlike a clothes hanger, which would retain its shape when bent, a nitinol wire would return to its original shape, giving it more flexibility in winding through tight, tortuous vessels. The team coated the wire’s core in a rubbery paste, or ink, which they embedded throughout with magnetic particles.
Finally, they used a chemical process they developed previously, to coat and bond the magnetic covering with hydrogel — a material that does not affect the responsiveness of the underlying magnetic particles and yet provides the wire with a smooth, friction-free, biocompatible surface.
They demonstrated the robotic thread’s precision and activation by using a large magnet, much like the strings of a marionette, to steer the thread through an obstacle course of small rings, reminiscent of a thread working its way through the eye of a needle.
The researchers also tested the thread in a life-size silicone replica of the brain’s major blood vessels, including clots and aneurysms, modeled after the CT scans of an actual patient’s brain. The team filled the silicone vessels with a liquid simulating the viscosity of blood, then manually manipulated a large magnet around the model to steer the robot through the vessels’ winding, narrow paths.
Kim says the robotic thread can be functionalized, meaning that features can be added — for example, to deliver clot-reducing drugs or break up blockages with laser light. To demonstrate the latter, the team replaced the thread’s nitinol core with an optical fiber and found that they could magnetically steer the robot and activate the laser once the robot reached a target region.
When the researchers ran comparisons between the robotic thread coated versus uncoated with hydrogel, they found that the hydrogel gave the thread a much-needed, slippery advantage, allowing it to glide through tighter spaces without getting stuck. In an endovascular surgery, this property would be key to preventing friction and injury to vessel linings as the thread works its way through.
“One of the challenges in surgery has been to be able to navigate through complicated blood vessels in the brain, which has a very small diameter, where commercial catheters can’t reach,” says Kyujin Cho, professor of mechanical engineering at Seoul National University. “This research has shown potential to overcome this challenge and enable surgical procedures in the brain without open surgery.”
And just how can this new robotic thread keep surgeons radiation-free? Kim says that a magnetically steerable guidewire does away with the necessity for surgeons to physically push a wire through a patient’s blood vessels. This means that doctors also wouldn’t have to be in close proximity to a patient, and more importantly, the radiation-generating fluoroscope.
In the near future, he envisions endovascular surgeries that incorporate existing magnetic technologies, such as pairs of large magnets, the directions of which doctors can manipulate from just outside the operating room, away from the fluoroscope imaging the patient’s brain, or even in an entirely different location.
“Existing platforms could apply magnetic field and do the fluoroscopy procedure at the same time to the patient, and the doctor could be in the other room, or even in a different city, controlling the magnetic field with a joystick,” Kim says. “Our hope is to leverage existing technologies to test our robotic thread in vivo in the next step.”
This research was funded, in part, by the Office of Naval Research, the MIT Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, and the National Science Foundation (NSF).
— Read on news.mit.edu/2019/robot-brain-blood-vessels-0828
Synthetic biological organisms designed and created for industrial process using genetic engineering
Walk down Drydock Avenue in the old industrial waterfront of Boston and you’ll be reminded that the city remains a significant industrial port. Trucks rattle past the working dry dock. A FedEx shipping container terminal looms to the south while the Coastal Cement Corporation anchors the street. Inside building number 27, Ginkgo Bioworks CEO Jason Kelly and his four cofounders are working on a different industrial vision—one in which biology is at the core. This quintet of modern-day Frankensteins design, modify and manufacture organisms to make existing industrial processes cheaper and entirely new processes possible.
It’s heady stuff. Fertilizing corn usually requires spraying acres of farmland with a stew of nasty chemicals. Ginkgo is working on bioengineered, environmentally friendly coatings for corn seeds that will fertilize themselves. Today, most biotech drugs are nonliving proteins. Ginkgo is working on creating living creatures, genetically programmed to seek and destroy disease, that would be ingested whole. Fake meat tastes gross. Ginkgo promises to make it taste better.
And that’s just the beginning. Recently Ginkgo re-created the scent of an extinct Hawaiian hibiscus, blurring the line between what’s living and what’s dead. Ultimately, Kelly believes his company will power a science-fiction future where trees naturally grow into the shape of tables, seaweed morphs into car seats and smartphones repair themselves with a few drops of sugar. That’s a long way off, but nearly 11 years after founding Ginkgo, “it’s a little easier to talk about this and not sound like a crazy person,” Kelly says.
These are exciting times for companies like Ginkgo (named after a dinosaur-era tree that’s a living fossil) that work in the emerging field of synthetic biology. Spurred on by technological and economic advances, particularly the plummeting cost of DNA sequencing and the development of a precision gene-editing tool called Crispr, entrepreneurs have been falling over themselves to start companies. Today, more than 600 companies work in the space, according to SynBioBeta, a Pleasant Hill, California-based firm that hosts the industry’s premier conference and maintains a database of synthetic biology startups. And that universe is growing at a rate of 5% to 10% each year, as money pours into these firms, including $3.8 billion last year alone, according to SynBioBeta founder John Cumbers. The promise of the field is not just a proliferation of new products, but also a reduction of the environmental harm that comes from our heavy reliance on petrochemicals.
A phalanx of Ph.Ds: From left, Ginkgo Bioworks cofounders Tom Knight, Reshma Shetty, Jason Kelly, Barry Canton and Austin Che. MICHAEL PRINCE
These startups run the gamut from sellers of the DNA molecules that are the building blocks of life to high-profile consumer companies. Plant-based-burger startup Beyond Meat went public in May and is now worth nearly $10 billion; its synthetic biology competitor Impossible Foods is a venture-backed unicorn that recently began selling Impossible Whoppers to fast-food giant Burger King. Bolt Threads, valued at $700 million, makes bio-based spider silk for use in textiles and skin care. At the other end of the spectrum, Twist Bioscience, the largest seller of synthetic DNA (which counts Ginkgo as its largest customer), went public last year and now has a market cap of nearly $1 billion.
Ginkgo is the leader in organism engineering. “Ginkgo is category defining,” says Cumbers, who first met Kelly when they were struggling Ph.D. students (Cumbers at Brown, Kelly at MIT). “They pretty much created the whole idea of the organism being a product.”
Founded by Kelly, former MIT professor Tom Knight and three other MIT Ph.D.s—Reshma Shetty, Barry Canton and Austin Che—Ginkgo today has gained a toehold in fragrances, agriculture, food, therapeutics and cannabis with some two dozen customers and 50 active engineering projects. Ginkgo doesn’t create any of these products, but by using data analytics and robotics to speed up the process of discovering and making new organisms, Ginkgo will be at their core. Revenue last year reached some $40 million, doubling the previous year’s; it’s expected to double again this year.
Ginkgo’s bigger bet is a portfolio approach—inspired, in part, by Kelly’s attendance last year at Warren Buffett’s annual Berkshire Hathaway shareholder meeting. Ginkgo now creates and invests in companies, including protein-alternative specialist Motif Ingredients, which Ginkgo recently spun off, and Joyn Bio, its agricultural joint venture with Bayer. “That’s how we are scaling the business,” Kelly says. “It’s a Berkshire for biotech.”
“Food, housing, materials, electronics—all will be disrupted by biology,” says Kelly.
A lot of smart money is betting on Ginkgo. An alum of Forbes’ Next Billion-Dollar Startups list, it has raised more than $400 million from investors that include Bill Gates’ Cascade Investments, Viking Global and General Atlantic. As of December 2017, it was valued at $1.4 billion. Over a decade after Ginkgo’s founding, Kelly and his cofounders all still work there and have retained stakes in the company that Forbes estimates at more than $100 million each. Kelly figures he’ll take Ginkgo public eventually—he’s in no rush. After all, synthetic biology is hot, and there’s lots of private capital available. “Biology is programmable, but it doesn’t process information—it builds stuff,” says Kelly, who carries a notebook with an “I (heart) GMOs” sticker on it. “Food, housing, materials, electronics—all will be disrupted by biology.”
Jason Kelly, 38, grew up in Jupiter, Florida, a small beach town near Jupiter Island, the ultra-wealthy barrier island famously home to Tiger Woods. A sleepy community when Kelly was growing up, Jupiter has since become infamous as the location of the Orchids of Asia massage parlor, where New England Patriots owner Robert Kraft allegedly solicited prostitution. Kelly’s parents, both pharmacists, moved to Jupiter in the 1970s to escape the cold farther north and because the area, with its aging population, offered more jobs.
By high school, Kelly was excited about the potential of genetic engineering. “There must’ve been at least some seed planted by Jurassic Park,” he says now of the Steven Spielberg film about using fossil DNA to resurrect dinosaurs. He did a school project on Herceptin, a genetically engineered antibody used to treat breast cancer, and was wowed by the idea that you could program a cell like a computer.
As an MIT undergrad, Kelly spent two summers in the lab, attempting to move a single gene into the bacteria E. coli, which is often used to make drugs. It was slow, frustrating work, and he failed at it. Then he met Drew Endy, a young professor and colleague of Knight’s in synthetic biology. Kelly was so drawn to the idea that the digital code of cells, with its As, Cs, Gs and Ts, could be read and written like a computer program that he joined Endy’s lab as an undergrad. In 2003, he started a Ph.D. in biological engineering at MIT.
The rest of Ginkgo’s student cofounders arrived on campus around the same time. Shetty, 38, had studied venomous cone snails, which use neurotoxins to paralyze their prey, as a teenager in Salt Lake City, but switched to computer science for her bachelor’s degree at University of Utah. Canton, 39, arrived from Ireland after studying mechanical engineering at University College Dublin and developing an interest in, as he puts it, “taming the complexity of biology via engineering know-how.” Che, 39, grew up near Apple’s headquarters, in Cupertino, California, learned to program at age 7 and finished a bachelor’s degree in computer science at Stanford before shifting gears.
Knight, 71, a computer expert, had made an unusual mid-career switch. In the 1990s, he’d begun to wonder when Moore’s Law—Intel cofounder Gordon Moore’s observation that the number of transistors on a microchip doubles every two years—would end. The problem, he explains, is that structures eventually become so small that you’re working with silicon at the atomic scale, and placing atoms in the right place with precision requires biochemistry.
In 1997, Knight set up his own microbiology lab in the computer science building. “Some of my colleagues thought I was going to kill them,” Knight says. After all, bioengineers work with bacteria like E. coli, which can cause sickness and even death. He didn’t care what others thought. “He unapologetically wanted to program biology, even though all the biologists were like, ‘It’s way too complicated, and all the things you are trying to do are bullshit,’ ” Kelly says.
MIT’s synthetic biology community was small and close-knit. Shetty and Che worked in Knight’s lab; Kelly and Canton worked in Endy’s. The two labs bonded over group lunches, contributing to OpenWetWare, a wiki for sharing biological knowledge, and the International Genetically Engineered Machine (or iGEM) student competition. Kelly and Canton shared a house in grad school. Canton and Shetty were dating and subsequently married. “Drew and Tom were like magnets, sucking in the bio-nerds,” Kelly says.
Kelly broached the idea of starting a company after the four finished their Ph.D.s in 2008. They all wanted to make bioengineering faster, cheaper and easier—which was important for industry, but wouldn’t get a new professor published and on the tenure track. “It’s not scientific discoveries that are needed. It’s process engineering,” says Kelly, whose graduate thesis was on how to standardize measurement in biology.
With an initial investment of $100,000 from Knight (eventually growing to $140,000), the five started Ginkgo. Their timing was lousy. The financial crisis had pushed the economy into recession. Banks weren’t lending, and venture capitalists weren’t investing. And even if they were, Ginkgo wouldn’t have appealed then. “We don’t look like normal biotech founders,” Kelly says. “No one starts a biotech company out of school, we weren’t doing a therapeutic and we had no product in mind.”
Instead, they applied for grants to cover living expenses and scrounged for equipment, buying it at auction when other startups failed. They rented a storage locker at U-Haul, dragging in liquid-handling robots and lab supplies.
After a few years of trial and error, they had a brainstorm. At MIT all five had worked on an iGEM competition project that made stinky E. coli bacteria smell minty fresh by inserting new genetic material into it. Building off that, they broke into flavors and fragrances. They got their first major deal with French fragrance and botanicals company Robertet and developed a bio-based rose scent. The project was smart because it’s very expensive to distill smells from flowers, but most people don’t associate biotech with fragrances. The deal was a coup for Ginkgo. “There was a lot of skepticism about synthetic biology that Jason had to overcome,” says Bryan Johnson, founder of OS Fund and a Ginkgo investor.
The dream of manufacturing stuff from biology goes back a long time. When biotech giant Amgen was founded nearly 40 years ago, its efforts to create a process for producing indigo dye in E. coli landed it on the cover of Science magazine. Other companies have attempted to grow spider silk in the lab for decades. In the early 2000s, a wave of synthetic biologists hoped to create fuel from bacteria and yeast, but while replacing hydrocarbons is a good idea for the environment, most biofuels startups failed when the price of oil fell.
“The idea of using biology for industrial purposes has long been a dream,” says Josh Hoffman, CEO of Emeryville, California-based Zymergen, Ginkgo’s closest competitor. “Unless you can get it to work at scale it’s a dream with wonderful appeal, but it’s unlikely to have impact.”
Over the past few years, big economic and technological trends have pushed that dream forward. The cost of DNA synthesis has plummeted from around $4 a base pair (the unit of two nucleobases that form the building blocks of the DNA double helix), when Kelly and his cofounders were students, to just 7 cents a base pair, with even lower prices for bulk orders. The development of Crispr, which allows for precise genome editing, opened up new possibilities. And artificial intelligence and machine learning help synthetic biologists iterate designs for new organisms more quickly.
Against that backdrop, entrepreneurs founded companies with different approaches. Six-year-old Zymergen, for example, now has 750 employees and a partnership with Sumitomo Chemical, a major supplier to consumer-electronics manufacturers. One goal: To put living cells into next-generation display coatings for cellphones to make them scratchproof. CEO Hoffman won’t disclose revenue, but says that its partners will have sold $1 billion worth of products made with Zymergen’s bugs by the end of 2019.
On a recent afternoon in Boston, Canton gives a tour of Ginkgo’s life factories. Inside Bioworks 3, a robot does pipetting, moving fragments of DNA suspended in liquid into a tray with eight rows and 12 columns at a speed beyond human capability. After the cells grow in plastic containers, another robot photographs them and uses that image to accurately pluck the irregularly shaped colonies from the surrounding jelly. The facility is quiet, with relatively few people. Largely, the machines do the work.
The automation allows Ginkgo to test thousands, or even tens of thousands, of designs on each project, Canton says, compared with a traditional lab where a bench scientist might be able to do ten. “We were inspired by what Intel and others do in building their semiconductor facilities,” he says. This winter, Ginkgo opened Bioworks 4, which will work with mammalian cells.
Already, Ginkgo is the largest user of lab-printed DNA in the world—Kelly estimates it uses about 25% of the total, or about 50 million base pairs a month—and it recently purchased Gen9, a supplier that specializes in long strands of DNA. It also maintains a massive and growing “codebase” to track and analyze what it has learned from each project. “You can apply manufacturing theory to cells,” Kelly says. “The more cell programming you do on our platform, the cheaper and easier and faster you do it.”
Kelly believes that scale will allow it to succeed in a variety of unrelated industries. “We all do synthetic biology, but we are a craft brewer and they are Budweiser,” says John Garrett, co-CEO of Glycosyn, which Ginkgo has partnered with to more efficiently produce oligosaccharides, a healthy component of breast milk, in E. coli (a boon for mothers who can’t breastfeed but also potentially a treatment for maladies like Crohn’s disease).
The first major deal Kelly struck was with Bayer, the world’s largest seed company since its acquisition of Monsanto. In September 2017, the two created their Joyn Bio joint venture with a $100 million investment, to develop seed coatings that will enable farmers to use less chemical fertilizer. Soybean microbes have an enzyme that lets them take nitrogen out of the air, but corn microbes do not, so Ginkgo is taking genes from the soybean microbe and redesigning them to work in microbes that live on corn. It’s an early-stage big idea—worldwide, farmers spend more than $150 billion a year on fertilizer—that’s at least five years from market, even if all goes well. “The challenge for any big company is how do you realistically go after these moonshots,” says Joyn Bio CEO Mike Miille.
The promise of synthetic biology is not just a proliferation of new products, but also a reduction of the environmental harm that comes from our reliance on petrochemicals.
For Ginkgo, Bayer’s interest was a turning point. More deals followed. With Canadian cannabis company Cronos, for example, it is developing lab-grown rare cannabinoids that could be used for appetite suppression and anti-inflammatory creams. If Ginkgo can deliver the strands, it will get stock valued at more than $200 million today. With Cambridge, Massachusetts-based biotech Synlogic, it is working on living, gut-based treatments for liver problems and neurological disorders.
In February, Ginkgo spun out Motif Ingredients which is developing vegan-friendly proteins that can be added to food to replace animal products like meat and cheese, with $90 million in funding from Viking and others. And in May it acquired the genome-mining platform of Warp Drive Bio, a subsidiary of Revolution Medicines, and with it an agreement with pharmaceutical giant Roche to search for a new class of antibiotics, a deal that could be worth $160 million, plus additional royalties if Ginkgo succeeds.
Kelly believes he could easily add 50 or 100 more partnerships or investments without maxing out. “Nobody has cracked the puzzle at scale yet,” says Endy, now a professor at Stanford and not affiliated with the company. “Jason, with his business acumen, is testing an experiment with these joint ventures. I think that’s a good way to approach it, and I hope it works. But nobody has done that before.”
Back at Ginkgo’s headquarters, Kelly picks up a copy of Knight’s first cellular computing study, written for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency more than two decades ago, and thumbs through it. Stopping at page 14, where a graph shows zero sequenced genomes in 1995 rising to just 10 in 1997, he lets out a loud laugh. “We just acquired a database of 135,000 sequenced genomes.”
Today, he believes, synthetic biology is developing at a similar pace to computing in the mainframe era. As the field develops and creates products currently unimaginable, he argues, biology will help people live better lives, while moving away from chemical-based processes that lead to climate change and environmental degradation. “Eventually,” he says, “it should be a point of pride. You should want things made with GMOs because they’re made with biology.”
— Read on www.forbes.com/sites/amyfeldman/2019/08/05/the-life-factory-synthetic-organisms-from-startup-ginkgo-bioworks-unicorn-will-revolutionize-manufacturing/
MIT engineers build advanced microprocessor out of carbon nanotubes
New approach harnesses the same fabrication processes used for silicon chips, offers key advance toward next-generation computers.
Rob Matheson | MIT News Office
August 28, 2019
After years of tackling numerous design and manufacturing challenges, MIT researchers have built a modern microprocessor from carbon nanotube transistors, which are widely seen as a faster, greener alternative to their traditional silicon counterparts.
The microprocessor, described today in the journal Nature, can be built using traditional silicon-chip fabrication processes, representing a major step toward making carbon nanotube microprocessors more practical.
Silicon transistors — critical microprocessor components that switch between 1 and 0 bits to carry out computations — have carried the computer industry for decades. As predicted by Moore’s Law, industry has been able to shrink down and cram more transistors onto chips every couple of years to help carry out increasingly complex computations. But experts now foresee a time when silicon transistors will stop shrinking, and become increasingly inefficient.
Making carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFET) has become a major goal for building next-generation computers. Research indicates CNFETs have properties that promise around 10 times the energy efficiency and far greater speeds compared to silicon. But when fabricated at scale, the transistors often come with many defects that affect performance, so they remain impractical.
The MIT researchers have invented new techniques to dramatically limit defects and enable full functional control in fabricating CNFETs, using processes in traditional silicon chip foundries. They demonstrated a 16-bit microprocessor with more than 14,000 CNFETs that performs the same tasks as commercial microprocessors. The Nature paper describes the microprocessor design and includes more than 70 pages detailing the manufacturing methodology.
The microprocessor is based on the RISC-V open-source chip architecture that has a set of instructions that a microprocessor can execute. The researchers’ microprocessor was able to execute the full set of instructions accurately. It also executed a modified version of the classic “Hello, World!” program, printing out, “Hello, World! I am RV16XNano, made from CNTs.”
“This is by far the most advanced chip made from any emerging nanotechnology that is promising for high-performance and energy-efficient computing,” says co-author Max M. Shulaker, the Emanuel E Landsman Career Development Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) and a member of the Microsystems Technology Laboratories. “There are limits to silicon. If we want to continue to have gains in computing, carbon nanotubes represent one of the most promising ways to overcome those limits. [The paper] completely re-invents how we build chips with carbon nanotubes.”
Joining Shulaker on the paper are: first author and postdoc Gage Hills, graduate students Christian Lau, Andrew Wright, Mindy D. Bishop, Tathagata Srimani, Pritpal Kanhaiya, Rebecca Ho, and Aya Amer, all of EECS; Arvind, the Johnson Professor of Computer Science and Engineering and a researcher in the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; Anantha Chandrakasan, the dean of the School of Engineering and the Vannevar Bush Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; and Samuel Fuller, Yosi Stein, and Denis Murphy, all of Analog Devices.
Fighting the “bane” of CNFETs
The microprocessor builds on a previous iteration designed by Shulaker and other researchers six years ago that had only 178 CNFETs and ran on a single bit of data. Since then, Shulaker and his MIT colleagues have tackled three specific challenges in producing the devices: material defects, manufacturing defects, and functional issues. Hills did the bulk of the microprocessor design, while Lau handled most of the manufacturing.
For years, the defects intrinsic to carbon nanotubes have been a “bane of the field,” Shulaker says. Ideally, CNFETs need semiconducting properties to switch their conductivity on an off, corresponding to the bits 1 and 0. But unavoidably, a small portion of carbon nanotubes will be metallic, and will slow or stop the transistor from switching. To be robust to those failures, advanced circuits will need carbon nanotubes at around 99.999999 percent purity, which is virtually impossible to produce today.
The researchers came up with a technique called DREAM (an acronym for “designing resiliency against metallic CNTs”), which positions metallic CNFETs in a way that they won’t disrupt computing. In doing so, they relaxed that stringent purity requirement by around four orders of magnitude — or 10,000 times — meaning they only need carbon nanotubes at about 99.99 percent purity, which is currently possible.
Designing circuits basically requires a library of different logic gates attached to transistors that can be combined to, say, create adders and multipliers — like combining letters in the alphabet to create words. The researchers realized that the metallic carbon nanotubes impacted different pairings of these gates differently. A single metallic carbon nanotube in gate A, for instance, may break the connection between A and B. But several metallic carbon nanotubes in gates B may not impact any of its connections.
In chip design, there are many ways to implement code onto a circuit. The researchers ran simulations to find all the different gate combinations that would be robust and wouldn’t be robust to any metallic carbon nanotubes. They then customized a chip-design program to automatically learn the combinations least likely to be affected by metallic carbon nanotubes. When designing a new chip, the program will only utilize the robust combinations and ignore the vulnerable combinations.
“The ‘DREAM’ pun is very much intended, because it’s the dream solution,” Shulaker says. “This allows us to buy carbon nanotubes off the shelf, drop them onto a wafer, and just build our circuit like normal, without doing anything else special.”
Exfoliating and tuning
CNFET fabrication starts with depositing carbon nanotubes in a solution onto a wafer with predesigned transistor architectures. However, some carbon nanotubes inevitably stick randomly together to form big bundles — like strands of spaghetti formed into little balls — that form big particle contamination on the chip.
To cleanse that contamination, the researchers created RINSE (for “removal of incubated nanotubes through selective exfoliation”). The wafer gets pretreated with an agent that promotes carbon nanotube adhesion. Then, the wafer is coated with a certain polymer and dipped in a special solvent. That washes away the polymer, which only carries away the big bundles, while the single carbon nanotubes remain stuck to the wafer. The technique leads to about a 250-times reduction in particle density on the chip compared to similar methods.
Lastly, the researchers tackled common functional issues with CNFETs. Binary computing requires two types of transistors: “N” types, which turn on with a 1 bit and off with a 0 bit, and “P” types, which do the opposite. Traditionally, making the two types out of carbon nanotubes has been challenging, often yielding transistors that vary in performance. For this solution, the researchers developed a technique called MIXED (for “metal interface engineering crossed with electrostatic doping”), which precisely tunes transistors for function and optimization.
In this technique, they attach certain metals to each transistor — platinum or titanium — which allows them to fix that transistor as P or N. Then, they coat the CNFETs in an oxide compound through atomic-layer deposition, which allows them to tune the transistors’ characteristics for specific applications. Servers, for instance, often require transistors that act very fast but use up energy and power. Wearables and medical implants, on the other hand, may use slower, low-power transistors.
The main goal is to get the chips out into the real world. To that end, the researchers have now started implementing their manufacturing techniques into a silicon chip foundry through a program by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, which supported the research. Although no one can say when chips made entirely from carbon nanotubes will hit the shelves, Shulaker says it could be fewer than five years. “We think it’s no longer a question of if, but when,” he says.
The work was also supported by Analog Devices, the National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Research Laborato
— Read on news.mit.edu/2019/carbon-nanotubes-microprocessor-0828
Information about through the wall radar, and active radio wave effects on the human body, various surveillance technologies used against unsuspecting humans
~~ Don’t let the bastards grind you down! ~~
Sent: Wednesday, August 21, 2019 2:47 AM
Subject: ACLU aware law-enforcement is using INVASIVE SURVEILLANCE technologies
The TTWS (a.k.a. STTW (Sense-Through-The-Wall technology)) devices use pulsed microwave (MW) radiofrequency (RF) to detect any motion, no matter how tiny, through multiple walls. With filters, the TTWS MW RF RADAR device can eliminate any clutter and motion that is not of interest, reading the ‘bounce back’ echo of the MW RF, called ‘back-scatter’, that returns to the device, making it possible to ‘see’ into homes and into earthquake rubble and even underground, as ground penetrating RADAR (GPR).
These TTWS radiolocator and intentional radiator devices are motion sensors, very much like the speed RADAR that most people are accustomed, which measures motion in MPH. These ‘slightest of motion’ speed detectors measure the motion at a person’s wrist, to detect heartbeat; measure the breath rate by detecting the motion of a person’s chest heaving; pick up leg, hand and arm motion for gesture and gait recognition; picks up eye motion and has gaze tracking recognition and even detects the vibration of vocal cords, to discern speech – through multiple walls.
These TTWS radiolocators and intentional radiators can read what you ‘air write’ with your finger.
When pulsed at embassies, they are specifically used for ‘listening-in’ espionage devices. There is no need to do a ‘break and enter’ to place a hidden microphone; the eavesdropping can easily be accomplished by pulsing a MW RF signal into a building, through walls, with direct line of sight. The device can pick up many conversations and locate everyone in the building.
The ACLU recognizes that TTWS surveillance devices are being used and abused by law enforcement:https://www.aclu.org/report/community-control-over-police-surveillance-technology-101
Electromagnetic interactions with neurons can be used to monitor and detect their activities. When neurons fire, voltage-dependent ion channels open, allowing a transient influx of sodium ions. After a brief delay, this is followed by a transient efflux of potassium ions. The opening of the ion channels result in a small change in the average conductivity of the neuronal cell membrane. To study the feasibility of using polarized 80 – 120 GHz electromagnetic waves to detect neuronal activity, we first estimated the effective conductivity changes. More specifically, we used the buccal ganglion of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica as a model system. The model assumed that neurons were 100 microns in diameter, that there was a 2 mm thick layer of sea water, and that the total interaction area (roughly the size of one hemi-ganglion) was 1 mm by 2 mm. The neurons were assumed to be three layers deep. The three layers of cells were treated as six lipid layers. We assumed the conductance of a lipid layer at rest was 2 millisiemens/cm2, and that the conductance increased to 30 millisiemens/cm2 upon excitation of the neuron. We estimated that the conductance due to activation of a single neuron, averaged over the entire area of interaction, would be 42 microsiemens. If all the neurons were inactive, the conductance would be 40 microsiemens. Using the above conductance change, the complex permittivity and impedance of the buccal ganglion was calculated. The real part of the impedance was close to that of free space ( 377 ohms) and did not change when a single neuron fired. The imaginary part of the impedance was 1 microOhm larger when a single neuron was active. Although this change is below the limit of what can be detected using a simple microwave transmission measurement ( 0.1 milliOhms), it can be readily detected using a microwave resonant cavity method or interferometry. We have performed preliminary experimental measurements passing microwaves through an active buccal ganglion, and recorded some data that suggest that it may be possible to detect a change in microwave transmission when many neurons fire simultaneously, which occurs during feeding-like motor programs, which can be readily induced in the isolated buccal ganglion. We plan additional experiments to verify that changes can be reliably detected during motor programs, and then improve the sensitivity of the system so that the activity of individual nerve cells can be detected and imaged.
This is the chair
On the deck
Of the boat
Upon the sea
Where I sit
In the morning
As the sun
Begins its day.
There are times
Is not so good
Back and forth
Again and again
In some desperate
In those moments,
Where the mind races
Sometimes, just ‘to be’ is the most difficult challenge of the moment…
History of Morgellons disease: from delusion to definition
Marianne J Middelveen, Melissa C Fesler, and Raphael B Stricker
Additional article information
Morgellons disease (MD) is a skin condition characterized by the presence of multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although the condition may have a longer history, disease matching the above description was first reported in the US in 2002. Since that time, the condition that we know as MD has become a polemic topic. Because individuals afflicted with the disease may have crawling or stinging sensations and sometimes believe they have an insect or parasite infestation, most medical practitioners consider MD a purely delusional disorder. Clinical studies supporting the hypothesis that MD is exclusively delusional in origin have considerable methodological flaws and often neglect the fact that mental disorders can result from underlying somatic illness. In contrast, rigorous experimental investigations show that this skin affliction results from a physiological response to the presence of an infectious agent. Recent studies from that point of view show an association between MD and spirochetal infection in humans, cattle, and dogs. These investigations have determined that the cutaneous filaments are not implanted textile fibers, but are composed of the cellular proteins keratin and collagen and result from overproduction of these filaments in response to spirochetal infection. Further studies of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of MD are warranted.
Keywords: Morgellons disease, dermopathy, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes
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Morgellons disease (MD) is a disfiguring and perplexing skin condition associated with spirochetal infection and tick-borne illness.1–7 This poorly understood condition has a worldwide distribution, with estimated self-reported cases numbering over 14,000 in 2009.5 Since that time, there has been an increasing number of individuals reported to be afflicted with this disorder (C Casey, Charles E Holman Morgellons Disease Foundation, personal communication, 2017). The distinguishing diagnostic feature of MD is spontaneously appearing ulcerative skin lesions that contain unusual filaments lying under, embedded in, or projecting from the skin. The characteristic filaments are microscopic, visually resembling textile fibers, and are white, black, or a more vibrant color, such as red or blue.1–7 In addition to fiber production, some patients may experience formication, described as stinging, biting, creeping and crawling sensations. The symptoms of MD are not limited to the skin. MD patients experience a variety of systemic manifestations, such as fatigue, joint pain, cardiac complications, cognitive difficulties, and neuropathy, all symptoms that are commonly reported by Lyme disease (LD) patients.1–7
The name “Morgellons” (pronounced with either a hard or soft “g”) comes from a letter written in 1674 by Sir Thomas Browne, an English physician. The letter contains a brief description of a skin disease in French children:
Hairs which have most amused me have not been in the face or head, but on the back, and not in men but children, as I long ago observed in that endemial distemper of little children in Languedock, called the Morgellons, wherein they critically break out with harsh hairs on their backs, which takes off the unquiet symptoms of the disease, and delivers them from coughs and convulsions.8
Browne’s description of “the Morgellons” and other historical accounts of similar maladies date from 1544–1884 and were found in Browne’s library in 1935 by Kellett, who then summarized and discussed them.8
The accounts by Browne and others were likely referring to a heterogeneous group of skin conditions that may have differed from the skin condition that we refer to as MD today. These early accounts describe primarily childhood illnesses, many of which were associated with convulsions. There is mention of hairs, worms (with black protruding heads), or comedones that protruded from the skin, primarily on the arms, legs, and back, and at that time there was much debate as to whether these objects were animate or inanimate.8 Ettmüller, for example, provided a drawing of infesting organisms that look like various arthropods, some resembling scabies mites, while the famous Dutch microscopist Leuvenhoeck concluded that such objects were inanimate.8 In 1894, Thibierge described patients who had erroneous and unshakeable beliefs of skin infestation by parasites, and proposed the name “acarophobia”.9,10 In 1946, Wilson and Miller suggested that “acarophobia” should be replaced by the name “delusions of parasitosis” (DOP).10,11
From 1902 to 1938, case studies describing “parasitophobias” or “dermatological hypochondriasis” that resulted in delusional interpretation of skin sensations were published sporadically.12–20 However, as early as 1935, an association between spirochetal infection and DOP was documented by the French physician Vié, who reported that six of eight of the subjects in his case studies had syphilis.18 In 1938, a pivotal narrative of DOP was published by Ekbom, a series of case studies describing patients who had sensations of movement and the belief that insects were crawling on or under skin. Ekbom felt that determining the underlying cause of the formication was important, stating that “it is the underlying illness that determines the overall presentation of the beliefs” and “it is perhaps too simple that the parasitophobias should be considered as mental illness and nothing more”.20 Interestingly, like Vié, Ekbom found that spirochetal infection was present in his patient cohort, and three of Ekbom’s seven patients had documented cases of syphilis. Despite the fact that syphilis was considered rare in Sweden, Ekbom did not believe that spirochetal infection was a contributing factor.20
Ekbom reported that the skin sensations consisted mostly of itching, but also that there was a feeling that something was crawling on or under the skin, and that stabbing and biting sensations could also occur. He mentioned that in such cases, “little animal” specimens were sometimes brought in by patients to show to physicians and that such collections consisted of “little hairs, little threads, grains of sand, and skin scales”. He noted that apart from delusional ideas of infestation, no consistent mental problems were present.20 Although Ekbom could not find any arthropods, parasites, or other microscopic animals, it is important to note that he found hairs, “little threads”, and “grains of sand” in patient specimens. His description is consistent with the findings of unusual hairs, fibers, and hardened comedo-like dermatological objects that we see in MD specimens.20 Such objects will be discussed in depth later in this report.
It is possible that patients in the case studies written by other physicians and mentioned by Ekbom had syphilis or other spirochetal infections. The causative agent of syphilis was first reported in 1905 by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann, who used dark-field microscopy and described spiral-shaped bacteria – Spirochaeta pallida – now called Treponema pallidum.21 The first test for syphilis was developed shortly afterward in 1906 by German physician and bacteriologist August von Wassermann. The Wassermann test was a complement-fixation test that detected antibodies reactive to the syphilis spirochete. The Wassermann tests performed in the 1920s and 1930s lacked accuracy,22,23 and cases of syphilis among patients with delusional parasitosis (DP) may have gone unacknowledged as a result.
Regardless of the test accuracy for syphilis, it is possible that some of the patients described in these historical case studies may have been infected with Borrelia spp., other treponemes or Leptospira spp. B. burgdorferi (Bb) is not a new organism: the earliest known case dates back 5,300 years in the mummy dubbed Ötzi,24 and Borrelia DNA was also detected in two museum specimens of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, collected in 1894.25 Spirochetes resembling Borrelia have also been found in amber-fossilized ticks from 15–20 million years ago.26 Therefore, spirochetal infections associated with MD may have occurred periodically hundreds or even thousands of years ago in human history, yet have gone unrecognized and unreported.
There is a brief mention of “the Morgellons” by Emslie-Smith in 1946, where he proposes that the condition was a form of myiasis caused by the larva of a Hypoderma species, although his account did not provide convincing evidence to support his theory.27 In a 1983 lecture, Lyell described a survey of several hundred dermatologists treating patients with DOP who reported that many of their patients exhibited specimens in matchboxes, baggies, scraps of paper, or photographs. Lyell labeled this practice the “matchbox sign”.28 The survey was reported in a short editorial in the Lancet,10 after which the “matchbox sign” was adopted by dermatologists as being proof of delusional mental illness.29–31 Likewise, the manipulation of skin to extract specimens for relief was also considered to be proof of having a delusional disorder, and this practice was labeled “the tweezer sign”.29
After Emslie-Smith’s mention of MD in 1946, there were no significant references to MD in medical literature until 2002. In 2001, biologist Mary Leitao noted nonhealing lesions on her young son, who complained that he had “bugs” under his skin. She removed a scab, and upon magnification she did not see arthropods or parasites, but she did see embedded blue and red filaments. Leitao searched the Internet looking for similar conditions, and Browne’s description bore a resemblance to her son’s condition, so she appropriated the name.1,2 Leitao subsequently founded the not-for-profit Morgellons Research Foundation (MRF). The MRF website included a database where those with the disorder could self-report their skin and systemic symptoms.5
Leitao did not get answers from the mainstream medical establishment. She had sought help from many doctors, including Fred Heldrich, a Johns Hopkins pediatrician, who arrived at the conclusion that Leitao should not use her son to “explore the problem” and that she could benefit from a psychiatric evaluation.32 Leitao gathered a group of patient advocates, medical practitioners, physicians, and nurses into a volunteer board of directors, which included Georgia-based pediatrician Greg Smith, Texas-based nurse practitioner Virginia Savely, patient advocates Charles E Holman and Cindy Casey-Holman, and former National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) physician and researcher William Harvey32 (C Casey, Charles E Holman Morgellons Disease Foundation, personal communication 2017). Leitao also sought help from Randy Wymore, a pharmacology professor at Oklahoma State University.32
In 2006, Dan Rutz, a spokesman for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contacted Leitao and said that the CDC would form a task force to investigate MD, declaring that “these people deserve more than to be blown off”.32 The CDC published their study results in 2012, declaring that MD was “similar to more commonly recognized conditions, such as delusional infestation [DI]”.33 As of 2012, Leitao had withdrawn from the public eye and closed the MRF. The website run by the MRF is no longer active, and the domain name was taken over by others, now promoting fringe etiologic theories of MD.
In light of previous studies of MD,1–7 a case definition for MD is proposed: a somatic LD-like illness associated with spontaneously appearing, slowly healing, filamentous, ulcerative skin lesions, with the key diagnostic criterion being colored, white, or black filaments protruding from or embedded in skin. Patients diagnosed with MD, either by self-diagnosis or by a health care practitioner, are not a homogeneous group, thus highlighting the need for a universally accepted case definition.
Filaments in MD lesions usually require magnification of 50× or more to be seen, and at that magnification they can be mistaken for textile fibers. Health care providers need to be objective when viewing these fibers: a patient must have unusual filaments visible under 50× magnification or higher (as opposed to the magnification of 10× normally used in dermatology) and embedded in or extruding from skin to be diagnosed with MD. The filaments are relatively easy to see with proper visualization tools, and detectable fibers should not be automatically dismissed as “self-implanted” or composed of synthetic substances without an appropriate evaluation. Mental health status is not a diagnostic factor in MD cases, as outlined herein.
Unlike Ekbom, who was concerned about the underlying cause of DP,8 many modern-day practitioners and scientists have ignored the potential underlying causes responsible for formication and beliefs of infestation. It is easier to declare mental illness the exclusive etiologic cause, thus blaming the patient, when confronted with perplexing symptoms that the practitioner cannot explain. However, it is irresponsible to label a patient delusional without an appropriate psychiatric evaluation, and if mental illness is present a physician should bear in mind that an underlying infectious process can cause a pathological response resulting in mental illness.
A PubMed search using the keyword “Morgellons” yielded 58 articles, the earliest dating from 1946. From 2006 to present, medical literature is divided into two polarized points of view. One point of view is that MD is a form of delusional mental illness, and the other is that underlying spirochetal infection causes a filamentous dermopathy that is accompanied by an array of LD-like multisystem symptoms that may or may not include neuropsychiatric symptoms. There are approximately 40 papers in the medical literature proposing that MD is purely a delusional disorder, and only a quarter of that figure proposing that MD has an infectious etiology.
Diagnosing delusional disorder
The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-V makes no mention of a diagnosis of DOP. The closest diagnosis is Delusional disorder 297.1 (F22), somatic type, which is defined thus:
presence of one or more delusions with a duration of one month or longer
criteria for schizophrenia have never been met (note hallucinations if present are not prominent and are related to the delusional theme eg, the sensation of being infected with insects is associated with delusions of infestation)
apart from the impact of the delusion(s) or its ramifications, functioning is not markedly impaired, and behavior is not obviously bizarre or odd
if manic or major depressive episodes have occurred, these have been brief relative to the duration of the delusional periods
the disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, and is not due to the physiological effects of a substance or medication or another medical condition.34
Somatic-type delusional disorders manifest with core beliefs concerning bodily functions or sensations. Manschreck stated that the diagnosis of delusional disorder should be a diagnosis of exclusion, and he outlined three steps for evaluating patients with delusions. The first step is to establish if pathology is present. This step requires clinical judgment to distinguish among a true observation, a firm belief, an overvalued idea, and a delusion.35 He states that a comment that at first appears delusional can prove to be factual, and some reports that seem believable may later be found to be delusional. Therefore, he recommended that rather than the truth or falseness of a belief, the extremeness or inappropriateness of a patient’s behavior may be the determining factor leading to a diagnosis of delusional disorder.35,36 In other words, one must first establish that a belief is delusional, and not the result of an underlying somatic illness.
The second step involves determining if characteristics associated with delusions, such as confusion, agitation, perceptual disturbances, physical symptoms, and mood abnormalities are present.35 The third step is performing a systematic differential diagnosis, including a thorough history, mental status examination, and laboratory/radiological evaluation to rule out other medical and psychiatric conditions that present with delusions.35 The status examination, including cognitive status, is usually normal, except for the delusional beliefs: memory and cognition are intact.37 Auditory or visual hallucinations are indicative of more severe psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, and suggest exclusion of a delusional disorder.37 The differential diagnosis should exclude medical conditions that can cause delusions, such as neurodegenerative or other central nervous system disorders, vascular diseases, vitamin deficiencies, medications, metabolic and endocrine disorders, toxins, and infectious diseases.37 Note that spirochetal infections such as syphilis and LD could cause symptoms that fall into this category.
Evidence supporting the hypothesis of DP
Among reports that promote a delusional etiology for MD, there are a number of review articles, opinion pieces, or editorial letters.29,30,38–53 These do not provide any new research or clinical evidence to support the claims that MD is a delusional disorder, but they do present common discussion themes that are frequently reiterated in case studies and research papers.54–76 Common discussion themes are:
MD is a delusional disorder29,30,38–76
MD is a variation of DOP, DP, or DI29,30,38–76
MD is defined as the fixed, unshakable belief, despite lack of medical evidence, of being infested with microscopic organisms or inanimate objects29,30,38–76
the presentation of specimens in or out of a container, whether it be a matchbox, small plastic bag, paper, pill container, or photographic image, etc, is diagnostic of DOP, DP, or DI29–31,52,55,59–62,64,66,70,71
patients with MD tend to have psychiatric comorbidities74,68
MD is a mass delusional mental illness afflicting primarily middle-aged Caucasian females68,69,74,76
delusions of infestation are spread from person to person and transmitted by the Internet30,39,41,51,52,54,58,60
antipsychotic drugs are the treatment of choice for MD29,30,38–62,64–76
electroconvulsive therapy is an acceptable treatment for MD30,52
establishing rapport to gain confidence and trust helps convince patients to take antipsychotic drugs30,39,41,49,54,58,60
using the word “Morgellons” in dialogue with patients can help establish rapport and trust30,39,41,54,58,60
it is acceptable for dermatologists to diagnose delusional disorder and prescribe antipsychotic medication51,56
use of deceptive dialogue and strategies aimed at convincing patients to take antipsychotic drugs is a justifiable practice41,50,54,60,65
if a patient’s friend(s) or family member(s) also observe a subject’s dermatological lesions and believe the evidence, then they too are considered to share the delusional belief, and the delusion is considered to have been transmitted from one individual to another;30,51,54,68 the belief shared by two people that there are organisms present in the skin is called folie à deux (madness of two); folie à trois, folie à quatre, or folie à cinq are shared beliefs by three, four, or five people, respectively; and shared belief in a family is folie à famille.30,51,54,68
A PubMed search using the keyword “Morgellons” identified 18 publications consisting of case studies of between one and six patients. Table 1 provides a summary of the case studies. Most of these patients clearly do not meet the case definition of MD. Case studies provide useful anecdotal evidence, but they have limitations. Of these case studies, the majority do not mention the observation of fibers being present in or projecting from the skin (the key defining criterion for MD), nor do they mention whether the attending health care professional looked for filaments in the skin at magnification of 50× or higher.54–56,59–68,70,73
Case studies claiming delusional etiology of Morgellons disease
Some studies reported that patients presented specimens to the health care provider as evidence – fibers, lint, hair and skin scrapings, etc – and this was interpreted as being diagnostic of DI.55,59–62,64,66,70,71 In many of these case studies, there was no mention of any analysis of patient-supplied specimens to determine composition.54,59,60 In a few cases, the health care provider did nothing more than a gross visual identification of patient-provided specimens.55,62,66,70,71 Some studies did not mention fibers associated with their cases at all.55,58,60 Only seven of these studies indicated that the subjects had heard of MD.54,56,58,61–63,70
In some case studies, a patient was diagnosed with DP or DI on very little evidence. Bhandary et al diagnosed DP in patients who felt crawling sensations and thus thought they had bugs in their ears or nose.55 Such conditions as seborrheic dermatitis or eczema can cause formication and crawling sensations inside the ears and nose, and should be ruled out before diagnosing mental illness. Sandhu and Steele diagnosed a patient with DI because the patient felt as though she had fibers growing into her eye. The patient had ectropion, and perhaps this was a factor contributing to the uncomfortable sensations.73 In these cases, underlying causes for sensations were not thoroughly investigated before assuming the patient was having sensory hallucinations. Furthermore, given the sensations of formication, the beliefs in bugs in the first cases and of fibers in the second case are not unreasonable or inappropriate.
In cases where a health care professional did not look for filaments, it is unclear whether or not patients with MD were in these studies. Some studies did not mention if the patient had lesions.54 Some reports mentioned lesions or skin abnormalities, but did not describe examination with magnification of 50× or higher for fibers in or projecting from skin.56,58–60,62–67,70,73 Other studies mentioned that the skin was completely normal and that no skin abnormalities were present; therefore, it is very unlikely that patients in these studies actually had MD, as they did not have the diagnostic clinical finding.55,61,65,71,75
There are only three case studies that specifically mention the presence of fibers either projecting from or embedded in skin.57,72,75 Roncati et al72 reported “grayish spots” under skin, then used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the spots. SEM showed that the spots were associated with fibers described as “synthetic wire” consistent with samples from a washing machine, as well as keratin fibers consistent with hair from the patient’s dog. The EDS analysis detected carbon, sulfur, and oxygen peaks – elements for keratin – but EDS could not reveal what type of keratin it was. Therefore, the “synthetic wire” could have been keratin filaments from the patient. The authors concluded that the keratin hairs were of canine origin, based on morphological resemblance to the patient’s dog hair, yet they provided no further proof of this conclusion. As some MD fibers are small hairs, determining whether the hairs are human or canine in origin is important. SEM shows only the outer shape of a specimen, so the scaling pattern is the only morphological feature available for comparison, and the imbricate scaling of canine and human hair is quite similar (TA Evans, TRI Princeton, personal communication, September 13, 2017). EDS analysis can only tell the chemical composition of the specimen and again, human and canine hair would be similar.77
Ohn et al saw only one black fiber protruding from the skin, and then claimed that this single fiber was lost during processing for histological examination.75 Therefore, one cannot draw any conclusions about the composition or origin of this fiber. Dovigi provided convincing evidence that the fibers extracted from an oral lesion on the mucosal distal tuberosity of a tooth were synthetic carbon-based fibers, but there is no evidence that the fibers were self-implanted.57 Dental floss is composed of synthetic fibers, such as nylon.78 Fibers could have been introduced during flossing, especially if the floss had frayed and become lodged between teeth, eventually festering and causing a lesion. Belief that the fibers had originated in the tissue would be reasonable under those circumstances.
The case studies varied in terms of looking for pathogens, but on further examination all of the studies fall short in looking for spirochetal infection. Only two of the case studies looked for Borrelia infection, and neither of these performed a thorough laboratory analysis to search for spirochetes.72,75 The description of testing for Borrelia in these studies is not sufficiently detailed to know what was actually done. In science, reproducibility is important, and methodologies should provide enough details that others can repeat them. Roncati et al stated: “In adjunct, the patient had noticed an increase in the viscosity of mucus, saliva, and tears, as to produce four unexplainable corneal ulcers in the last two years, without a rise in the autoimmunity or Borrelia spp. serology”.72 There is no mention of whether or not the Borrelia spp. serology was interpreted as being positive or negative, what species or type of Borrelia antigens were used, what laboratory the serology was performed at, or what method was used to detect the antibodies. Furthermore, although the patient had a few gray spots containing fibers, there was no evidence they were self-implanted or related to a delusional belief. Therefore, the study cannot disprove an infectious etiology for MD.
The study by Ohn et al is no better in terms of providing methodology.75 In fact, the methodology in the abstract does not match the text. While the abstract states that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Bb was negative in serum, the text states that Bb serology was negative. It is thus unclear whether serology or PCR testing was used to diagnose Bb.75 There is mention that a Warthin–Starry stain was performed, and histological examination revealed only a mild lymphocytic infiltration. However, because Bb is pleomorphic, such stains can be difficult to interpret, and mild lymphocytic infiltration is precisely what one would expect in Bb skin lesions, such as erythema migrans (EM) rash sites.79 Studies that do mention the search for and identification of pathogens other than Borrelia spp. are sadly lacking. The methodology in the study by Altunay et al mentioned “laboratory investigations including routine biochemical analyses of the blood and urine, cutaneous biopsy, the microscobic [sic] analysis of so-called parasites or materials emerging from the skin”.66 DeBonis and Pierre described their microbiological methodology as “Evaluation by a primary care physician revealed no signs of infection”.61
Many studies included cases that did not meet the DSM-V criterion for delusional disorder. Some studies featured patients who were clearly delusional and had or likely had serious underlying psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia.62,66 Some described conditions that clearly indicated the patient had disease affecting the central nervous system: Roncati et al indicated the patient in their case study had “myoclonies” [sic], which presumably means seizures or muscle twitches; one patient in the study by Fellner et al had senile dementia; and the patient in the report of Freudenreich et al had HIV infection.58,67,72 Some studies included cases where so-called delusional disorders could have had cultural influences.55,66 Some studies mentioned underlying medical conditions that may have caused psychiatric disturbance. In the study by Altunay et al, five patients had vitamin B12 deficiency and one had thyroid disease in addition to vitamin B12 deficiency.66 In the study by Reid and Lio, one patient had diabetes mellitus.60 Patients in other studies were using psychoactive drugs.56,61,62,67,70 The patient in the case study by Roncati et al had hepatitis C virus infection.72
A few case studies claimed that treatment with antipsychotic medication was curative.55,59,60,66 In contrast, many more case studies indicated that treatment with antipsychotic drugs reduced symptoms but was not curative55,58,61,66,70,71 or that antipsychotics were ineffective.62,63,65 In fact, Robles et al suggested that treatment with antibiotics was more successful than treatment with antipsychotics, although they too concluded that MD was delusional rather than infectious. They reported that treatment of two patients with doxycycline and no antipsychotics resulted in complete resolution of the condition, while one subject treated with antipsychotics and no antibiotics did not have disease resolution.65 Some studies indicated that antipsychotic drugs were prescribed, but failed to report if treatment was effective,54,55,64,75 and Roncati et al failed to report what (if any) treatment was prescribed.72 Some of the studies reporting cure or benefit with antipsychotic drugs used other treatment methods in addition to the antipsychotic medication, and without controls one cannot be sure which variable was responsible for the patient’s improvement.55,62,66,67,73
There were only five reports of studies involving larger cohorts of patients.33,68,69,74,76 Four of these were retrospective studies,68,69,74,76 and the remaining study selected its cohort by conducting a retrospective search through medical records.33 Retrospective studies are limited, because data may be incomplete and cases may lack laboratory analysis or proper documentation. The retrospective study by Mohandas et al74 included 35 patients and made no mention of the presence of fibers. The study reported female predominance, with a mean age of 54.6 years. Psychiatric comorbidities (anxiety and depression) were noted in 68.5%, and management of patients included treatment with psychotropic medications combined with topical and oral antibiotics. Improvement was reported in less than half of the cohort (40%), and all four patients who received low-dose oral antibiotic therapy noted improvement.74 The study by Hylwa et al from the Mayo Clinic was a retrospective study of psychiatric comorbidity in a cohort of 54 patients diagnosed with DI. Comorbidities were found in 74% of these patients, and there was no mention of fiber or pathogen detection in the retrospective report.69
Foster et al also conducted a retrospective study of DI at the Mayo Clinic.68 Medical records of 147 patients were reviewed to determine demographic information, historical and physical findings, and treatment. In this cohort, 81% had a history of one or more psychiatric illnesses (the most common diagnosis being depression), 11% had a history of drug use (methamphetamines, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and other street drugs) that may have contributed to their symptoms, and only 20% of subjects reported having fibers in their skin, and thus the cohort was composed predominantly of non-MD subjects. The study lacked fiber analysis, and there was no mention that any skin-associated fibers had been visualized by the investigators, so it is possible that there were no subjects in the study meeting the key diagnostic MD criterion. Methodology for detecting any pathogens was lacking, and there was no mention of detection of Borrelia or other tick-borne pathogens at all. Nevertheless, the authors stated that they did not find evidence of infestation in patient-provided specimens, biopsies, or tests for ova and parasites.68
The CDC–Kaiser Permanente Northern California–Armed Forces Institute of Pathology collaborative study (CDC study) selected their cohort via a retrospective search through medical records.33 This study had significant flaws. The case definition did not require the presence of fibers embedded in or projecting from skin; therefore, selection was on the basis of self-reported cases, and resulted in a heterogeneous group of subjects. Eligibility to participate in the study was limited to those enrolled in a Kaiser Permanente plan. The number of participants diminished as the study progressed: whereas 467 subjects were identified by a search of Kaiser Permanente electronic records, cultures for pathogens were conducted on only 28 subjects, and fibers were collected from only 12 subjects.33 Fiber analysis was performed and cotton-textile fibers identified, but the authors admitted they did not find fibers that were embedded or projecting from skin, and they admitted that they may have introduced cotton fibers at the time of sampling. Two of the subjects identified in the electronic search died, and the cause of death was not disclosed.
Objective findings of illness that could have accounted for the symptoms were ignored: cognitive impairment, somatic complaints, neuropsychiatric symptoms, multiorgan symptoms, and the presence of inflammatory markers.33,80 Cases with these findings do not meet the DSM-V criteria for delusional disorder. Most importantly, although the authors acknowledged that the literature had suggested an association between MD and LD, they did not perform any specific detection methods, such as Borrelia culture or immunohistochemical staining, for any Borrelia spp., and the search for LD was limited to insensitive serologic testing. In conclusion, they used a flawed case definition, selected the wrong cohort, selected the wrong specimens, performed the wrong tests, and came to incorrect conclusions with respect to MD and the association with LD.33,80
Evidence of an infectious etiology
In modern times, spirochetal infection was implicated as an etiologic factor for MD as early as 2006, when William Harvey, a former medical director of a laboratory contracted to work for NASA, explained to a medical reporter, Chico Harlan with the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, that he had been studying a group of 70 MD patients, all of whom were infected with Bb, the causative agent of LD.32 Savely et al in 2006 reported that the principal author, nurse practitioner Virginia Savely, had seen 80 patients in her practice who fit the criteria for MD, and all but one of these patients had tested positive for LD.2
A subsequent study by Harvey et al attempted to delineate MD characteristics in a cohort of 25 self-diagnosed MD patients.81 Although these patients apparently met the case definition for DP, the authors felt the cause and effect of the symptoms were reversed from those of DP, and they suggested that an infectious process was responsible for the development of symptoms. They reported that the male:female ratio was approximately equal, that 23 of 25 subjects had prior psychiatric diagnoses, around 50% had sensations of movement, 70% had excoriations or lesions, and that fibers were present in about a third of patients.81 Central nervous system symptoms, cardiac symptoms, endocrine dysfunction (hyperparathyroidism, adrenocortical hypofunction, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hypercalcemia, elevated fasting insulin levels, and parathyroid adenomas), a high rate of autoimmune disease, and low core body temperature were commonly encountered in their cohort. Laboratory evidence of abnormalities that were commonly encountered included anemia, leukopenia, high monocyte count, low natural-killer cells, elevated serum calcium, elevated globulin levels, and elevated inflammatory markers (CRP, TNFα, IFNγ). Skin abnormalities included excoriations, angiomas, and filament/granule production. The need for a credible MD case definition was emphasized.81
Savely and Stricker analyzed clinical findings in a cohort of 122 subjects with documented presence of unusual filaments projecting from or embedded in skin.4 The key objective of this study was to develop a credible case definition for MD, and because cutaneous fibers were the unique objective finding, the presence of such fibers was determined to be an obligatory part of the case definition. The link between MD and LD was explored, and the study reported that 96.8% of subjects had either positive LD tests by Western blot or clinical diagnoses of LD; many had positive tests for coinfecting tick-borne illnesses, and the demographics of the LD patients and MD patients in their practices proved to be similar. Other important findings in the cohort group were female predominance and hypothyroidism.4
Middelveen and Stricker provided evidence of spirochetal involvement in the evolution of MD.6 MD was compared to bovine digital dermatitis (BDD), a disease in cattle caused by various species of treponemes. Several similarities between MD and BDD were noted, including unusual filament formation, female predominance, rapid spread, exposure to unsanitary conditions or humid environments, and positive response to antibiotics. The fact that spirochetes caused unusual filament formation in cattle suggested that a similar mechanism might occur in MD patients. The fact that spirochetes were visible in BDD histological sections suggested that spirochetes might be present in MD tissue as well.6
Histological studies have shown that filaments in MD tissue are not textile fibers, but are biofilaments produced by human epithelial cells and stemming from deeper epidermal layers, upper dermal layers, and the root sheath of hair follicles (Figure 1).7,82,83 MD cutaneous filaments are predominantly composed of keratin and collagen, as determined by histological studies, and appear to be produced by activated keratinocytes and fibroblasts.82,83 The base of filament attachment to epithelial cells demonstrates nucleation that is continuous with that of surrounding epithelial cells, indicating that the filaments are of human cellular origin (Figure 2).83 Histochemical staining of skin sections containing embedded filaments with Congo red resulted in apple-green birefringence suggestive of an amyloid component, although this remains to be confirmed using more specific methodologies.7 Calcofluor-white staining of skin sections with embedded filaments was negative, and thus MD filaments do not have any cellulose content from plant fibers, such as cotton, or chitin from fungal cells or insect exoskeletons.7
Embedded cutaneous blue and white filaments.
Longitudinal sections of filaments originating in the basal layer of the epidermis adjacent to the dermis; magnification 400×.
Several independent studies have shown that blue MD fibers were human hairs or hairlike extrusions and that blue coloration resulted from melanin pigmentation (Figure 3). Blue textile fibers are colored by dyes, not by blue melanin pigmentation; therefore, it is not possible that blue MD fibers are textile in origin. MD filaments are hairlike extrusions, and some MD fibers are very fine human hairs.7,82,83 The coloration of blue fibers was shown to result from melanin pigmentation, which was demonstrated by positive histochemical staining with Fontana Masson. A confirmatory study performed at a laboratory specializing in biofibers and coloration established that embedded blue fibers in MD dermatological specimens were human hairs.
Filaments remaining embedded in deeper layers of skin after removal of a callus; magnification 100×.
SEM of blue MD fibers shows cuticular scaling consistent with human hairs, and transmission electron microscopy shows darkly stained, disorganized melanosomes consistent with human hairs.7,83 Microspectrophotometry reflectance of blue fibers is consistent with that of pigmented tissues, and Raman spectroscopy results in relevant peaks corresponding to carbamate compounds and melanin aromatic rings (MD Shawkey, University of Akron, personal communication, 2013).7 An investigation concluded that fibers were not self-implanted, due to the fact that they were deeply embedded in skin in a manner that a patient would not be able to achieve (MD Shawkey, University of Akron, personal communication, 2013).
Other MD findings
If MD specimens are examined, they demonstrate evidence of abnormal keratin and collagen expression. In addition to the formation of abnormal cutaneous fibers, many patients report changes to hair and fingernails.82 Deformed follicular bulbs, pili multigemini (formation of multiple hair shafts within individual follicles), filamentous projections from the follicular sheath surrounding hair bulbs, and the formation of thickened keratin projections are common findings.82,83 The authors of this paper have had the opportunity to examine many MD lesions and MD dermatological specimens (Fesler, Middelveen, and Stricker, unpublished data, 2017). We have noted that MD lesions can begin as folliculitis that evolves into ulcerative filamentous lesions, with further evidence of keratin and collagen abnormalities, such as formation of keratin projections, formation of hardened comedo-like masses, and deformities of hairs and hair follicles, as mentioned previously.
Keratin projections are thickened follicular casts. When sectioned and stained with Gömöri trichrome, these follicular casts are abnormal in that although the outer surface is composed of keratin-rich tissue, the interior can contain collagen-rich tissue. Comedo-like masses can emerge from pores spontaneously or when scratched, and are sometimes described by patients as being sand-like. Patients may misinterpret these objects as being seeds, eggs, cocoons, parasites, or even arthropods. These comedo-like masses can contain embedded keratin or collagen filaments and/or projecting filaments. When they form inside a pore or follicle, they may form a tight wad of fibers (Figure 4A). Hair and follicular bulb deformities include pili multigemini (mentioned previously) (Figure 4B), hairs or fibers growing downward deep into the dermis rather than in the opposite direction through the pore opening, and follicular sheaths with filamentous projections. These projections can completely cover the follicular sheath, and may be interpreted as caterpillars by patients.
(A) A filamentous follicular cast. White filaments originating on the outer follicular sheath are growing in a coiled manner. Magnification 50×. (B) Pili multigemini, a common finding in Morgellons disease patients, with multiple hairs forming …
Contaminating extraneous artifacts can complicate identification of legitimate dermatological findings in MD. We have found pollen, noninfesting arthropods, feathers, and mites in patient-supplied specimens. Some patients have described the production of “fuzzballs”. We performed histological sectioning and staining with Gömöri trichrome on such artifacts and determined the “fuzzballs” in patient-supplied samples that we studied were largely composed of textile fibers, but did have some keratin fibers or keratinized tissue present as well. We speculate that such artifacts may include keratin-containing material related to MD, but that textile fibers can attach to sticky exudate or can tangle into filamentous lesions. Other patients have described hexagonal crystals and “glitter” in MD skin. Spectroscopic analysis of the hexagonal crystals proved that they were contaminating man-made hexagonal objects (of the type used in cosmetics and greeting cards) with either cellulose or plastic centers and a metallic coating (V Loyd, Mount Allison University, personal communication, 2017). The “glitter” that we studied contained salts that were likely human bioproducts, and may have a role in MD (unpublished data). As extraneous artifacts can contaminate sticky lesions, it is important to collect only fibers deeply embedded in skin or clearly projecting in a hair-like manner for studies intended to determine fiber composition.
As mentioned earlier in the report, cattle with BDD form lesions that produce unusual keratin projections. Although visually different from the small slender filaments in MD lesions, we have also observed slender fibers in BDD specimens that strongly resemble the fibers in human MD (Figure 5) (unpublished observation).
(A) Thickened keratinized follicular casts in a Morgellons disease specimen that grew inward into the dermis. Note the clear inward-growing hair. Magnification 100×. (B) Specimen from a bovine digital dermatitis lesion with similarities to human …
Detection of pathogens
Early on in MD history, a link between MD and LD was reported.1–7 Savely and Stricker reported that 96.8% of their cohort of 122 MD patients had either positive LD serology or an LD diagnosis.4 A more recent study reported that 6% of LD patients in a cohort of Australian LD subjects had MD,84 and Borrelia spirochetes have repeatedly been detected in skin and bodily fluid specimens from MD subjects. Preliminary studies reported that Bb sensu stricto (Bbss) spirochetes were detected in dermatological tissue removed from MD lesions of four North American patients,83,85 and an ensuing study reported the detection of Borrelia garinii in MD samples from an Australian patient.86
A larger study was needed to verify the association between Borrelia infection and MD. Consequently, a study of 25 North American MD patients confirmed the presence of Borrelia spirochetes in MD-tissue and body-fluid specimens, both directly in dermatological specimens and in cultures obtained from MD patients using microscopic, histopathological, and molecular detection methods.87 This study provided evidence for the presence of Borrelia DNA in MD specimens by PCR followed by DNA sequencing performed by two independent laboratories. PCR technology amplified Borrelia DNA in 13 MD whole-callus specimens (nine sequenced), four cultures inoculated with dermatological tissue (one sequenced), eight blood cultures (two sequenced), two vaginal secretion cultures (both sequenced), and one intestinal specimen. The Borrelia spirochetes detected in these studies were identified primarily as Bbss, but B. garinii and B. miyamotoi were also reported.87
The fact that motile spirochetes identified as Borrelia spp. were detected in Barbour–Stoenner–Kelly H medium inoculated with MD dermatological tissue proves that spirochetes present in MD tissue are viable.85,87 Identification of Borrelia spirochetes in cultures is complicated by fastidious growth requirements and pleomorphism,88,89 but PCR amplification of cultured spirochetes in these studies provided confirmatory molecular identification of live Borrelia spirochetes in specimens from MD subjects.87 Four laboratories independently confirmed the presence of Borrelia DNA in MD specimens using PCR technology and confirmatory DNA sequencing.7 Recently, independent researchers from Canada using PCR technology and confirmatory DNA sequencing have detected Borrelia DNA in cultures inoculated with specimens from MD patients (J Lewis, V Lloyd, Mount Allison University, personal communication, 2017). Therefore, five laboratories using PCR technology have now provided confirmation of Borrelia DNA in MD specimens, including four species of Borrelia: Bbss, B. garinii, B. hermsii, and B. miyamotoi7,90,91(J Lewis, V Lloyd, Mount Allison University, personal communication, 2017). The detection of Borrelia spirochetes is reproducible, providing that correct methods of detection are employed (Figure 6).
Single spirochete from a Morgellons disease skin specimen immunostained for detection of Borrelia. Magnification 1,000×.
Borrelia spirochetes can invade and replicate inside fibroblasts and keratinocytes,92–94 and have been isolated in vitro from monolayers of keratinocytes and fibroblasts despite antibiotic treatment.92,93 Sequestration in these cells may be a contributing factor in the development of refractory infection in MD patients. In support of that hypothesis, Borrelia spirochetes were detected in MD skin specimens removed from patients treated with aggressive antibiotic therapy.87 Hypothetically, intracellular infection of keratinocytes and fibroblasts would be able to alter keratin and collagen gene expression, respectively, resulting in unusual filament formation.7 Some patients report that gel was secreted from their skin. We sectioned these dried-gel secretions, and immunostaining targeted to Borrelia was positive and demonstrated a copious quantity of well-formed spirochetes embedded in a clear matrix. This finding is consistent with biofilm formation (unpublished data). The spirochetal load in MD specimens is high and suggests biofilm formation in vivo.85,87 The formation of biofilms may also contribute to the severity of the dermopathy and antibiotic resistance.
The key etiologic factor contributing to the evolution of MD lesions seems to be infection with Borrelia spp., the pathogen most consistently detected in MD patients. However, we speculate that the etiology of MD is multifactorial. Factors such as genetic predisposition, endocrine influences, immune status, and the presence of other infections, particularly tick-borne coinfections, appear to play a role in the development of this phenomenon.1–7 Pathogens other than Borrelia spp. have been detected in MD tissue samples, including Helicobacter pylori, Treponema denticola, and Bartonella henselae.87,90,91,95 Preliminary genetic studies have demonstrated nine genes with significant sequence variation in MD patients (E Sapi, University of New Haven, unpublished observation, 2017). Examination of genetic factors that contribute to MD is currently in progress.
Recently, MD-like filamentous dermatitis was described in domestic dogs, and Bbss was detected by PCR amplification confirmed by DNA sequencing, thus providing evidence that MD-like filamentous dermatitis may be associated with LD in these dogs.96 Interestingly, many of these dogs were bulldogs or other breeds with color-dilution genes, thus suggesting that genetics may predispose certain breeds of dogs infected with Borrelia to develop this skin condition. Many of the owners of these pets had no prior knowledge of MD, and thus these were not cases of delusion by proxy.96 The fact that a condition analogous to MD in humans can occur in dogs and a similar animal model of spirochetal infection associated with filament formation – BDD – occurs in cattle provides supportive evidence that MD is an infectious process.
Antibiotic treatment of MD
Although there is anecdotal evidence that MD responds to antibiotics,1–7 controlled studies of MD treatment with antibiotics have not been conducted. Optimal treatment for MD remains undetermined. Two of the authors report success in treating LD/MD patients with antibiotics. In general, early treatment contributes to a better patient outcome. Treatment aimed at the underlying tick-borne disease is essential to resolve MD dermopathy, and treatment may require both prolonged combination-antibiotic therapy and the identification and treatment of any coinfecting tick-borne diseases or other exacerbating factors. Some patients benefit from antiparasitic therapy, although there appears to be no direct evidence of parasite infection in MD.
Clinical classification of MD
A clinical classification scheme has been proposed for MD:
early localized: lesions/fibers present for less than 3 months and localized to one area of the body (head, trunk, extremities)
early disseminated: lesions/fibers present for less than 3 months and involving more than one area of the body (head, trunk, extremities)
late localized: lesions/fibers present for more than 6 months and localized to one area of the body (head, trunk, extremities)
late disseminated: lesions/fibers present for more than 6 months and involving more than one area of the body (head, trunk, extremities).
This classification scheme centers on the duration and location of MD lesions with the intent to validate and standardize the diagnosis of MD.7,87
The diagnosis of Delusional disorder 297.1 (F22), somatic type, as described in the DSM-V, requires clinical judgment, as the delusional belief should not be better explained by another mental disorder, be caused by the effects of a substance or medication, nor caused by other medical conditions, such as infection. Many of the case studies cited in this paper mentioning MD concern patients who have medical conditions such as diabetes, vitamin B12 deficiency, substance-abuse problems, and infections that could be implicated in the development of their symptoms, and diagnosing such patients with delusional disorder is contrary to DSM-V principles. The diagnosis of a delusional disorder is best made by a professional with mental health training, such as a psychiatrist. Single, isolated delusions are quite rare, and truly delusional patients have evidence of other delusions, not just DOP.
There is significant overlap in the array of symptoms that may accompany LD, MD, and mental illness, thus complicating the diagnosis. In theory, patients who do not have MD but who are delusional could think they have MD if they have had exposure to the topic through the Internet or other means.7,87 To complicate the diagnosis further, MD patients may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms, and many have psychiatric diagnoses, such as bipolar disorder, attention-deficit disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia.1,7,81 Therefore, many MD patients may have psychiatric comorbidities, and in some cases, patients have been misdiagnosed with a psychiatric illness that they do not have.7 Some MD patients may have false beliefs that are not delusional in origin. Lack of scientific knowledge can cause patients to misinterpret symptoms, such as the presence of filaments and sensations of formication as worms, arthropods, or other infestations. In addition, MD lesions are sticky and arthropods or artifacts can adhere to exudate, and patients may incorrectly believe these external factors are associated with the dermopathy.7,87
A patient who (because of symptom misinterpretation or lack of scientific knowledge) believes he or she has a parasitic infestation should not be diagnosed with delusional mental illness. It is logical for a patient to speculate that a complex of symptoms, including abnormal skin fibers coupled with formication, could be caused by a parasite. Furthermore, patients with MD are not always aware that they have filaments, because magnification is needed to visualize the filaments and many are diagnosed with other conditions, such as lichen sclerosus or prurigo nodularis, which lack filament formation.7,87 In addition, systemic LD is commonly associated with dermatological conditions and neurological symptoms, such as paresthesias.7,87,97,98 As such, multiorgan MD symptoms overlap with LD because MD is associated with LD, and this dermatological and neurological symptom overlap may partly explain the odd movement or stinging sensations that MD patients experience.
The DSM-V does not mention DOP, DI, or DP. In the case of Delusional disorder 297.1 (F22), delusions are not the beliefs themselves, but the way they are interpreted by patients. Delusions are profound, intensely held beliefs that seem barely swayed by evidence to the contrary, even to the point of believing in the bizarre.34–36 In contrast, the presence of human biofibers embedded in skin of MD patients is factual: the patients are not hallucinating imaginary fibers, and they are not implanting textile fibers or hallucinating an imaginary infestation. MD is not a case of fixed belief despite lack of medical evidence, because if fibers are present and they are visible under magnification, then there is medical evidence. MD fibers projecting from and embedded in skin may have elaborate configurations with branching, and the filaments may have tapered ends. Even skilled microsurgeons could not implant the fibers in that configuration.
The evidence is present in patients who have MD, but in order to be recognized, a physician must be willing to look. If patients meet the case definition for MD with visible skin fibers and do not believe they are infested, these patients do not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of Delusional disorder 297.1, somatic type, as described in the DSM-V. Creeping and crawling sensations unaccompanied by delusions of infestation are not enough to give a patient a diagnosis of delusional disorder. These sensations are consistent with the well-recognized symptom of formication that occurs with peripheral neuropathy and is associated with many medical conditions, such as diabetes, chronic infections, menopause, skin cancer, and multiple sclerosis, and exposure to various chemical substances, such as toxins, certain medications, alcohol, or recreational drugs. It is contrary to proper psychiatric diagnosis to label a patient as having a delusional mental illness based solely on a complaint of formication.
LD and associated tick-borne diseases may be accompanied by mental illness.99–101 Chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases can be caused by infection and resulting prolonged inflammation.101,102 The spectrum of mental illnesses associated with LD varies in severity, and includes anxiety, depression, paranoia, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, sensory hallucinations, and homicidal tendencies.101,103 Some of these neuropsychiatric conditions involve a delusional component. Delusions resulting from infectious processes do not meet the DSM-V criteria for delusional disorder. Furthermore, the presence of psychiatric comorbidities is not proof that a patient is delusional. Some patients have a component of posttraumatic stress disorder and are hypervigilant and overreactive to physical symptoms, rather than being delusional. If a health care provider cannot tell the difference between a hypervigilant patient and a delusional patient, the provider is not qualified to diagnose delusional disorder.
The presentation of specimens or pictorial evidence to a doctor is not an indication of delusional disorder or mental illness. This action was never included as an indication of delusional disorder in the DSM-V. Likewise, the fact that a patient with beliefs of infestation accompanied by movement sensation has psychiatric comorbidities69,74 is not proof of delusional disorder and is contrary to the recommended practices of the DSM-V.80 In most of the case studies that equate MD with DOP, DP, or DI, patient-supplied evidence was dismissed, evidence of disease (physical and laboratory) was dismissed, fibers were identified as being textile in origin based solely on visual examination, physicians were unwilling to examine skin at sufficient magnification to see microscopic fibers, and all too quickly patients were diagnosed as being delusional in a manner that is contrary to the DSM-V approach to psychiatric diagnosis.
The bar set for burden of proof is higher for those proposing an infectious etiology than for those proposing that MD is delusional. Many of the papers reviewed in this analysis relied solely on visual identification for “textile fibers”. Others did not select the correct patients to study (ie, patients with documented embedded or projecting cutaneous filaments) or did not collect the correct specimens, collecting instead superficial artifacts, including some that might have been introduced at the time of sampling. The analysis of MD fibers requires that the patient meets the case definition with the key diagnostic criterion of having colored, white, or black filaments protruding from or embedded in skin, and the correct specimens must be collected.
Fibers that are embedded in deeper layers of skin or that are firmly attached, originating underneath the stratum corneum and projecting either outward to the surface or inward into the dermis, are the only specimens that are suitable for fiber analysis. Most often, MD fibers are present as inclusions in callus material that resembles scabs. These can be removed for analysis by a health care practitioner, or in rare cases patient-supplied specimens of calluses can contain fibers suitable for analysis, provided that calluses composed of skin and fibers are embedded throughout the specimen. Histological sectioning and staining to detect keratin and collagen can visually and chemically determine the keratin and collagen nature of these fibers.7,83
When diagnosing mental illness, it is imperative first to determine if there is an underlying cause of the psychiatric symptom, such as an infection. None of the case studies reviewed in this paper or the research studies involving larger cohorts of MD patients looked adequately for infections, in particular LD. Science has to be reproducible, and there has to be enough detail provided in the methodology description for the study to be replicated. This was not the case for detecting LD in many of the case studies. Borrelia spirochetes are readily detectable in MD tissue, but sensitive and specific methods are required.7,87 Although sensitive and specific direct-detection methods, such as antigen detection, culture of Borrelia spirochetes, and PCR detection of Borrelia DNA, exist, these methods are not standardized, and vary in sensitivity and specificity.104,105 They are not recommended by the CDC, which only endorses two-tier serological LD testing.7,87,106 Unfortunately, two-tier serological testing for LD, although specific for Bbss, lacks sensitivity and is little better than a coin toss in detecting LD.107,108
False negatives can occur when using two-tier testing for a number of reasons, including the fact that some patients with known LD are seronegative.107,109 In addition, there is significant genetic diversity in Borrelia spp. capable of causing LD and LD-like illnesses, but commercial two-tier testing is based on the antigens of one laboratory strain, and testing may not detect other Borrelia species.110–112 The fact that the CDC does not consider any direct detection method, not even culture, as being diagnostic for LD as proof of infection is unjustifiable. It should be noted that culture is considered to be the gold standard for detection of organisms by the American Society for Microbiology.113 The reluctance of the CDC to accept more sensitive testing methods for LD makes the evidence showing the association between LD and MD controversial.7,87 Those who maintain that MD is a form of DOP or DI and rely on the two-tier test for Borrelia detection claim that studies supporting an infectious etiology and an association with LD are flawed,72,75 yet these critics have not used adequate methodologies, and by failing to do so have not proved that methods for detecting Borrelia spp. used in more sophisticated studies are unreproducible or false.
Patients diagnosed with DOP in case studies are frequently prescribed antipsychotic medication with potentially serious side effects.30 These patients are often talked into taking antipsychotic medication by health care providers using deceptive unethical dialogue, which can compromise patient autonomy.41,43,50,54,60,114 Many published articles mentioning MD make claims that antipsychotic drugs are effective treatment for MD, but careful review of the literature suggests otherwise. Two systematic reviews concerning the use of these medications to treat DI, DOP, or DP cases conclude that treatment efficacy was unproven.115,116 In many of the case studies reviewed in this paper, authors claimed that antipsychotics were used to treat MD cases, yet the patients received treatment in addition to antipsychotic drugs, including antibiotics, wound dressings, antiseptics, and antipruritic drugs.59,65,66 Therefore, it is not certain which treatments were providing benefit, as the studies were uncontrolled. In fact, one study reported complete remission using antibiotics and not with antipsychotics.65
Antipsychotic medications can have off-label effects, such as reduced growth of parasites and anti-pruritic properties.117 Evidence showing an association between antipsychotic treatment in DI, DOP, or DP patients and resolution of symptoms or benefit is very limited and is more limited in MD cases. There has been only one randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that evaluated the effectiveness of the antipsychotic drug pimozide.118 This study of a small cohort of eleven DI patients reported that pimozide was better than placebo at controlling formication, but was not better at controlling delusions of vermin infestation or excoriation.118 One study of 14 DI/DOP/DP patients reported that although seven patients remained in remission 19–48 months after pimozide treatment, four patients had no response to this antipsychotic medication.119 The variation seen in reported effectiveness in this study and the various studies reviewed here may have arisen from the fact that patients diagnosed with DI are a heterogeneous group of individuals, some of whom are truly delusional and some of whom are not.
Recent studies using advanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology have found that patients diagnosed with DI have significant gray-matter changes that differ from findings in both patients with nonsomatic delusions and healthy controls.120–122 These MRI abnormalities involve altered cortical thickness and surface area in various parts of the brain, indicating that selective delusional symptoms in patients may be based on specific somatic brain alterations. It is tempting to speculate that these brain alterations are related to spirochetal infection in MD, either via direct brain invasion or an inflammatory response in genetically susceptible individuals.123,124 The intriguing link between spirochetal infection and brain pathology detected by advanced imaging methods merits further study.
The history of MD has taught us that scientific evidence must be carefully considered before a disease is written off as a purely psychiatric disorder. Delusional disorder is a diagnosis of exclusion that requires clinical judgment, and all underlying causes for delusional symptoms need to be ruled out before jumping to erroneous conclusions. Medical practitioners continue to consider MD a delusional disorder, although studies have shown that MD is strongly associated with spirochetal infection. According to the best-available scientific evidence, MD should be considered a dermopathy associated with tick-borne disease. Further study of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of MD is warranted.
The authors thank Jesus Walker-Salas, Diana Canchola and Jeannie Ramos for technical assistance. This work was supported in part by a grant from the Lindorf Family Foundation, Newark, OH.
The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2018; 11: 71–90.
Published online 2018 Feb 9. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S152343
Marianne J Middelveen,1 Melissa C Fesler,2 and Raphael B Stricker2
1Atkins Veterinary Services, Calgary, AB, Canada
2Union Square Medical Associates, San Francisco, CA, USA
Correspondence: Raphael B Stricker, Union Square Medical Associates, 450 Sutter Street – suite 1504, San Francisco, CA 94108, USA, Tel +1 415 399 1035, Email moc.demamsu@rekcirtsr
Copyright © 2018 Middelveen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited
The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.
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— Read on www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811176/
spiritus et corporis in intersectione: things may not be what they appear-face appears in mans neck!
— Watch Video on youtu.be/ePE8NzVmHKM
Here is an interesting video I created in an effort to show others more of what my experiences are like in this world in the years following my being infected with something people are calling morgellons, something causing changes to my perception that I can show others is more an example perhaps of things we don’t see, or how we see what we believe and not always what is there?
Knowing as we do that our eyes, as designed by our creator, exclude most of the electromagnetic spectrum allowing as the do only waves with a length of between 400-750 nanometers, a tiny fragment of what’s actually there.
Is it possible my exposure to nanotechnology and biotechnology and God only knows what else have changed my ability to perceive what’s actually there?
Or is it just noise and miss information misjudged by a broken mind, a mind twisted around by huge does of ‘hallucinogenic’ like drugs?
But consider this: science has determined via functional mri imaging and it studies that taking lsd like drugs creates new neural pathways in the brain, pathways that may have never been able to develop if it were not for the ‘magic’ of the experience-and the magic if the experiences brought on by new pathways-new vibrations, new frequencies that the neuronal processor can now function at?
Adding meta materials to the blood, brain, and/or humors of the human eye would allow new non-linear photonics and energetic response in the modified sensory organs.
Have a look
Open your mind
And consider the ramifications
Thank you for your time and consideration.
Blessings and peace
(Note: Timothytrespas did not write this! This is NOT my work! I am only sharing it as it is so well written and comes highly recommend!)
Figure 1 : The human eye has evolved to detect visible light in a very thin spectrum, and is functionally limited by density of photoreceptors and compression of visual data sent along the optic nerve.
Any discussion of psychedelic hallucination is a discussion of the spontaneous emergence of perceptual information within human consciousness. Human perception is limited by the capacity of sense organs (Fig. 1); the speed and architecture of the neural network; and the number of distinct perceptions the brain can analyze at any one time. Despite functional limitations human consciousness is seamless, meaning that each perception and behavior flows smoothly from one to the next. When consciousness is stable perception and behavior is seamlessly integrated; when consciousness destabilizes perception and behavior loose cohesion until we are no longer in control of our thoughts and actions. Destabilization of consciousness can happen all at once in the case of being knocked unconscious, but more often it happens incrementally as various aspects of conscious-ness enter into a low-power sub-conscious copies or unconsc- ous state, as in going to sleep.
Psychedelics are unique in that they can both enhance and degrade perceptual limitations by orders of degrees; psychede- lics can obscure and distort per- ceptual data or they can enhan- ve resolution and generate ex- panded states of consciousness.
These contrasting results may be dose dependent, but it is also possible that psychedelics si- multaneouslyu produce percep- tual degradation and enhance- ments. Psychedelic hallucinati- ons are often described as being beyond the limits of human imagination, a trait which is offe- red as de-facto evidence of ex- panded err consciousness or su- pernatural origin. Since the boundaries of the human imagi- nation can be modeled with some close degree of accuracy, any substantial discussion about the nature of psychedelic halluci- nations must therefore start with some basic assumptions about the limitations of human percep- tion, and thus the limitations of expanded consciousness.
The Visual Spectrum
Figure 2 : The EM spectrum ranges from gamma rays, which have a very short wavelength and very high energy, to radio waves, which have a very long wavelength and very low energy. Visible light makes up a very small portion of the spectrum.
The The The-human visual spectrum has evolved to work best in a small window of sunlight that penetra-tes the Earth’s atmosphere,com- prising the white-light band seen in a rainbow (Fig. 2); roughly the 400-790 THz (terahertz) energy range, energy which oscillates on the order of hundreds of trillions of cycles per second.
The smallest wavelength of visible light is violet, which is only 380 nm (nanometers) wide and travels with the highest frequency.
Red, by contrast, is 750 nm long on the other end of the visible spectrum, and at twice the length it travels at half the fre- quency.1
Unlike some organisms, the human eye does not see into ultraviolet or infrared ranges, nor does it see microwaves, radio waves, x-rays, gamma rays, or anything that falls outside of the visual spectrum. This applies to night vision and dark-adapted vi-sion. The dark-adapted eye utili-zes the rod cells as opposed to the cone cells of daylight vision; rod cells are more photosensitive and more numerous, but they lack the color sensitivity and de-tail resolution..2
Figure 3 : A comparison of light waves and their formal properties.
Subjects on psychedelics often report increased luminosity and saturation of colors, as well as halos or auras of light surrounding objects. In closed-eye or low-light environments subjects report vividly saturated geometric matrices, often rendered in swirling palettes of fluorescent purple and neon green.3All of these reports fall within the expected range of visible color spectrum, with the dark-adapted eye finding more sensitivity in the shorter-wavelength, higher-frequency, violet to green ranges (Fig. 3).
There is speculation that some aspects of psychedelic hallucination are the result of tuning the brain to receive radiation at a wider range than normal; bands associated with electromagnetic, metaphysical, morphogenetic, Akashic, or geomagnetic fields. The spectral argument posits that the human brain is like a radio receiver for consciousness, and psychedelics allow the user to tune the brain to new perceptual frequencies, possibly quantum or higher dimensional in nature. This metaphor may make intuitive sense, but no research exists to confirm any spectral advantage to psychedelics other than increased photosensitivity and some visual acuity at low doses.4,5,6 Subjective reports indicate that psychedelics may increase auditory or synesthetic sensitivity to background electromagnetic noise, and the perception of energy fields or auras emanating from living organisms is reported often enough to warrant further scientific scrutiny, but these claims have not been tested rigorously enough to be conclusive.7
Visual Frame Aliasing
Figure 4 : Comparison of EEG bands over one second of activity. Gamma (30-100Hz), Beta (12-30Hz), Alpha (8-12Hz), Theta (4-7Hz), and Delta (0-4Hz).
Seamless perception relies on rapid frame updating to render external changes in real time. Humans can render changes in reality at roughly 13-15 frames per second (fps, or Hz), which means that our perception of reality fully refreshes itself roughly once every 77 milliseconds (ms). Human frame perception is exploited by animation and film, which updates at 24 fps, and television, which updates near 30 fps. Computer monitors and high-definition televisions refresh at 60 Hz or higher, and at this rate human perception of motion is entirely seamless.8 The rate of human frame perception corresponds roughly to the alert Beta range of waking human consciousness (12-30 Hz) seen in EEG readings (Fig. 4).9 Any event which happens faster than 1/60th of a second (16.6 ms) falls between perceptual frames and is considered to be subliminal or imperceptible to human consciousness.10Seamless frame rendering is also called temporal aliasing, and can be subverted by a variety of common phenomena, incl. stroboscopic lights which break motions into jerky snapshots, and wagon-wheel illusions where rotating spokes appear to stop or spin backwards.11,12,13
Figure 5 : Video feedback stacked as few as 8 to 16 frames deep is isomorphic of fractal recursion, visual echo, and nonlinear frame destabilization associated with psychedelic hallucination. Click for video.
In addition to retaining visual information, perceptual frames hold the totality of multi-modal sensory rendering. Smooth frame aliasing preserves semantic state info from one moment to the next, and retains fidelity of the limited information we keep active in our working memory. There is evidence that the brain can track multiple object layers for each frame;14 possibly corresponding to the number of distinct items we can normally hold in working memory, which is about seven.15
Frame rendering is a distributed cortical task modulated by the aminergic system. High aminergic modulation of the frontal lobe is a good indicator of external frame alertness. Any drug which interrupts the precise timing of the aminergic modulatory system will also disrupt the seamless nature of temporal frame aliasing in the same way that a strobe light disrupts the motion of a spinning wheel. Temporal aliasing hallucinations include frame stacking, frame delay, frame freezing, frame reverse, frame echo, and infinite frame regression; all of which are considered to be uniquely psychedelic (Fig. 5).16 The sensation of hallucinogenic frame stacking indicates that psychedelics may create a temporary frame decay buffer that allows for simultaneous multi-frame analysis and increased complexity of visual comprehension. Subverting or enhancing the functional limits of visual frame aliasing may be an indication of expanded consciousness.
Visual Frame Resolution
Human visual resolution is limited by a number of factors. The first limitation is the density and distribution of retina in the eye; 130 million photoreceptors feeding into 1.2 million optic projections, with a spatial compression ratio of roughly 100 to 1. Photoreceptors in the eye are distributed in rings with color-sensitive cones clustering towards the center and contrast-sensitive rods filling the periphery.17 Despite the large number of photoreceptors the actual field of vision is incomplete. Including the blind spot where the retina attaches to the optic nerve, as much as 20% of peripheral vision contains gaps that must be filled with progressive rendering. Incoming rings of visual data are then smoothed into completed lines and shades in the visual cortex; the image is then passed forward in two divergent projections for spatial and object analysis; and finally the finished image reaches multi-modal convergence in the PFC.18,19 This is a fair bit of signal juggling for a seamless process to handle at 15 frames per second.
Figure 6 : The peripheral drift illusion (PDI) is easily seen when the figure is in the periphery. Research suggests the illusion is based on temporal differences in luminance processing producing a signal that tricks the peripheral motion system.
Even though human vision employs elaborate compression and reconstruction techniques, the human eye can detect visual detail at resolutions into the micrometer range. From a meter’s distance the human eye cannot detect detail under 100 micrometers in length, making print resolutions of 300 dots-per-inch (DPI) entirely seamless. Some estimates put the detail of human visual resolution at 14 million pixels per the entire visual field; others limit vision by bandwidth of nearly 9000 kilobits per second; or by the 3D topographical field-rendering limit of 10 billion triangles per second, or 760 million triangles per frame.8 Human detail resolution is only reliable near the center of vision; many optical illusions exploit perceptual filling functions of the periphery (Fig. 6).20,21,22 Given the mechanical shortcomings of peripheral rendering, these estimates should be taken as visual saturation points as opposed to functional capacities.
The rendering of visual information may be the most complex and energy-intensive task of the human brain. Seamless visual perception requires precise neural firing. When perception destabilizes the visual field falls apart; the most commonly reported form of visual destabilization is diplopia or double-vision. Since visual rendering is so rich and complex it is potentially the easiest part of the brain to destabilize and the most ripe for exploitation. In other words, visual rendering is so elaborate it can be easily fooled by hallucination and illusion.
Dreaming, Imagination, Psychosis, Hallucination
While the information resolution of imagination and dreams is difficult to measure, it is widely agreed that dream perception is somewhat less resolved in detail than waking perception. Dreams are often incomplete; contextual state data is not retained from frame to frame; and thus the durability of dream data falls apart under close scrutiny. Sometimes dreams can be vivid to the point of being indistinguishable from reality, containing people and places and narratives that retain state information over many different sequences, but more often dreams are fleeting and half remembered, and last for only a few seconds before fading.
Visual rendering of human thought is more durable than dreams but generally of very low detail. Humans can imagine objects, people, and places in their minds, but human memory and imagination are not typically photorealistic. Human memory is more semantic than eidetic, meaning that waking thoughts are mostly verbal, emotional, and only minimally visual. Most humans can imagine basic shapes, silhouettes, and sensual concepts; a smaller percentage can imagine topographical maps and rotate 3D objects in their mind. Visualizing a simple object like a cube or a pyramid is a cognitive task that requires full concentration; and even at peak visualization the internalized form rarely rises beyond a blurry silhouette. The exception to this limitation is dreaming or daydreaming, when eidetic or photographic snapshots bubble up into consciousness almost fully-formed. The emergence of dreamlike eidetic information into waking consciousness is usually a spontaneous reflex; few people have full control over photorealistic rendering of imagination and memory.23,24
Having fully-formed visions spontaneously erupting into consciousness is sometimes called overactive imagination, daydreaming, vivid memory recall, eidetic memory, photographic memory, emergent ideation, hallucination, or psychosis. Each of these modes of internal visualization is characterized by a different intensity and duration of imaginary detail; the more intense and durable the phantom detail the less it looks like imagination and the more it begins to look like psychosis. Mediating hard transitions between external alertness and internal visualization is a baseline for perceptual stability; confusing the two would be problematic. The function of internal visualization is activated by the medial temporal lobe and modulated by neurotransmitter acetylcholine; psychedelics presumably activate this function spontaneously by interrupting aminergic alertness of the forebrain.25 If psychedelic hallucinations capitalize on the brain’s capacity to produce vivid dreamlike images, we would expect the detail of a psychedelic frame to match the information profile of a dream frame; low information resolution, softer attack, elongated decay and sustain, low formal durability from frame to frame. This means that state information such as identity, purpose, and context would also elongate and transition quickly from frame to frame.
If the quality of a hallucinogenic frame matches the formal quality of a dream frame, one could expect psychedelic visions to be of lower resolution than normal vision; but subjective reports indicate that multiple layers of dreaming and waking consciousness can overlap in a single psychedelic frame, creating a complex overlay of both real and imagined perceptions. Being unable to separate imagination from reality is the clinical definition of psychosis, but it also implies an increase in potential frame information density; which implies an expanded state of consciousness.
The Limits of Expanded Consciousness
Figure 7 : Fractals generated by computer programs and nature are isoforms of nonlinear psychedelic hallucinations.
If the human imagination is infinite, and if psychedelics can expand the capacity of human imagination, then psychedelics can paradoxically make the infinite even more infinite. This makes sense if you accept that infinity is a linear concept which starts at zero and goes in one direction forever; but if infinity is bent into a series of repeating loops and spirals then it begins to look more like a fractal than a line, and thus more psychedelic (Fig. 7). Human perception is linear, but humans live in a nonlinear system. Psychedelics destabilize linear perceptions of space and time to produce fractal states of frame layering, bifurcation, and infinite frame recursion. This allows perception to exist in multiple states at once, much like a quantum computer that processes multiple simultaneous probabilities. If normal human imagination is bound within the limits of linear infinity, psychedelic perception is expanded to the limits of exponential or fractal infinity. Psychedelic perception presents a progressive nonlinear bifurcation of recursive self-similar information corresponding to both internal and external perceptual space. The psychedelic layering, bifurcating, and regression of internal and external perceptions creates a timeless, transpersonal perspective of what might be called a nonlinear, fractal, or holographic rendering of time and space.26
Figure 8 : Mandalas and calendars representing universal harmony and knowledge. Top row: a Kalachakra time-wheel mandala; and a Mayan calendar. Bottom row: a mandala of the enlightened Buddha; and a mandala of the Wheel of Life (Bhavacakra, or samsara).
The perception of seeing all time and space unfolding in a single moment is a theme that has been reproduced in Eastern mandalas and Mesoamerican calendars for thousands of years, where a central figure sits in the center of concentric interlocking rings of reality (Fig. 8). In Sanskrit this great wheel of time is called Kalachakra (time wheel), and Kalachakra yoga emphasizes the interlocking self-similarity of body cycles and celestial cycles.27 The description of Kalachakra overlaps with Mesoamerican cyclical calendars and spiritual themes, expressed by Maria Sabina, the Oaxacan healer who first shared the magic mushroom known as Teonanacatl with R. Gordon Wasson. Sabina said, “The more you go inside the world of Teonanacatl… you see our past and our future, which are there together as a thing already achieved, already happened… I knew and saw God: an immense clock that ticks, the spheres that go slowly around, and inside the stars, the earth, the entire universe, the day, the night… He who knows to the end the secret of Teonanacatl can even see that infinite clockwork.”28 This is undoubtedly a reference to Kalachakra, the great wheel of time.
Witnessing the timeless infinity of Kalachakra can be compared to Western models of Hermeticism (“As Above, So Below”) where the pinnacle of mystical achievement is channeling the infinite wisdom of the universal spirit;29 or early Deist notions of a God as a great Clockmaker who set the universe in motion and let it run without intervention.30 According to Maria Sabina’s report, the subjective experience of the infinite clockwork is an end secret of psychedelic vision; this is where you arrive if you follow the process of fractal information regression to the beginning and end of all time. The thought of experiencing Kalachakra as expressed by Maria Sabina stretches the boundaries of believability, but the subjective reports of a timeless, infinite psychedelic space where the size of the universe is revealed and everything in the past and the future has already occurred is common enough to conclude that this experience is not only possible, but that it might also be the final end-point of expanded human consciousness. 31
evidence for the apparent existence of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1) & Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the second kind (ITE-2) or bright ITE
American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-53 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajmp doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20160503.14 ISSN: 2326-8867 (Print); ISSN: 2326-8891 (Online) Apparent Detection via New Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities
(ITE) Ruggero Maria Santilli Thunder Energies Corporation, Florida, U. S. A. Email address: email@example.com To cite this article: Ruggero Maria Santilli.
Apparent Detection via New T elescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE). American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 45-53. doi: 10.11648/j.aj mp.20160503.14 Received: December 24, 2015; Accepted: December 25, 2015; Published: June 8, 2016
Abstract: By using telescopes with concave lenses, known as Santilli telescopes (trademark and patent pending by the U.S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation), we review preceding evidence for the apparent existence of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cosmic rays.
Independently from these astrophysical detections, we present for the first time evidence for the apparent existence of entities in our terrestrial environment that are solely visible via telescopes with concave lenses, while being invisible to our eyes and to conventional Galileo telescopes with convex lenses, which entities leave dark images in the background of digital cameras attached to the santilli telescopes.
These entities are here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1) or dark ITE.
We then present, also for the first time, evidence for the apparent existence in our terrestrial environment of additional entities that are also visible to telescopes with concave lenses while being invisible to our eyes and to conventional telescopes with convex lenses, which entities leave bright images in the background of digital cameras.
These additional entities are here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the second kind (ITE-2) or bright ITE .
It is pointed out that both types of entities generally move in the night sky over sensitive areas, and their behavior generally suggests unauthorized surveillance.
This paper has been motivated by the significance and diversification of the collected evidence, as well as available independent confirmations, that warrant systematic inspections of the sky over our sensitive civilian, industrial, and military installations via telescopes with concave lenses, so as t o detect possible unauthorized surveillance. Keywords: Antimatter, Santilli Telescope, Invisible Terrestrial Entities 1.
As it is well established in particle physics laboratories, matter and antimatter particles “annihilate” at mutual contact by transforming their masses into light. One of the necessary conditions for a consistent, quantitative representation of this experimental evidence is that all characteristics of antimatter must be opposite to those of matter. It as also been established that the use of 20th century mathematics for the representation of both, matter and antimatter, leads to predictable catastrophic inconsistencies. Therefore, a consistent, quantitative representation of matter-antimatter annihilation requires the continued use of conventional mathematics for the representation of matter, while antimatter must be represented with a basically new mathematics characterized by a suitable conjugation of 20th century mathematics known as the isodual map (technically given by an anti-Hermitean map). In summer 1993, while visiting the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, the author initiated the construction of the new mathematics needed for anti matter, with the proposal of new numbers, today known as isodual numbers , whose basic unit has the negative value -1, thus assuring that all quantities measured with the new numbers are opposite those of matter . By noting that the possible existence of antimatter galaxies must be studied at the macroscopic, and therefore classical level, thus preventing the use of quantum mechanics , and that galaxies must be assumed as being neutral, thus preventing the use of the charge for the conjugation from matter to antimatter, in the following paper  (also written in Dubna), the author presented the first, and, apparently, the only known classical representation of neutral antimatter based on the new isodual numbers and ensuing new mathematics. 46 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) In summer 1995, while conducting research at the Institute for Basic Research at the Castle Prince Pignatelli in Italy, the author conducted systematic studies on the novel isodual mathematics via a step-by-step isodual image of 20th century mathematics, thus including the isodual image of functional analysis, differential calculus, algebras, geometries, etc. . In spring 1996, the author presented at the First International Workshop on Anti-matter in Sepino, Italy, the prediction of isodual mathematics that light emitted by antimatter-stars, here called “antimatter-light,” i s different than our ordinary matter-light in an experimentally verifiable way . The above prediction was based on the fact that ordinary light has no charge. Therefore, the only known consistent way to conjugate light from matter to antimatter is the map under isoduality of all other physical characteristics of light. This lead to the prediction that antimatter light has negative energy , by therefore confirming the original 1928 conception of antimatter by P. A. M. Dirac as having negative energy, this time, with the resolution of its historical in consistencies permitted by the novel isodual mathematics. A systematic study of the ensuing isodual theory of antimatter was presented in monograph  in 2006, including the isoduality of Newtonian mechanics, Ga lileo relativity, Einstein special and general relativity , and quantum mechanics, with the first known classical representation of the gravitational field of antimatter bodies. In particular, Ref.  presented the proof that the isodual theory of antimatter verifies all known experimental data on antimatter at both the classical and particle level s. At the classical level, experimental data are verified by the interplay between the conventional Newton’s equation for particle and their isodual for antiparticles, while at the particle level experimental data on antimatter are verified because the isodual map is equivalent to charge conjugation. In Ref. , the author also presented the prediction at all levels of study, including the isodual Newtonian mechanics, isodual special and general relativity and isodual quantum mechanics, that matter and antimatter experience gravitational repulsion , thus including the prediction that antimatter-light is repelled by a matter gravitational field (Figure 1). Figure 1. A necessary condition for a consistent, quantitative representation of matter-antimatter annihilation into light at con tact is that “all” characteristics of antimatter are opposite those of matter. This basic requirement implies the prediction that light emitt ed by antimatter, viz., antimatter-light, is repelled by a matter gravitational field, and the consequential prediction that, when propagation wit hin a matter-medium such as water, antimatter-light has a “negative” in dex of refraction opposite to the conventional “positive” index of refraction of matter-light. In 2012, the author presented at the International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics held in Kos, Greece, the prediction of the isodual theory of antimatter according to which, when traversing a transparent matter-medium, antimatter-light has a “negative” index of refraction (in the sense of being opposite to the conventional “positive” index of refraction of matter-light), thus requiring “concave” lenses for the focusing of it. Figure 2. The first view depicts the structure of all existing, refractive, Galileo telescopes whose primary lens must be “convex” due to the positive index of refraction of matter-light. The second vie w depicts the structure of the novel, refractive, Santilli telescopes whose primary lens must be “concave” under the prediction that antimatter-light has a negative index of refraction (See Figure 1). The main principle of detection of the Galileo and Santilli telescopes is the following. In the Galileo telescope, all antimatter- light is dispersed by the convex lens into the internal walls of the telescope, thus permitting images of matter-light to be focused in a camera without significant interferences by antimatter-light. By contrast, ordinary matter- light is dispersed by the convex lens of the Santilli telescope, thus permitting images of antimatter-light to be focused in a camera without major interferences from matter-light. The images shown in Figures 1 and 2 are referenced in . Subsequently, the author constructed the first know n telescopes with concave lenses , today known as Santilli telescopes (trademark and patent pending by the U. S. American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 47 publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation , http://www.thunder-energies.con). Since no conventional im age can be seen with concave lenses, Santilli telescope s were paired to conventional, refractive Galileo telescopes of the same size, with curvature of the primary lenses and focal distance conjugated into negative values (Figures 2 and 3). Experimental paper  of 2014 presented the first known evidence of the apparent existence in our universe of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cos- mic rays via the use of a pair of 100 mm Galileo an d Santilli telescopes with attached digital camera Cannon 600D used at ISO 1600 under a 15 seconds exposure. These first detections were independently confirmed in Refs. [8, 9]. The detections consist of black streaks over a conventional background of a digital camera attached to the Santilli telescope, which black streaks are absent in the Galileo Figure 3. A view of the 50 mm, 70 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm pairs of Galileo and Santilli telescopes used for the detections presented in this paper, that are under production and subsequent sal e by the U. S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation (www.thunder- energies.com). Santilli telescopes cannot be effici ently used alone because the human eye has a convex cornea, thus being unabl e to focus images of antimatter-light. The efficient use Santilli telesc opes is that of pairing them with optically aligned, Galileo telescopes of the s ame size with exactly the same, yet opposite curvatures of the primary lenses and focal distances (Fig. 2). The Galileo telescope is then used for focusing images of matter-light. The related settings are then transferred to the Sa ntilli telescope. Images in the Santilli telescope are considered for analysis if and only if they do not appear in the Galileo telescope, are not caused by impurities in the lens and verify other conditions. Note that the pairs of telescopes depicted in this figure are equipped with two identical cameras, one per telescope, however, detections selected for publication are generally achieved via one single camera, first used in the Galileo telescope to verify focusing, and then transferred to the Santilli telescope. The very focusing of images via a telescope with concave lenses constitutes direct experimental evidence for the existence in nature of light with a negative index of refraction, while the black character of the streaks constitute s direct experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis of Ref. according to which antimatter-light carries negative energy. In turn, both these features are considered as experimental evidence for the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter due to its need to achieve a negative index of refraction. A number of independent studies exist on isodual mathematics and on the isodual theory of antimatter among which we quote: Ref.  on the need to conduct sy stematic studies on the still unknown means to detect antimatter asteroids prior to their impact on Earth that have occurred in the past without advance detection; Ref.  on quantitative calculation of the trajectories and speed under whi ch antimatter asteroids can hit Earth despite the indicated gravitational repulsion from Earth; and Ref.  providing, a list of all known contributions in the field published in refereed journals as of early 2015, including the l ink to numerous PRWeb Releases on the ongoing search for antimatter galaxies in the universe. In a language accessible to the general audience, thus without any equation, in this paper we present for the first time the detection of entities existing in our terrestrial envi-ronment here defined as including our atmosphere, terrestri and lunar orbits and under the sea, which entities are not visible by our naked eye or via existing optical me ans, yet they are fully detected in cameras attached to the novel telescopes with concave lenses. To prevent a prohibitive length as well as unnecessary repetitions, a knowledge of papers [7-9] is essential for the understanding of this paper. 2. Detection of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the First and Second Kind (ITE-1 and ITE-2) On September 5, 2015, at 9.30 pm the author aimed a pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes at the ni ght sky over Tampa Bay, Florida, as seen from the NE orient ation of the terrace of room 775 of the Vinoy Renaissance Ho tel in St. Petersburg. Both telescopes were equipped with a So ny camera model SLT-A58K set at ISO automatic and 15 seconds exposure, the two cameras being activated j ointly by remote shutters. The tests were merely intended for the search of an timatter galaxies and, consequently, the paired telescopes w ere aimed at the sky, but sudden clouds halted the tests and the author oriented the pair of telescopes horizontally over T ampa Bay. To his great surprise, unidentified yet clearly vis ible entities immediately appeared in the screen of the camera attached to the Santilli telescope, without any enl argement, without the same entities being visible to the nake d eyes, and without any corresponding image existing in the scr een of the camera attached to the Galileo telescope. This unexpected discovery triggered a novel systema tic use of the pair of Galileo and Santilli telescopes, this time, for the search of entities, here called Invisible Terrestrial En- tities , that are invisible to our eyes as well as to our op tical instruments with convex lenses, but are otherwise f ully visible via the Santilli telescope with concave len ses, and are located in our terrestrial environment , as defined in Section 1. Following systematic tests, the author has detected the existence of at least two different types of ITE, with the acknowledgement that additional types may be identi fied in the future. Thanks to independent confirmations on the existence of ITE, such as that by K. Brinkman  and others, the author first presented the discovery of ITE on 48 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) September 25, 2015, at an invited lecture delivered to the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club . In Figures 4, 5, and 6, we report representative ex amples of rather numerous detections of Invisible Terrestr ial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1), here defined as entities that: 1) are not visible to the human eye or to conventional optical instruments with convex lenses, but are otherwise fully visible via Santilli telescopes wit h concave lenses; 2) exist in our terrestrial environment as defined in Section 1, rather than in deep astro-physical spaces; and 3) leave “ dark images ” in the background of digital cameras attached to Santilli telescopes. In Figures 7 to 11, the author presents representat ive examples of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the s econd kind (ITE-2), here defined as entities that: 1) are not visible to the human eye or to conventional optical instruments wish convex lenses, but are otherwise fully visible via Santilli telescopes wit h concave lenses; 2) exist in our terrestrial environment as defined in Section 1, rather than in deep astro-physical spaces; and 3) leave “ bright images ” in the background of digital cameras attached to Santilli telescopes. A first significant aspect of the detections presen ted in Figures 4 to 11 is that they establish beyond “cred ible doubt” the capability of telescopes with concave lenses to focus images visible in the background of a digital camer a attached to Santilli telescopes. These images are at times, visible without enlargement, thus establishing the utilitie s of telescopes with concave lenses. A second salient aspect is that the focusing of ima ges via concave lenses is solely possible for light having a negative index of refraction in the sense of being opposite that of ordinary light (Section 1). A third salient aspect is that the emission of anti matter- light does not mean that the entity is made up of antimatter, because the existence of the entities within our at mosphere would imply a cataclysmic explosion due to matter- antimatter annihilation. Yet another salient aspect is that the emission of antimatter-light could well be evidence that their propulsion system is based on the extraction of antimatter fro m space intended as a universal substratum of the entire un iverse with an extremely high energy density (also known as zer o point energy) . In short, it appears that ITE-1 consist of matter-e ntities in our terrestrial environment achieving locomotion vi a the acquisition of antimatter in their interior with co nsequential use of matter-antimatter propulsion, and achieve in visibility via the emission of antimatter-light as a sort of e xhaust. A Post Ph.D. mathematical study of the new type of lo comotion via the use of the new isodual Minkowskian geometry for antimatter is available in monograph . A third salient aspect is that the creation of “dar k images” in the background of digital cameras for ITE-1 (Fig ures 4-6) establishes that the light originating from the ima ge has negative energy , since only a negative energy can annul the conventional positive energy existing in the pixels of the cameras. Consequently, the dark images of ITE-1 are caused by a type of light either equivalent or identical t o antimatter- light as presented in the preceding section. By contrast, ITE-2 (Figures 7 to 11) appear to be s tructures composed of matter which ordinary light (because of their bright character), yet possessing means to achieve in- visibility via the conversion of their index of ref raction from a positive to a negative value. It should be indicated that ITE-1 appear to be loca ted mostly in the areas of terrestrial or lunar orbits. By contrast, ITE-2 are generally located directly over sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations, and appear t o behave in a way strongly suggesting their unauthorized surveill ance. Figure 4. A view of an Invisible Terrestrial Entity of the f irst kind (ITE-1) detected in two different photos on September 5, 20 15, in the evening sky over Tampa Bay. Florida, via the pair of 100 mm Gal ileo and Santilli telescopes with Sony Camera SLT-A58K set at ISO aut omatic and 15 seconds exposure. The entity is classified as an IS E-1 because it is solely detected via the Santilli telescope (thus emitting light with negative index of refraction), and it leaves a black image in the bac kground of the digital camera (thus emitting light with negative energy). Since we are dealing with two different photos each taken with 15 seconds exp osure, the entity moves at a relative small speed. Note the ridges of ordin ary light surrounding the entity, which can only be explained quantitatively via the gravitational repulsion of ordinary light by the entity because, in the absence of such repulsion, ordinary light should merely experience diffraction. Note additionally that the entity “cannot” be composed o f antimatter because, being within our atmosphere, it would annihilate wi th a cataclysmic explosion. Therefore, the entity is predicted to be made up of ordinary matter, although emitting antimatter light. These c onditions support the hypothesis of locomotion based on the e xtraction American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 49 of negative energy from space conceived as a univer sal substratum (also known as negative point energy). A ccording to this interpretation, the entity achieves invisib ility to our eyes as well as to all conventional refractive tele scopes by merely emitting antimatter-light as a kind of “exha ust” from its locomotion . Figure 5. Views of another ITE-1 taken in three consecutive pictures by the digital camera of the Santilli telescope on Septemb er 5, 2015 in the night sky over Tampa Bay, Florida. Note that the entity not o nly moves slowly from photo to photo, but also rotates. This particular t ype of motion excludes impurities in the telescope lens or in the camera a s possible interpretations. Figure 6. Views of an ITE-1 independently taken by K. Brinkm an from the night sky of St. Petersburg, Florida, on September 20, 2015 via the use of the pair of 150 Galileo and Santilli telescopes, under a series of three burst (rapid) shots . The entity is clearly an ITE-1 because it was in our terrestrial environment, it was only visible in the Santilli telescope, and it produced a dark image on the background of the digi tal camera. Note that this entity too, not only moves with respect to an image caused by an impurity in the telescope lens, but also rotates (s ee the original report  for more pictures and details). 3. Concluding Remarks In works [1-7], the author presented evidence on th e apparent existence of antimatter galaxies, antimatt er asteroids, and antimatter cosmic rays obtained via dark images in the background of a digital camera attached to a telesc ope with convex lenses, known as the Santilli telescope . The same astrophysical entities are completely invi sible to our naked eyes as well as to conventional Galileo t elescopes with convex lenses because matter-antimatter annihilation mandates that all characteristics of antimatter mus t be opposite those of matter. Consequently, light emitt ed by antimatter has an index of refraction opposite that of matter, thus requiring a concave lens for its focusing, and carries 50 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) negative energy as predicted in 1928 by P. A. M. Di rac, thus explaining the dark character of the images. Figure 7. A view in the top of an Invisible Terrestrial Enti ty of the second kind (ITE-2) taken on September 5, 2015, in the nig ht sky of the Tampa Bay, Florida, from room 775 of the Vinoy Hotel in St. Pe tersburg at 9.15 pm via the 100 mm Santilli telescope. We have an ITE-2 bec ause the entity is in our terrestrial environment; it is only visible in the Santilli telescope and it produces a bright image in the digital background, as established by the fact that ordinary light remains visible under strong co ntrast (bottom view) These data imply that the entity produces light wit h a negative index of refraction, but with positive energy, thus constitu ting discovery of a basically new form of light here presented apparent ly for the first time. In the author’s opinion, ITE-2 are indications of stru ctures composed by ordinary matter which emit ordinary light, but achi eve invisibility to the human eye as well as to conventional refractive tel escopes via the inversion of its index of refraction. This paper has been mot ivated by the need for our monitoring the possible presence of ITE-1 and/or IT E-2 over sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations sin ce they could be conducting unauthorized surveillance. 11 The historical inconsistencies of negative energies have been resolved for antimatter by the underlying new mathematics specifically constructed for antimatter , known as isodual mathematics , with ensuing, novel, isodual theory of antimatter [1-5]. The above results have been confirmed by a number o f independent contributions, such as those of Refs. [ 8-11]. Ref.  provides a comprehensive list of scientific pa pers published in refereed journals and links to PRWeb R eleases in antimatter up to early 2015. Figure 8. Another ITE-2 (top view) detected under the same c onditions as those of the preceding figure. The entity was also invisible to the naked eyes and to the Galileo telescope but fully detected via the Santilli telescope in the night sky of the Tampa Bay. Again, the entity w as releasing light with negative index of refraction, yet carrying positive energy as established by the bright residue following maximal contrast (bott om view). Note that this particular ITE-2 moves and, most importantly, cause s rings of ordinary light in its surroundings, which can only be quantitative ly explained via a gravitational repulsion of ordinary light by this p articular entity. On technical grounds, we should recall that the conven tional (positive) index of refraction, and the consequential reduction of the speed of light within transparent media, are due to the attraction of lig ht by matter via complex electromagnetic interactions at atomic distances. T he negative index of refraction of antimatter-light when passing through a matter-medium such as water, is then expected to be due to the repulsi on of antimatter-light by matter. Note finally that the reversal of the index of refraction implies that antimatter light travels in ordinary water at speed s faster than that of light in vacuum . American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 51 Figure 9. Photos of a cloudy night sky over Tampa Bay, Flori da, taken from the third floor of the valet parking garage of the Westin Hotel on September 19, 2015, at 10.20 pm via two Sony cameras SLT-A58K set at ISO Automatic and 15 seconds exposure, attached at the proper foc al distance to the pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes. All photos were taken with simultaneous remote shutters. The photos were taken in the presence of the author, his wife Carla Santilli, and an independent witness. The first photo depicts the lights of the Gandy Bridge in the Tampa Bay as seen from the 100 mm Galileo telescope without any enlargement. T he second photo clearly depicts a bright ITE-2 taken with the 100 m m Santilli telescope also without any enlargement, which entity was completel y invisible in the Galileo telescope as well as to the eyes of the thr ee eyewitnesses. The third picture compares the first photo (top) to the secon d (below). In comparing the two photos, one should note: 1) The illuminatio n of the clouds in the first photo, and the absence of such an illumination in t he second photo; 2) The lights viewed with the Galileo telescope are statio nery (except for small fluctuations due to wind), while the lights viewed via the Santilli telescope are pulsating; and 3) Close inspection of the view from the Santilli telescope shows that we are dealing with one single light tha t, not only pulsates, but moves backward and forward with respect to the tele scope in a horizontal plane. This peculiar behavior clearly suggests that this ISE-2 was conducting unauthorized surveillance of the Tampa A rea solely visible with the Santilli telescope, thus confirming the need fo r systematic views of sensitive civilian, industrial and military install ations. Figure 10. We present here a photo taken on a cloudy night sk y of Tampa, Florida, taken from room 775 of the Vinoy Renaissan ce Hotel, St. Petersburg, on September 5, 2015, at 9:15 pm via tw o Sony cameras SLT- A58K set at ISO Automatic and 15 seconds exposure a nd connected at the proper focal distance to the pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes. All photos were also taken with simultaneous remote shutters. No view from the Galileo telescope is here reported due to lack of any meaningful image. The top view depicts a very unusual and bright ITE- 2 as seen from the Santilli telescope without any enlargement. The rem aining views depict the same photo under progressively increasing enlargeme nts. A first striking aspect is that this particular entity was not seen at all by the author with his naked eyes despite its size and brilliance. A secon d striking aspect is the complexity of the entity that, due to the 15 second s exposure, show some clear ongoing operation. The most striking aspect i n the view of the author (a theoretical physicist) is the sharpness of the l ight at its edges, as shown by the last view, since such a feature is against know n physical laws requiring light to experience diffraction at its edges with a short yet progressive decrease from full brightness to full darkness. Clo se inspection of the photo indicates that the entity is in the process of rele asing “seven” smaller equally bright ITE also of the second kind, that ar e reminiscent of the bright ITE-2 of the preceding figure. The unusual features of this particular ITE-2 confirm the need to conduct a systematic surveillan ce of our sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations, wh ich mandated the writing and release of this paper. 52 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) Figure 11. In the top view of this figure we present an enlar gement of a second ITE-2 depicted in the top right of the main photo of Figure 10, while the remaining views show progressively increasing e nlargements. As one can see, the entity consists of “three” lights of d ifferent colors that are pulsating and move synchronously in the cloudy nigh t sky over the Tampa Bay, according to a rather complex trajectory durin g the 15 seconds exposure, including a point in which motion apparen tly stopped for a few seconds, to resume thereafter. The synchronous moti on of the three separate trajectories strongly suggest that this particular entity consists of one single structure made up of matter that achieves invisibil ity to the human eyes and to our optical instruments via the creation of a ba sically new light with negative index of refraction but positive energy pr esented in this paper apparently for the first time. In the author’s opin ion, such a behavior suggests again the conduction of unauthorized surve illance of Tampa Bay that motivated the author to write and release this paper. Via the use of pairs of Galileo and Santilli telesc opes, in this paper we have presented for the first time exp erimental evidence on the apparent existence of two types of entities existing in our terrestrial environment (as defined in Section 1), here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first and second kind (ITE 1 and ITE-2), that are also completely invisible to the naked eyes as well as to Galileo t elescopes, yet they are fully visible via Santilli telescopes. Consequently, both ITE-1 and ITE-2 have a negative index of refraction when propagating in a matter medium s uch as glass. Their main difference is that the former ent ities, also called dark ITE , carry negative energy, thus causing dark images in the background of a camera attached to Sa ntilli telescopes, while latter entities, also called bright ITE , carry positive energy, thus causing bright images despite their negative index of refraction. The detection of ITE-1 and ITE-2 has been independe ntly verified by colleagues , and was disclosed for the first time at an invited lecture delivered at the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club on September 25, 2015 . We point out that ITE-1 and ITE-2 must be made up o f matter to prevent a cataclysmic explosion due to th eir immersion in our matter-atmosphere, but their locom otion appears to be based on the internal presence of ant imatter and the use of matter-antimatter repulsion, according t o a structure studied at the mathematical level in mono graph . The above and other aspects imply that ITE-1 and IT E-2 are structures dramatically beyond 20th century kno wledge for a number of reasons, such as the complete inapp licability of 20th century knowledge to the classical treatmen t of neutral antimatter, the change of the index of refr action, the apparent new typo of locomotion, and other reasons . We also point out that the above terrestrial entiti es achieve invisibility to our eyes and to Galileo telescopes either via the emission of antimatter light as a form of exhaust ( ITE-1), or via engineering means capable of inverting the inde x of refraction of ordinary light (ITE-2). The writing of this paper has been motivated by the fact that ITE-1 and ITE-2 behave in a manner strongly su ggesting the conduction of unauthorized surveillance of our sensitive, civilian, industrial and military installations, th us warranting their societal knowledge. On scientific grounds , the documentation presented in this paper establishes beyond credible doubt the existen ce of two new types of light that are totally outside any pos sibility of treatment via 20th century physical knowledge, but are fully treatable via the new methods [1-15] specifically d eveloped to treat neutral or charged antimatter at the class ical as well as particle levels. On industrial grounds , the findings presented in this paper establish, also beyond credible doubt, the utility of Santilli telescopes, not only for basically novel astrophysi cal advances, but also for issues pertaining to persona l, industrial and national security. The author would like to stress that, being a scien tist, his duty is only that of reporting the documentation on the existence of ITE-1 and ITE-2, with the understanding that their identification , or lack thereof, belongs to the U.S. Government. The original photos presented in this paper shall b e made available to qualified colleagues for supervised in spection. More importantly, pairs of Galileo and Santilli tel escopes are in production and subsequent sale in various sizes (Figure 3) American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 53 at the U. S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation (www.thunder-energies.con), and they can be made available at no cost for supervised verificati ons anywhere in the U. S. A. References  R. M. Santilli, “Isonumbers and Genonumbers of Dimen sions 1, 2, 4, 8, their Isoduals and Pseudoduals, and; Hi dden Numbers; of Dimension 3, 5, 6, 7,” Algebras, Groups and Geometries Vol. 10, 273 (1993), http://www.santilli – foundation.org/docs/Santilli-34.pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Representation of antiparticles via isodual numbers, spaces and geometries,” Comm. Theor. Phys. vol. 3, 1994, pp. 153-181, http://www.santillifoundation.org/docs/Santilli-112 .pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Nonlocal-Integral Isotopies of Diff erential Calculus, Mechanics and Geometries,” in Isotopies of Contemporary Mathematical Structures,” P. Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (19 96), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-37 .pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Does antimatter emit a new light?” Invited paper for the proceedings of the International Confe rence on Antimatter, held in Sepino, Italy, on May 1996, Hyp erfine Interactions vol. 109, 1997, pp. 63-81, http://www. santilli- foundation.org/docs/Santilli-28.pdf  R. M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Ap plications to Antigravity, Grand Unifications and Cosmology, S pringer (2006), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/san tilli-79.pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “The Mystery of Detecting Antimatter Asteroids, Stars and Galaxies,” The American Instit ute of Physics, in press, 2012, http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/antimatter-asteroids.pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Apparent detection of antimatter ga laxies via a telescope with convex lenses,” Clifford Analysis, Cli fford Algebras and their Applications vol. 3, 2014, pages 1-26 (Cambridge,UK),http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/Antimatter-telescope-2013-final .pdf.
CLIFFORD ANALYSIS, CLIFFORD ALGEBRAS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
CACAA – http://www.cliordanalysis.com
Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-26, 2014
c CSP – Cambridge, UK; I&S – Florida, USA, 2014
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER
GALAXIES VIA A REFRACTIVE TELESCOPE
WITH CONCAVE LENSES
Ruggero Maria Santilli 1
1 The Institute for Basic Research 150 Rainville Rd, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689, U.S.A.
? Corresponding Author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. In preceding works, the author has: 1) developed an anti-Hermitean image of the
mathematics used for matter characterized by a map called isoduality and denoted with the
upper symbol d; 2) achieved the isodual classical representation of neutral antimatter via the
conjugation of all physical quantities and their units, thus resolving the inconsistencies of
negative energies; and 3) shown that the the isodual (antimatter) light has negative energy
Ed = E, experiences a negative curvature tensor Rd = R gravitational repulsion) when
in a matter gravitational eld, and possesses a negative index of refraction nd = n when
propagating within a transparent matter medium. In this paper, we show, apparently for the
rst time, that the only possible detection of antimatter light with a negative index of refraction
is that via a telescope with concave lenses; we build the rst known antimatter telescope
verifying these conditions; and report the rst known detection of images apparently focused
by a telescope with concave lenses, which images appears as being of darkness, rather than
light, thus supporting the negative energy of their origination. In the event conrmed, these
unusual images may result in being the rst detection of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids
and antimatter cosmic rays. The main result of this paper is an apparent conrmation
of Dirac’s  original 1928 conception of antiparticles as possessing negative energy because
necessary for consistency with the negative energy of light in the electron-positron annihilation
e+ + e !
d, the consistency of negative energies being apparently assured by
their treatment via the isodual mathematics. The paper ends with the suggestion to test the
gravity of the photons in the electron-positron annihilation and conduct other truly basic
tests on antimatter.
2010 PACS: 03.65.Ta; 14.60.Cd; 29.30.-h
Keywords:antimatter, isodual light, antigravity
2 Ruggero Maria Santilli
1 HISTORICAL NOTES
As it is well known, Newtons mechanics , Galileos relativity  and Einsteins special  and
general  relativities were conceived before the discovery of antimatter and, consequently,
they have no provisions for the classical representation of neutral antimatter since their only
conjugation is the sign of the charge.
In fact, the rigorous prediction of antimatter via the negative energy solutions of wave
equations was done by P. A. M. Dirac  in 1928, and experimentally veried in 1933 by C.
D. Anderson . However, Dirac noted that particles with negative energy violate causality
and other physical laws and was consequently forced to represent antiparticles solely at the
level of second quantization in his celebrated equation.
A number of hypotheses were considered to resolve the causality problem of negative
energy solutions, such as the old hypothesis that antimatter evolves according to a negative
time (moves backward in time) as apparently necessary to represent the annihilation of matter
However, Dirac is reported stating that this hypothesis does not solve the causality problem
of negative energy solutions because the Minkowski line element is quadratic in time,
thus admitting both motions forward and backward in time.
As a result of the inability by the Newtonian, Galilean and Einsteinian theories to provide
a classical representation of neutral antimatter, and Diracs restriction of the treat- ment of
antimatter solely at the level of second quantization, it has been generally believed for about
a century that antimatter does not exist in the large scale structure of the universe, and solely
exists at the particle level when produced in our laboratories.
However, our planet has been devastated in the past by antimatter asteroids, such as the
1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia that had the energy equivalent of one thousand Hiroshima
atomic bombs, yet it left no crater or residue in the ground (that could be explained via an ice
comet), and excited the entire Earth atmosphere for several days (that can only be explained
via the annihilation of an antimatter asteroid in our atmosphere ).
Similarly, astronauts and cosmonauts have routinely detected
ashes of light in the upper
dark side of Earths atmosphere that can be best explained via antimatter cosmic rays
annihilating at the rst contact with our atmosphere . Finally, large
ashes of light in our
upper atmosphere are routinely detected in various parts of our planet (see the websites of
NASA, FERMILAB, CERN and other laboratories).
In summary, there is sucient evidence indicating the possible risk that our planet is hit
again by a large antimatter asteroid, with consequential devastations on the grounds as well
as the disruption of all civilian, industrial and military communications for days due to the
excitation of our atmosphere.
It is evident that the physics community cannot responsibly address these risks without
the conduction of systematic studies on antimatter primarily at the classical level evidently
because antimatter asteroids cannot possibly be treated in second quantization. In turn,
no such a study can be seriously conducted without surpassing Newtonian, Galilean and
Einsteins theories via formulations specically conceived and constructed for the classical
treatment of antimatter as a premise for the subsequent quantization.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 3
2 ISODUAL MATHEMATICS
The author has been interested since his graduate studies at the University of Turin, Italy, in
the mid-960s to ascertain whether a far away galaxy is made up of matter or of antimatter.
He soon learned that Newtonian, Galilean and Einsteinian theories had no value for the
indicated problem since far away galaxies must be assumed to be neutral, in which case said
theories had no distinction whatsoever between matter and antimatter.
For this reason, the author initiated a long journey that rst required the identication
of mathematical means for the consistent classical distinction between neutral matter and
antimatter prior to any possible physical application. In this way, after years of search- ing
for an existing mathematics, the author discovered that a mathematics for the consistent
classical treatment of neutral (or charged) antimatter did not exist and had to be built.
Following the study of a number of alternatives, the author gave priority to the search for
new numbers since all mathematics used in physics must be based on a numeric eld as a
condition for experimental verications. In any case, all aspects of applied mathematics can
be built on a given numeric eld via simple compatibility arguments.
In 1993, the author  nally identied the desired new numbers under the name of of
isodual real, isodual complex and isodual quaternionic numbers, which verify the condition of
being anti- isomorphic to the conventional real, complex and quaternionic numbers, respectively.
The word isodual was suggested to indicate a duality under the preservation of the
conventional abstract axioms of numeric elds.
The crucial condition of anti-isomorphism was achieved via the anti-Hermitean conjugation
called isoduality and indicated with the upper symbols d of all elements of a numeric
eld and all its operations. Given a conventional eld F(n; 1) with elements n, m, : : :,
conventional associative product n m = nm and trivial unit 1, , Santilli isodual elds,
are denoted Fd(nd;d; 1d), and are characterized by a negative basic unit 1d = 1y = 1,
isodual numbers nd = n1d and isodual product
nd d md = nd(1=1d)md = nm1d:
Following the identication of the desired numbers, the author passed to the systematic
construction of the isodual image of all main mathematics used for the study of matter, including
functional analysis, dierential calculus, metric spaces, Lie algebras, symmetries, Euclidean,
Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, etc. These isodual formulations were rst
presented in the mathematical memoir  and rst treated systematically in monographs
. The resulting mathematics is today known as Santilli isodual mathematics. Independent
mathematical reviews and advances can be found in Refs. [12-14].
It may be of some value to indicate that isoduality is a new transformation not reducible to
parity and/or other conventional transformations. We should also recall the new symmetry
identied by the isodual mathematics, called isoselfduality [10,11], namely, the invariance
under the isodual transformation, which is veried by the imaginary number i id as well
as by Dirac’s equation.
Contrary to a possible perceptions of mathematical complexities, the isodual mathe- matics
needed for applications can be constructed via the application of the simple anti- Hermitean
Q ! Qd = Qy
4 Ruggero Maria Santilli
provided it is applied to the totality of quantities and to the totality of their operations used
for the treatment of matter. Readers should be alerted that, in the absence of even one isodual
map, there are inconsistencies that generally remain undetected to non-experts in the eld.
Before appraising the results of this paper, readers are suggested to meditate a moment on
the dierences between conventional and isodual mathematics. As an illustration, a checking
account in the isodual world with $ 1M in the bank is in red because $ 1M is counted with
respect to the basic unit $1d = $1 which is negative. Similar conjugations occur at virtually
all levels of study.
3 ISODUAL THEORY OF ANTIMATTER
After achieving mathematical maturity, the author initiated systematic applications of isodual
mathematics to the study of antimatter at the classical and operator levels as well for neutral
or charged antimatter, resulting in the new theory today called isodual theory of antimatter
as one of the branches of the broader hadronic mechanics (for brevity, see Refs. [22,32]).
A main feature is that all quantities that are positive (negative) for the study of matter
become negative (positive) for the study of antimatter, with the clarication that, for matter,
all positive and negative quantities are referred to positive units of measurements, while for
antimatter all negative and positive quantities are referred to negative units.
In particular, antimatter is predicted to have negative energy Ed = E (exactly as conceived
by Dirac ) and evolves along a negative time td = t according to an old attempt
to understand annihilation of matter and antimatter. Causality and other physical problems
are resolved by the isodual mathematics, since negative quantities are measured in terms of
negative units. Hence, antimatter evolving backward in time with respect to negative units of
time is as causal as matter evolving forward in time with respect to positive units of time. The
same holds for negative energy referred to negative units, and of other negative quantities.
The image under isoduality of the entirety of the formulations for matter including the
isodual image of all quantities and all their operations, with no exclusion at all, is today
known as Santillis isodual theory of antimatter (see monographs [11,22] and independent
Ref.  (written in 1993) presented the rst known formulation of Newton equation
for classical and neutral antiparticles thanks to the isodual dierential calculus discovered
by Santilli in Ref.  and currently developed by the mathematician S. Georgiev in great
details . The resulting equations are today known the Newton-Santilli isodual equations
md d ddvd
ddtd = Fd(td; rd; vd; : : :);
verify all known experimental data on the classical behavior of antiparticles, and are at
the foundation of all subsequent classical and operator formulations.
Ref.  (rst edition in 1993 and second edition in 1995) provided a systematic presentation
of the isodualities of Euclidean, Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, Lie theory,
rotational, Galilean, Lorentz and Poincare symmetries, Galilean and special relativities,
and other basic formulations. In particular, Refs.  presented the rst known consistent
representation of the gravitational eld of an antimatter body via the Riemann-Santilli isodual
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 5
Ref.  of 1993 proposed a new isoselfdual cosmology (a cosmology verifying the new
symmetry of isoselfduality) for equal amounts of matter and antimatter, in which case all total
quantities of the universe, such as total time, total mass, total energy, etc., are identically
null to avoid a discontinuity at creation and set up the basis for continuous creation.
Fig. 1 The prediction of rRepulsion of antimatter light by a matter gravitational eld
Ref.  of 1994 conrmed the expected verication of the isodual theory with all particle
data on antimatter since, at the operator level, isoduality is equivalent to charge conjugation
by conception and construction. The main dierence is that isoduality applies at all levels
of treatment, beginning by conception at the classical level, while charge conjugation solely
applies at the operator level. Another important dierence is that isoduality maps our spacetime
into the new isodual spacetime, while charge conjugation maps our spacetime into itself.
It then follows that, according to isoduality, antimatter exists in a new spacetime, which
is distinct yet coexisting with our own spacetime while, according to conventional views,
antimatter exists jointly with matter in our spacetime.
Ref.  of 1994 indicated the prediction of the isodual theory at all levels, including the
Newton-Santilli, Minkowski-Santilli and Riemann-Santilli isodual formulations, that matter
and antimatter experience gravitational repulsion (antigravity). Ref.  then proposed the
measure of the gravity of positrons in horizontal
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled
Ref.  of 1997 presented technical aspects of the isodual special relativity studied in
Refs.  with particular reference to the hidden verication of special relativity axioms
under isoduality (due to the quadratic character of the Minkowskian line element), with the
understanding that matter-antimatter interactions are structurally beyond the sole use of
special rel- ativity beginning at the classical level and then, expectedly, at the operator level,
because requiring the joint use of special relativity and its isodual.
Ref.  of 1997 applied all preceding knowledge to initiate the study of antimatter-light,
the light emitted by antimatter, also called isodual light, resulting in a prediction of main
character for this paper according to which antimatter light is physically dierent than matter
light in an experimentally veriable way. Since the photon has no charge, the only possible
conjugation is that for all other physical quantities.
6 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 2 The prediction of negative index of refraction of antimatter light within matter water.
As a result, antimatter-light is predicted to possess negative energy while all other characteristics
are opposite to those of matter light. In particular, antimatter light is predicted to be
repelled by matter gravity (see Fig. 1), thus permitting the conception of experiments, e.g. via
neutron interferometry, to verify whether one of the two photons emitted in electron-positron
annihilation experiences repulsion in our gravitational eld.
Ref.  of 1998 presented an isotopic unication of Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries
for matter (namely, their unication into a single geometry and their dierentiation
via the generalized unit). Ref.  then presented their isodualities for point-like antimatter
in vacuum (exterior dynamical conditions) as well as for extended antimatter bodies moving
within physical media (interior dynamical conditions).
Ref.  of 1999 conrmed that isodual mathematics does indeed permit a consistent
classical representation of antimatter at the Newtonian, Minkowskian and Riemannian levels
in a way compatible with all available classical experimental data on antimatter.
Ref.  of 2006 presented a comprehensive study of antimatter in irreversible conditions
achieved via the Lie-admissible covering of Lie formulations.
Monograph  of 2006 presented a comprehensive study of isodual mathematics and its
application to antimatter, including one of the only known grand unication of electroweak
and gravitational interactions with the inclusion of antimatter at the gravitational level in a
way parallel to the treatment of antimatter in electroweak interactions. Ref. also indicated
the prediction of a causal spacetime machine and the need for isoduality to represent all four
directions of time existing in nature, namely, motion forward to future time t and forward
from past time t, as well as motion backward in past time td and backward from future
Ref.  of 2012 addressed the open problem of the detection of possible antimatter
asteroids and presented the rst known hypothesis that antimatter light possesses a negative
index of refraction nd = n when propagating within a transparent matter medium. Again,
the consistent characterization of neutral antimatter requires the conjugation of all quantities
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 7
Fig. 3 The two identical Galileo telescopes and the camera on arrival.
with no exclusion to avoid catastrophic inconsistencies. This implies the necessary conjugation
of the index of refraction into a negative value referred to our positive units of measurements
since it is observed in our matter world (see Fig. 2).
An important implication of the isodual theory of antimatter is the clarication that the
conventional Dirac equation characterizes the tensorial product of one point-like particle with
spin 1=2 and its antiparticle without any need for second quantization (see Sect. 2.3.6 of Ref.
). In essence, the author could not accept the conventional 20th century view that Dirac’s
equations represents only one particle with spin 1=2 because there exists no irreducible or
reducible representation of the SU(2)-spin symmetry with the structure of Dirac’s gamma
matrices. Therefore, the author re-inspected Dirac’s equation and showed that
thus yielding the indicated characterization of a spin 1=2 particle and its antiparticle.
In his genius, Dirac himself provided the true foundation of the isodual theory of antimatter
by characterizing antiparticles with the negative unit I22. Dirac merely missed the
mathematics for the consistent physical treatment of negative energies. Note that there is no
contradiction for a representation of antiparticle at the quantum mechanical level because the
isodual theory of antiparticles applies at the classical level, let alone that of rst quantization.
The reader should be aware that a negative index of refraction implies that antimatter
light propagates within a transparent matter medium at superluminal speeds. A con- ceptual
interpretation of this prediction is that the ordinary (positive) index of refraction for matter
light propagating within a transparent matter medium is due to various, ultimately attractive
interactions that slow down the speed of matter light. By contrast, when antimatter light
propagates within a transparent matter medium, for consistency, all features of matter have
to be conjugated, resulting in new repulsive interactions between antimatter light and the
matter medium that, as such, accelerate antimatter light to superluminal speeds.
Numerous independent studies have been conducted on Santilli isodual theory of antimatter,
among which we indicate: the theoretician J. Dunning-Davies  who con- structed
the rst known thermodynamics of antimatter bodies; the experimentalists A. P. Mills 
and V. de Haan  who conrmed the feasibility and resolutory character of Santillis proposal
to test the gravity of positrons in horizontal
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled
8 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 4 The parallel mount of the Galileo and antimatter telescopes with related nder scopes.
tube (see monograph  for details); the mathematician B. Davvaz et al  who identied,
apparently for the rst time, the multi-valued, four dimensional hyperstructural character
of the universe suggested by two dierent yet coexisting spacetimes; the thermodynamicist
A. Bhalekar who studied in Ref.  Santillis representation of the four directions of time
 and in Ref.  the rst known study of antimatter in irreversible conditions via the
Lie-admissible formulations of ref. ; R. Anderson et al  who presented a review of
the isodual theory of antimatter which is an excellent introduction to this paper; and the
physicists I. Gandzha and J. V. Kadeisvili  who wrote a systematic outline of the various
studies here referred to for matter and antimatter.
4 THE ANTIMATTER TELESCOPE
In this section, we report the initiation of experimental verications or denial of the prediction
of the isodual theory of antimatter according to which a consistent conjugation from
matter to antimatter requires that antimatter light has a negative energy Ed = E with
ensuing repulsion by a matter gravitational eld (Fig. 1 and Ref. ) and a negative index
of refraction (Fig. 2 and Ref. ).
To conduct the tests, we here introduce apparently for the rst time that, under these
premises, antimatter light from distant sources can only be focused via a new refracting telescope
with concave lenses, because a conventional telescope with convex lenses will disperse
light with a negative index of refraction.
It should be indicated from the outset that the above predictions imply that the human
eye cannot distinctly see far antimatter light sources since our iris has been designed by
nature to be convex in order to see matter light. As such, our eye will disperse throughout
the retina antimatter light with a negative index of refraction.
Consequently, all tests here reported have been conducted under the condition that possible
views of distant antimatter light have to be recorded with a suitable camera, and then
the pictures, their analyses and their enlargements can be seen by the human eye.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 9
Fig. 5 A close up view of the mounting of the camera directly in the telescope in place of the eyepieces.
We should also indicate from the outset that we expected no antimatter star in our galaxy.
Hence, the main hope of our tests has been to see whether there exist detectable far distant
antimatter galaxies, since a central open problem of contemporary astrophysics and cosmology
is to ascertain whether the universe is solely composed of matter galaxies or antimatter
galaxies also exist and, if so, what is their distribution.
Following the above clarications, we should indicate the expected existence in our galaxy
as well as in our planetary environment of possible antimatter asteroids  and antimatter
cosmic rays .
It should be noted that collisions between matter and antimatter bodies appear to be
minimized by nature in the event their gravitational repulsion  is conrmed. Similar
ections are expected for weak antimatter gamma and antiparticle radiations.
Only antimatter bodies and radiations with a threshold energy and a special trajectory can
eventually hit Earth according to the isodual theory of antimatter.
Regrettably, we had to exclude from our search the detection of possible antimatter asteroids
due to our lack of any knowledge at this writing on the optics of antimatter light, such
as the behavior of matter light from our Sun, when hitting an antimatter asteroid.
Therefore, our search was restricted to the detection of possible far away antimatter galaxies
and possible antimatter radiations annihilating in our upper atmosphere without unrealistic
expectations of nal resolutions in these rst tests, and the mere hope of results suciently
unresolved one way or the other to justify additional investments and more accurate tests.
After verifying the current lack of availability of a refracting telescope with concave lenses,
the author had no other alternative than that of securing from specialized opticians and their
companies the design and construction of the needed refracting telescope with concave lenses,
hereon refereed to as the antimatter telescope.
For these objectives: 1) we secured the design and fabrication of two identical Galileo
refracting telescopes (of course, both with convex lenses) and both without the star diagonal
viewer to avoid any unnecessary re
ection of antimatter light; 2) we had one of the two telescopes
converted to a concave version with identical but conjugated foci; 3) we secured one
single suitably selected camera to obtain pictures from both the Galileo and the antimat10
Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 6 Main characteristics of the Galileo and antimatter primary lenses (courtesy of Jianmin Guo from
Fig. 7 Schematic view of the telescopes with convex and concave lense (courtesy of Jianmin Guo from
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 11
ter telescopes; 4) we secured a tripod with mount suitable for the parallel housing of the
two telescopes; 5) we optically aligned the two telescopes on the tripod by keeping in mind
the evident impossibility of doing visual alignments with the antimatter telescope; 6) we
conducted a number of day views with the so mounted and aligned pair of Galileo and
antimatter telescopes to verify that astronomical objects visible in the former are not visible
in the latter; 7) we conducted a number of night views of the same region of the sky via
the so mounted and aligned Galileo and the antimatter telescopes; 8) we obtained a number
of pictures from both telescopes via the selected camera; and 9) we nally conducted a
comparative inspection of the pictures from both telescopes under a variety of enlargements
and contrasts to see whether the pictures from the antimatter telescope contained focused
images absent in the pictures from the Galileo telescope under the same enlargement and
Fig. 8 Enlarged view of one of the streaks of matter light representing a far away matter star or galaxy
identied in the main picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky near Vega obtained on
November 7, 2013, via the Galileo telescope .
Along the above nine steps, we requested the astronomer Nilesh Vayada from India to
design for us two identical straight refracting Galileo telescopes with 100 mm eective primary
lenses, 900 mm focal length and with ratio 8.82, each having the nder scope, where
straight means without the star diameter viewer to avoid unnecessary de
ections of antimatter
light. Following acceptance of the drawings, the two telescopes were fabricated for us by
Galileo Telescope Makers, 503A, Prem Kunj, Navroji Lane, Ghatkopar Mumbai 400 086,
12 Ruggero Maria Santilli
India (website http://www.galileotelescope.com). Fig. 3 shows the two identical Galileo refracting
telescopes on arrival to our laboratory at the Institute for Basic Research, 150 Rainville Rd,
Tarpon Springs, FL 34689, U.S.A. It should be indicated that the telescopes were ordered
under the assurance by the manufacturer that they could see galaxies.
Fig. 9 The rst focused streak of light detected in the antimatter telescope in the Epsilon Alpha and Beta
region of the night sky on November 7, 2013, expectedly originated by a far away antimatter galaxy .
Galileo Telescope Makers also supplied the selected camera by Cannon, model EOS 600D
with image sensor of type CMOS, and Bayer Filter. Light from the telescope primary lenses
passes through a Low-Pass lter, then through an IR and a UV Filter, then through a Pixel
Micro-Lens, and nally through a Pixel Color Filter after which light hits the pixel silicon
photo diode where there is the conversion of light into electric signals. The conversion from
analogue to digital allows the storage of raw data or their con- version into visible images
in the LCD screen, as well as for storage in said visible format. A re
ex mirror in front of
the camera sensor used for the viewnder is automatically retracted at the time an image
is captured. In all tests the camera was directly attached to the two telescopes via a T ring
adaptor and housed in lieu of the eyepieces. A picture of the camera is available in Figs. 4
We then purchased an Orion Sky View Pro Equatorial Telescope Tripod model number
09829 equipped with an Orion Narrow Side-by-Side Plate model number 07956 for the housing
of the two telescopes in a parallel fashion (see also Figs. 4 and 5). The tripod is equipped
with three manually operated means for positioning the direction of the telescopes, one for
the altitude, one for for right ascention, and one for declination.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 13
Fig. 10 The second streak of light detected in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region with the
antimatter telescope also expectedly due to another antimatter galaxy .
We then contacted the optician Jianmin Guo from China who designed the conversion
of the two lenses per our specications (Figs. 6 and 7). Following their approval
by us, we shipped one of the two telescopes to Guos company, Zhengzhou Union Optics
Co. LTD, No.10 ChenXu Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou City, China 450011 (web site
http://www.unionoptics.com) to perform the transformation of the telescope from the Galileo
form with 100 mm eective convex primary lenses, to our antimatter telescope with features
identical to those the Galileo one but conjugated as described above. Since the camera is
directly attached to the telescope without the eyepiece, this conversion essentially consisted
in the fabrication and assembly of concave lenses as per the data of Fig. 6. Fig. 7 provides a
comparative view of the Galileo and the antimatter telescope.
Following reception in late October 2013 from China of the telescope modied for antimatter,
we assembled the two telescopes in the above described tripod with parallel dual mount
and conducted their alignment during the daytime as follows: we rst aligned the nder scope
to the Galileo telescope via the view of a far object (a transformer in a far electric pole);
then we aligned the nder scope of the antimatter telescope to the same view of the Galileo
telescope; and nally aligned optically the antimatter telescope to the Galileo one. It should
be indicated that extreme accuracy in alignment of the two telescopes was of no relevance
for our initial tests. Our primary objective was to see whether or not antimatter galaxies can
be detected with our concave lens telescope, since the identication of their precise location
was quite unrealistic for these initial tests due to our current complete lack of knowledge of
the optics of antimatter light.
14 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 11 The third streak of light detected in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region with the
antimatter telescope also expectedly due to a third antimatter galaxy .
Following the availability of the so mounted and aligned pair of telescopes, we initiated
night views by rst conrming that, as expected, any celestial object visibly focused by the
Galileo telescope was not focused at all with the antimatter telescope. In particular, the view
of details of our Moon, which were very nicely focused by the Galileo telescope, resulted in
a diuse light when seen from the antimatter telescope without any possible identication.
The same occurred for planets and nearby matter stars.
Following the above preparatory steps, we nally initiated preliminary views of the sky at
night with said pair of telescopes. Among a variety of tests not indicated here for brevity, we
report the tests conducted between 10 and 11 pm of November 7, 2013, at the Gulf Anclote
Park, Holiday, Florida, GPS Coordinates: Latitude = 28.193 , Longitude = -82.786.
The camera was set at the exposure of 15 seconds for the specic intent of having streaks
of light from far away matter stars caused by Earth rotation, since streaks can be better
identied with the limited capabilities of the available telescopes compared to individual dots
of light in the pictures. Additionally, streaks from matter stars have a clear orientation as well
as length that are important for the identication of possible streaks from antimatter light.
Following various tests, we selected the setting of the camera at ISO 1600 because various
tests with smaller and bigger ISO resulted inconclusive and ambiguous for various reasons.
Detailed values of the various additional settings of the camera are available from Ref. .
All pictures were analyzed by the expert photographer Scott Randall of Night Fox Productions,
P. O. Box 252, Dunedin, Florida 34697,U.S.A.(websitewww.NightFoxProductions.com)
who conducted extensive analyses with particular reference to the identication of the background
as well as impurities in the camera sensors that are evidently present in both pictures
from the Galileo and the antimatter telescope.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 15
Fig. 12 The rst streak of darkness identied in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha ane Beta region of the
night sky taken on November 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope  providing possible evidence of a far
away antimatter star or galaxy as an alternative for the streaks of light.
Fig. 13 Another representative streak of darkness present in the antimatter telescope  but absent in the
Galileo telescope that may constitute an alternative to the streak of light.
16 Ruggero Maria Santilli
The camera was rst focused in the Galileo telescope via the rack and pinion of the
telescope terminal and via the sharpness of the view in the camera optical view nder. The
position of the rack and pinion was marked. When the camera was used in the antimatter
telescope, the only possible focus was to assure that the position of the rack and pinion was
the same as that of the Galileo telescope due to the identity of the foci (Figs. 6 and 7).
Following these preliminaries, we oriented the telescopes at the indicated location and
time toward the star Vega, and then specialized the orientation for the pair of matter stars
Epsilon Alpha and Epsilon Beta near Vega. In order to properly interpret expected anomalies
Fig. 14 Seemingly connected streaks of darkness identied in a picture of the Vega region of the night
sky on November 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope that could be due to the annihilation of a shower of
small antimatter asteroids in our atmosphere, in a way much similar but the conjugate of the frequent view
in the night sky of the streaks of light caused by the annihilation of a shower of small matter asteroids in our
in the pictures, we should recall the following properties of the isodual theory of antimatter
As indicated in Sect. 3, isodual mathematics predicts that antimatter possesses negative
energy according to Dirac’s original conception , although referred to a negative units of
energy when considered in the antimatter world.
When antimatter is considered in the matter world represented with a conventional Hilbert
state j >, a rst line of current thinking is that the energy of antimatter is positive. This view
can be represented via the isodual eigenvalue equation
Hd d j >= E j >; E > 0;
where d is the product in the antimatter world. In this case, antimatter light hitting the
pixels of the camera should produce the same voltage and, therefore, the same image as those
of matter light. Hence, we rst looked for ordinary streaks of light that are present in the
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 17
pictures from the antimatter telescope but absent in the Galileo telescope. In particular, we
used a camera exposure causing a streak of light (due to Earth’s rotation) suciently long
to be clearly distinguishable from the background.
Fig. 15 The rst of numerous circular traces identied in a picture of Vega regions of the night sky on Nov
ember 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope that could be due to the annihilation of an antimatter cosmic
However, our current knowledge of antimatter is extremely limited. Therefore, we have
to consider for completeness the possibility that antimatter light is received by the camera
pixels as having a negative energy from the alternative eigenvalue equation
Hd j >= E j >; E > 0;
where “” is now the product in our matter world as requested by isodual mathematics. In
this second case, antimatter light hitting the pixels of the camera are expected to produce
a voltage opposite that of matter light, thus causing a streak of darkness, rather than light.
This suggested the additional search for streaks of darkness that are present in the pictures
from the antimatter telescope but absent in those from the Galileo telescope.
In regard to the alternative of streaks due to positive or negative energies, we should
recall that the invariance under isoselfduality (veried by Diracs equation ) requires that
matter-antimatter annihilation jointly produces matter and antimatter liht. This can be seen
from the conventional particle reaction
e+ + e !
which isoselfduality is veried in the left but not in the right side. The verication of isoselfduality
for both sides then requires the revised formulation
18 Ruggero Maria Santilli
e+ + e !
resulting in the indicated production of two lights (see Ref.  for apparent insuciencies of
Feynman’s diagrams for particle-antiparticle annihilation due to violation of the isoselfdual
invariance, impossibility of representing annihilation via the notion of particle exchange, and
Consequently, any conrmation that antimatter light has a negative energy, either via the
pictures of this paper or via the possible experimental detection of gravitational repulsion for
antimatter light in a matter eld, would conrm Dirac’s original conception of antiparticles
as having negative energy [5[ while isomathematics would resolve known inconsistencies.
Following the above clarications for a tentative interpretation of expected anomalies, we
provide in Ref.  the main picture of the indicated Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the
sky from the Galileo telescope in both compiled and raw forms, where one can easily identify
the Epsilon Alpha and Epsilon Beta pair of matter stars near Vega.
Fig. 8 provides the typical view of a far away matter star or galaxy in the indicated region
of the sky which view can be easily identied in the main picture of Ref.  under suitable
magnication. One should note the length and orientation of the streak of light of Fig. 8
due to Earths rotation during the 15 second exposure, as well as its weakness due to the
fact that the sky was inspected in an essentially urban area with consequential unavoidable
diuse luminescence. An additional reason for the weakness of the streak is that the tests
were conducted at the Gulf Anclote Park which is at the edge of the Gulf of Mexico, thus
implying signicant humidity of the air, with ensuing additional weakness of the streaks of
light due to water absorption of light. The reader should keep in mind these limitations so
as to avoid the expectation of the detection of brilliant streaks of light in the antimatter
Ref.  provides the compiled and raw forms of the corresponding pictures of the same
region of the sky from the antimatter telescope.
As indicated above, in our analysis of the latter picture we rst identied streaks of light
reported in Figs. 9 to 11 that are present in the antimatter telescope but can arguably be
conceived as being absent in the Galileo telescope. The magnication has been obtained via
the Gimp 2.8 software. The position of the anomalous streaks of light of Figs. 9 to 11 is
indicated with squares in the main picture visible under no magnications. The anomalous
streaks of light will then appear under suitable magnication.
It should be noted that streaks of light are of dicult identication, particularly for their
corresponding absence in the Galileo telescope, thus being unsettled at this writing, since the
background is also made up of light. We have indicated them in representation of the current
rst line of thinking that antimatter light, and therefore antiparticles, have positive energy.
It should also be noted that the focal position of the camera was accurately marked in the
transition from the Galileo to the antimatter telescope, but not its angular orientation due to
the primitive character of the available equipment, thus implying possible small dierences
in orientation of the streaks in the Galileo and antimatter telescopes. Hence, expectations of
extreme accuracy in the orientation of the matter and antimatter streaks would be unrealistic
for these rst tests.
As indicated above, we additionally conducted a search for streaks of darkness in the main
pictures of the indicated Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky from the antimatter
telescope under the conditions that: 1) said streaks are present in the antimatter telescope
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 19
Fig. 16 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Deneb regions of the night sky with the antimatter
but not in the Galileo telescope; 2) the streaks have approximately the same orientation and
length of the streak of matter light of Fig. 8; and 3) the streaks are clearly distinguished from
the background. Note that, since the background is predominantly that of light, streaks of
darkness are more distinguishable than those of light, thus being less controversial.
Two representative streaks of darkness verifying these requirements are reported in Figs.
12 and 13. Note the apparent clear organization of dark pixels over illuminated ones with
a low statistical probability if occurring at random. The streaks of Figs. 12 and 13 are
here tentatively presented as providing possible evidence, following due verications, that
antimatter light may cause fpcused images of darkness when hitting the pixels of the selected
camera (that was evidently produced to detect matter light).
In Fig. 14 we present seemingly correlated streaks of darkness of unknown origin, but
which could be arguably due to a shower of small antimatter asteroids annihilating in or
passing through our upper atmosphere. This is due to the fact that their orientation is not
compatible with that caused by the fteen second exposure of the camera as set by the streak
of Fig. 8, thus solely allowing for interpretation an essentially instantaneous event.
It should be noted that the author could locate no additional, clearly identied streaks
of light or darkness in pictures of various regions of the sky obtained with the antimatter
telescope besides the streaks reported in Figs. 9 to 14, although the search was at random
and denitely not systematic. Arguably, the absence of additional streaks besides those of
the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region could be due to the fact that possible antimatter galaxies
are too much far away for the very limited possibilities of the used 10 cm telescopes, thus
suggesting the construction of a bigger pair of Galileo and antimatter telescope for their
20 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Besides said linear streaks, the author has identied numerous, completely unexpected
circular traces in pictures of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region as well as in other regions
of the night sky, which traces are present in the antimatter but not in the Galileo telescope.
Representative examples of these circular traces are reproduced in Figs. 15 to 19. As one can
see, these circular traces all have approximately the same diameter for a given magnication;
and are clearly distinct from the background.
Fig. 17 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Altair regions of the night sky with the antimatter
After due analysis, it is possible that these circular traces might be due to the annihilation
of antimatter cosmic rays in the upper region of our atmosphere, thus yielding approximately
the same diameter of the trace at sea level due to the same travel in air. This interpretation
is also suggested by the fact that the circles show no motion during the fteen seconds of
exposure, thus implying extremely fast events. An additional aspect supporting the indicated
interpretation is the variety of the circular traces identied by the author in numerous regions
of the sky.
It can be argued that, during the annihilation, of possible antimatter cosmic rays in our
atmosphere matter light may quickly dissipate in the atmosphere, while antimatter light may
continue its path along the original direction. The detected circles might then characterize,
in reality, a cone of antimatter light.
In the event conrmed, these circular traces would be the rst detection at sea level of the
ashes of light seen by astronauts and cosmonauts in the upper dark side of our atmosphere.
Note that, again in case of verications, the
ashes seen by astronauts and cosmonauts would
only be originated by matter light due to the convex character of our iris, while our view at
sea level would be due to antimatter light seen via concave lenses.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 21
Note that the circular traces could also be due to antimatter gamma rays, their arrival
at sea level in the forms of cones being possibly due to eects inherent in the yet unknown
optics of antimatter light.
As one can see, the circular traces appear to be predominantly, but not denitely due to
circles of darkness, rather than light. Consequently, the circular traces of darkness of Figs.
15 to 19 support the hypothesis that antimatter light causes images of darkness, rather than
light, in a camera built for matter light.
A resolution of the alternative between images of light or darkness suggests the of a
special camera with inverted sign of the pixel voltage, or other means under which matter
light is detected as darkness in order to see whether antimatter light produces visible images.
Needless to say, the construction of such a special camera should be complemented with the
construction of bigger and more accurate pair of Galileo and antimatter telescopes.
There is no doubt that, besides the above proposed special camera and bigger telescopes,
a considerable amount of additional mathematical, theoretical and experimental research is
needed for the resolution of the background central issues: whether matter-antimatter annihilation
veries the symmetry of isoselfduality; whether annihilation jointly produces distinct
matter and antimatter light; and whether antimatter and/or light experiences gravitational
repulsion in a matter eld.
Among the needed research, we indicate: the great need to develop the antimatter optics,
also called by the author isodual optics ; the measurement of the gravity of the positron
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled tube [22,26,27]; and the experimental
resolution whether the two photons emitted in the electron positron annihilation
e+ + e !
both experience gravitational attraction, or one experience attraction and the other repulsion.
Until all this basic knowledge is achieved, any resolution of the origin of the anomalous
streaks and circles reported in this paper, whether in favor or against, will be purely illusory.
It should be noted that the cap[ability by a telescope with concave lenses to focus images
appears to be an experimental verication of the novel isodual dierential calculus [10,38[.
Additional information in the above measurements can be found in Ref. [39[.
5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
Following a rather long scientic journey for the construction of the isodual theory of neutral
or charged antimatter applicable at all levels of treatment, from classical mechanics to second
quantization, the author has presented in this paper apparently for the rst time pictures
of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky via a telescope with concave primary
lenses as suggested by isodual mathematics.
These pictures show anomalous streaks and circles that are absent in pictures of the same
region of the sky from a Galileo telescope, thus suggesting antimatter as their origination,
and their main common feature is that of being streaks and circles of darkness, rather than
light, as it should be after all expected under matter-antimatter conjugation, by therefore
supporting the negative energy of light predicted by the isodual theory of antimatter.
In the event conrmed, the anomalous traces presented in this paper may emerge as being
the rst experimental detection of antimatter galaxy, antimatter asteroids and antimatter
22 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 18 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Sadr regions of the night sky with the antimatter
The main result of this paper is an apparent conrmation of Dirac’s  original 1928
conception of antiparticles as possessing negative energy because necessary for consistency
with negative energy of light in the electron-positron annihilation, the inconsistencies of
negative energies being apparently assured by their treatment via the isodual mathematics.
The author would like to close this paper with a call of the physics community to balance
experiments at very high energies with complementary experiments at very low energies,
because the former do not appear to have new objectives worth the use of large public funds,
while only the latter can yield fundamental new advances in virtually all scientic elds.
In particular, we recommend the measurement of the gravity of the positron in horizontal
ight [22,26,27] (with caution in the use of antiprotons expressed in Appendix A due their
possible confusion with the pseudoproton and other reasons), as well as the complementary
measurement of the gravity of the photons produced in electron-positron annihilation .
Only these tests can yield the necessary scientic knowledge to prevent that Earth is
devasted again by a large antimatter asteroid without the physics community being able to
provide any advance detection.
6 APPENDIX A: Antiprotons or pseudoprotons?
A few words of caution should be voiced in regard to other proposed measurements of the
gravity of antimatter in a matter eld via current production of antiprotons . This is
due to the fact that, in the event the isodual theory of antimatter is conrmed, true matterantimatter
annihilations solely produce light without any residual particles or antiparticles,
as it was the case for the 1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia (since the production of particles
would have destroyed all trees in the ground).
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 23
Fig. 19 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Gienah Cyngi regions of the night sky with the
But the currently claimed proton-antiprotons annihilations, such as that of the Bose-
Einstein correlation, produce a large number of particles, as well known (see Ref.  for
a review and quotations), thus casting shadows as to whether the particles currently called
“antiprotons” are truly characterized by antimatter or they are at least in part the “pseudoprotons”
predicted by hadronic mechanics.
In essence, at the time a proton beam hits a matter target as it is the case for the currently
production of apparent antiprotons, we have all the necessary energy for the synthesis of the
neutron from a proton and an electron
p+ + e ! n + ;
as occurring in the core of a star. This synthesis is quantitatively represented solely by
hadronic mechanics due to 0.782 excess rest energy of the neutron over the sum of the rest
energies of the proton and the electron that would require, for the use of quantum mechanics,
a “positive binding energy” under which the Schrodinger’s equation becomes inconsistent in
favor of its non-unitary covering equation of hadronic mechanics (for brevity the review and
quotations, see also Chapter 6 of Ref. ).
Following the quantitative representation of the neutron synthesis, hadronic mechanics
quite easily predicts the “pseudoproton” which is characterized by the synthesis of the proton
and an electron pair in singlet coupling (as normally existing in atomic orbitals of the target),
p+ + (e
” ; e
# )J=0 ! ~p
(without any need to emit the hypothetical neutrino), yielding a fully “matter” particle
without any antiparticle content, with a negative elementary charge, a meanlife similar to
24 Ruggero Maria Santilli
that of the isolated neutron (about fteen minutes) and a mass close to that of the proton
due to the apparent balance between the negative energy of the strongly attractive Coulomb
interactions at very short distances with the positive energy due to the isorenormalization of
rest energies under deep wave overlapping as necessary for the synthesis of the neutron (see
Ref.  for here inessential calculations mostly similar to those for the neutron synthesis).
It is evident that the pseudoproton can quickly capture a positron to form a kind of
“hybrid Hydrogen atom” composed by a matter nucleus and an orbiting antimatter particle,
thus being predominantly constituted by matter. Consequently,experiments via the use of the
currently produced “antiprotons” and related “anti-Hydrogen atoms” are predicted by hadronic
mechanics to yield a full gravitational attraction, thus being potentially insidious for basic
advances in antimatter, unless the claimed antiprotons are truly proved to be as such via
consistent annihilation processes and not via the sole measurement of the charge and mass.
In view of these and other ambiguities, the author has stressed in Ref.  the need that
the rst test of the gravity of antimatter be done with positrons in our matter eld, since
positrons are the only certain antiparticle known at this writing.
The author has no words to thank Alex Nas of Thunder Fusion Corporation and Scott Randall
of Night Fox Computer Services for invaluable technical assistance without which this
paper would not have been completed within a reasonable period of time. Additional thanks
are due for penetrating criticisms and comments to all participants of the following meetings
where the isodual theory of antimatter was discussed in detail: the International Conference
on Antimatter held in Sepino, Italy. in June 1996; the Third International Conference on the
Lie-admissible Treatment of Irreversible Systems of Matter and Antimatter held on January
2011 in Nepal; the International Conference on Antimatter Astrophysics held at the Republic
of San Marino in September 2011; the International Workshop on Hadronic Mechanics
for Matter and Antimatter held in September 2012 in Kos. Greece, as part of 2012 ICNAAM;
the Workshop on Santillis New Mathematics for 21st Century Sciences held in April
2013 in India; the International Conference on Iso-, Geno- Hyper- and Isodual Mathematics
held in Rhodes, Greece, in September 2013 as part of 2013 ICNAAM: and the International
Workshop on Hadronic Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics held in October 2013 India.
Prior to this paper, the author solely presented the antimatter telescope at the above indicated
2013 meeting in Rhodes via power point available from the link http://www.santillifoundation.
org/docs/antimatter-telescope-2013.pptx The author would like to thank the audience
for not so frequent grace and interest shown in being exposed to such an unusually
dierent telescope, which are a sign of serious commitment to research intended as the pursuit
of new knowledge. Additional thanks are due to the referees of this paper for its in depth
critical analysis, and to Dorte Zuckerman for its editorial control, although the author is
solely responsible for the content due to various subsequent nalizations.
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Institute of Physics Proceedings 2013 http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/P-Muktibodh.pdf
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its isodual, Part I pages 539-612 and Part II pages Contributed paper in Analysis, Geometry and Groups,
A Riemann Legacy Volume, Volume II, H.M. Srivastava, Editor, pp. 539-612 (1993)
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Phys. 1994 3, 153-181 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-112.pdfAntigravity
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Antimatter, Intern. J. Modern Phys. 1998, D 7, 351 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-
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Phys. 1999, A 14, 2205-2238 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-09.pdf
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Cosmology, Springer (2006).
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at the classical and operator levels, Nuovo Cimento B, Vol. 121, 443 (2006) http://www.santilli-
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of Physics, Proceed. 2012, 1479, 1028-1032 (2012) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/antimatter-
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page 593 (1999) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Isodual-therm.pdf
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on the Lie-Admissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, C. Corda, Editor, Kathmandu University,
2011, pages 57-67 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/deHaan-Arxiv.pdf
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DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES,
ASTEROIDS AND COSMIC RAYS
Dr. R. M. Santilli, Chief Scientist of Thunder Energies Corporation (see his Curriculum , Prizes and Nominations , Publications in antimatter , and the General Archives ) has conducted three decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies on antimatter initiated in the early1980s when he was at at Harvard University under DOE support.
This extended research has produced basically new telescopes, today known as Santilli telescopes, which have been conceived, designed, constructed, tested and produced to detect antimatter galaxies, antimatter cosmic rays and antimatter asteroids (international patent pending irrevocably owned by TEC without royalty payments).
Since matter and antimatter annihilate at contact into light, as a condition for its existence at the classical macroscopic level, antimatter must have all characteristics opposite to those of matter. For instance, matter-light has a positive index of refraction while, as a condition for its existence, antimatter-light must have a negative index of refraction (Figure 1).
Consequently, the focusing of images of matter-light require convex lenses as occurring in the Galileo telescopes, while the focusing of images of antimatter-light requires concave lenses, as occurring in Santilli telescopes (Figure 2).
The above features imply that none of the refractive Galileo-type telescopes existing on Earth or in space can detect antimatter-light because they are all based on convex lenses.
Similarly, we will never see images of antimatter-light with our naked eyes because our cornea is convex, and as such, it disperses images of antimatter-light all over our retina. The sole possibility to detect images of antimatter-light is via images on a digital or film camera.
2. Detection of antimatter galaxies
The Santilli telescopes should always be used in pair with optically aligned conventional Galileo telescopes, both telescopes having the same diameter of the primary lenses. the same curvature of the primary lenses and the same focal distances, with the understanding that curvature and focal distances become negative for the Santilli telescopes (Figure 3).
Under these conditions, the detection of antimatter galaxies with a pair of the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes can be made according to the following rules (consult TEC for more technical information):
1) All alignments in the night sky are done with the Galileo telescope which is generally equipped with an eyepiece;
2) All images are taken from equal digital or film cameras in both the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes as shown in Figure 3;
3) Whether digital or film, the images from the two telescopes are subjected to the same magnification, until faint images become detectable over the background;
4) Digital cameras are sufficient for initial scans of the night sky, although much more detailed views can be obtained via a film camera; and
5) Images focused by the Santilli telescope are considered valid, if and only if, they do not exist in the images from the Galileo telescope under the same magnification.
Since antimatter galaxies cannot exist in our galactic environment and can only exist far away, their images are faint. Consequently, the detection of their images are suggested to be done with long camera exposures, such as exposures for 15 seconds.
This long exposure generates streaks in the digital cameras that, as such, can be clearly distinguished from the background as well as from impurities or imperfections of the cameras since said impurities and imperfections remain stationary.
The tracking of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope is discouraged at the moment. This is due to the fact that, in case of tracking, antimatter galaxies will produce small stationary dots in the camera that, as such, cannot be distinguished with certainty from camera impurities or anomalies.
Matter-Antimatter annihilation also requires that antimatter-light must have energy opposite that of matter-light, as predicted by P. A. M. Dirac in 1932 and verified by R. M. Santilli in his decades of research on antimatter (see the the theoretical confirmation and the experimental confirmation).
Under 15 second exposure, the Galileo telescope creates an image of matter galaxies consisting of streaks of light over the conventional background (Figure 4) while, by contrast, the detection of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope creates streaks of darkness (Figure 5) over the conventional background.
This is essentially due to the fact that the negative energy of antimatter-light annihilates in the camera pixel the positive energy due to matter-light of the background, resulting in this way in streaks of darkness.
It then follows that a conventional matter-light background is necessary (under our current knowledge) for the detection of antimatter galaxies because, in its absence, no image of far away antimatter galaxies could be visible in the camera due to darkness of the background.
This is the reason all detections of the night sky with the Santilli telescope have been done to date at sea level where the conventional matter-light background is sufficient to distinguish streaks of darkness.
3. Detection of antimatter asteroids
The detection of antimatter asteroids follows rules different than those for antimatter galaxies. Since matter and antimatter repel each other gravitationally (antigravity), antimatter asteroids are repelled by Earth’s gravitation and can impact Earth only when they have certain value of kinetic energy computed by Dr. S. Beghella-Bartoli in the scientific work
Therefore, antimatter asteroids hitting Earth must have said minimal impact kinetic energy or more; they annihilate at contact with our matter atmosphere; and they produce instantaneous streaks of darkness (under 15 second exposure) in the digital or film camera generally in the downward direction of penetration in our atmosphere. Streaks of darkness over the matter-light background in the Santilli telescope under 15 second exposure are candidates for the detection of antimatter asteroids when they have a direction different than those of the streaks of matter and antimatter galaxies (Figure 6).
It should be indicated that, at this stage of our knowledge, we do not know how to detect antimatter asteroids in space prior to their impact on Earth, because our matter-light (whether from our Sun or from our lasers) could be absorbed without reflection when hitting antimatter asteroids that generally are at absolute zero degree temperature.
One of the reasons Thunder Energies Corporation is involved in the study of antimatter light is precisely due to the need to develop new technologies for the advance detection of antimatter asteroids because, in the event we are hit by a small antimatter asteroid the size of a football, all our military, industrial and civilian communications will be disrupted for days due to the extreme excitation of our atmosphere from the radiations emitted by the matter-antimatter annihilation, as suggested by Dr. R. Anderson et al. in the scientific work
4. Detection of antimatter cosmic rays
The detection of antimatter cosmic rays follows rules different than those for the detection of antimatter galaxies and antimatter asteroids. As it is the case for conventional cosmic rays of matter, antimatter cosmic rays are the result of primordial explosions in the universe.
Consequently, antimatter cosmic rays reach our atmosphere at very high speeds; they annihilate in the upper layer of our atmosphere; and their sole detection is that via the antimatter-light produced by their annihilation that reaches us at the ground level.
The detection of antimatter cosmic rays via the Santilli telescope is then provided by dots of darkness over the matter-light background despite the 15 seconds exposure, which feature confirm the virtually instantaneous propagation in our atmosphere of antimatter-light originated by the antimatter cosmic rays (Figure 7).
It should be clarified that the instantaneous dots of darkness created by antimatter cosmic rays by the Santilli telescope are not caused by ordinary light since the same dots are absent in the Galileo telescope. Also, antimatter-light is physically different than ordinary matter-light (see Figure 1 for the different refraction).
5. Expected new technologies
Due to the democracy between matter and antimatter requested by physical laws (such as the PCT theorem), the above advances predict the possible future development of a basically new digital camera with pixels detecting photons with negative energy, as a complement of current pixels that solely detect photons with positive energy. In the eventuality, the indicated new camera is developed, the matter-light background is not needed for the detection of antimatter images.
REFERENCES ON ANTIMATTER GALAXIES, ASTEROIDS, & COSMIC RAYS
General treatise on antimatter
R.M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Application to Antigravity, Grand Unification and the Spacetime Machine, Springer (2006)
Experimental references suggested for technical details
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses,” Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications vol. 3, 2014, pages 1-26 (Cambridge, UK),
P. Bhujbal, J. V. Kadeisvili, A. Nas, S Randall, and T. R. Shelke Preliminary confirmation of the detection of antimatter galaxies via Santilli telescope with concave lenses, Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications Vol. 3, pages 27-39, 2014 (Cambridge, UK) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Con-Ant-Tel-2013.pdf
S. Beghella-Bartoli, Prashant M. Bhujbal, Alex Nas, Confirmation of antimatter detection via Santilli telescope with concave lenses, American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 4, pages 34-41 (2015)
P. M. Bhujbal, Santilli’s Isodual Mathematics and Physics for Antimatter, International Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2015),
DETECTION OF INVISIBLE TERRESTRIAL ENTITIES (ITE)
OF THE FIRST AND SECOND KIND
While it’s deep space capabilities are well documented in scientific journals, it was only by chance that our telescope detected invisible terrestrial entities within the earth’s atmosphere. Scientifically, this should be impossible because when ordinary matter and anti-matter come into contact, the annihilate one another.
So, what are these invisible terrestrial entities (ITE) that have been observed and photographed? These entities defy our current scientific knowledge. Some appear to move at highly erratic speeds while others appear to be almost stationary. Some ITE appear as dark entities (Figure 8) while others give off a luminous glow (Figure 9). To say anything beyond this would be speculation. What I can say is that these entities are invisible to the human eye and to conventional telescopes and binoculars; they can only be observed with our telescope.
Dr. Santilli has developed his telescope with concave lenses also for the study of other forms of light besides antimatter light. Thunder Energies Corporation is supporting research for the possible conversion of matter-light, from its conventional form with positive index of refraction, into a form with negative index of refraction without its necessary origination from antimatter (TEC international patent pending).
REFERENCES ON ITE
BTV original release
Business Television Announces Thunder Energies’ Discovery via the Revolutionary Telescope with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE)
BTV YouTube Video
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent Detection via New Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE)” American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 5, issue 3, pages 45-53, 2016
K. Brinkman, “Santilli Refractors,” power point from a lecture delivered at the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club on September 25, 2015
Additional detection of bright ITE
Thunder Energies report on the bright ITE detected on 01-15-16
Additional ITE detections and independent confirmations
Taming the Multiverse
Parallel universes are no longer a figment of our imagination. They’re so real that we can reach out and touch them, and even use them to change our world, says Marcus Chown.
Are you having extraordinary experiences that your left brain can’t fathom, but your inner knowing can? Is this an insane vision?
Not according to David Deutsch of the University of Oxford. Deutsch believes that our Universe is part of the multiverse, a domain of parallel universes that comprises ultimate reality.
Until now, the multiverse was a hazy, ill-defined concept-little more than a philosophical trick. But in a paper yet to be published, Deutsch has worked out the structure of the multiverse. With it, he claims, he has answered the last criticism of the skeptics. “For 70 years physicists have been hiding from it, but they can hide no longer.” If he’s right, the multiverse is no trick. It is real. So real that we can mold the fate of the universes and exploit them.
Why believe in something so extraordinary? Because it can explain one of the greatest mysteries of modern science: why the world of atoms behaves so very differently from the everyday world of trees and tables.
The theory that describes atoms and their constituents is quantum mechanics. It is hugely successful. It has led to computers, lasers and nuclear reactors, and it tells us why the Sun shines and why the ground beneath our feet is solid. But quantum theory also tells us something very disturbing about atoms and their like: they can be in many places at once. This isn’t just a crazy theory-it has observable consequences (see “Interfering with the multiverse”).
But how is it that atoms can be in many places at once whereas big things made out of atoms-tables, trees and pencils-apparently cannot? Reconciling the difference between the microscopic and the macroscopic is the central problem in quantum theory. The many worlds interpretation is one way to do it. This idea was proposed by Princeton graduate student Hugh Everett III in 1957. According to many worlds, quantum theory doesn’t just apply to atoms, says Deutsch. “The world of tables is exactly the same as the world of atoms.”
But surely this means tables can be in many places at once. Right. But nobody has ever seen such a schizophrenic table. So what gives?
The idea is that if you observe a table that is in two places at once, there are also two versions of you-one that sees the table in one place and one that sees it in another place.
The consequences are remarkable. A universe must exist for every physical possibility. There are Earths where the Nazis prevailed in the Second World War, where Marilyn Monroe married Einstein, and where the dinosaurs survived and evolved into intelligent beings who read New Scientist.
However, many worlds is not the only interpretation of quantum theory. Physicists can choose between half a dozen interpretations, all of which predict identical outcomes for all conceivable experiments.
Deutsch dismisses them all. “Some are gibberish, like the Copenhagen interpretation,” he says-and the rest are just variations on the many worlds theme.
For example, according to the Copenhagen interpretation, the act of observing is crucial. Observation forces an atom to make up its mind, and plump for being in only one place out of all the possible places it could be. But the Copenhagen interpretation is itself open to interpretation. What constitutes an observation? For some people, this only requires a large-scale object such as a particle detector. For others it means an interaction with some kind of conscious being.
Worse still, says Deutsch, is that in this type of interpretation you have to abandon the idea of reality. Before observation, the atom doesn’t have a real position. To Deutsch, the whole thing is mysticism-throwing up our hands and saying there are some things we are not allowed to ask.
Some interpretations do try to give the microscopic world reality, but they are all disguised versions of the many worlds idea, says Deutsch. “Their proponents have fallen over backwards to talk about the many worlds in a way that makes it appear as if they are not.”
In this category, Deutsch includes David Bohm’s “pilot-wave” interpretation. Bohm’s idea is that a quantum wave guides particles along their trajectories. Then the strange shape of the pilot wave can be used to explain all the odd quantum behaviors, such as interference patterns. In effect, says Deutsch, Bohm’s single universe occupies one groove in an immensely complicated multi-dimensional wave function.
“The question that pilot-wave theorists must address is: what are the unoccupied grooves?” says Deutsch. “It is no good saying they are merely theoretical and do not exist physically, for they continually jostle each other and the occupied groove, affecting its trajectory. What’s really being talked about here is parallel universes. Pilot-wave theories are parallel-universe theories in a state of chronic denial.”
Back and forth
Another disguised many worlds theory, says Deutsch, is John Cramer’s “transactional” interpretation in which information passes backwards and forwards through time. When you measure the position of an atom, it sends a message back to its earlier self to change its trajectory accordingly.
But as the system gets more complicated, the number of messages explodes. Soon, says Deutsch, it becomes vastly greater than the number of particles in the Universe. The full quantum evolution of a system as big as the Universe consists of an exponentially large number of classical processes, each of which contains the information to describe a whole universe. So Cramer’s idea forces the multiverse on you, says Deutsch.
So do other interpretations, according to Deutsch. “Quantum theory leaves no doubt that other universes exist in exactly the same sense that the single Universe that we see exists,” he says. “This is not a matter of interpretation. It is a logical consequence of quantum theory.”
Yet many physicists still refuse to accept the multiverse. “People say the many worlds is simply too crazy, too wasteful, too mind-blowing,” says Deutsch. “But this is an emotional not a scientific reaction. We have to take what nature gives us.”
A much more legitimate objection is that many worlds is vague and has no firm mathematical basis. Proponents talk of a multiverse that is like a stack of parallel universes. The critics point out that it cannot be that simple-quantum phenomena occur precisely because the universes interact. “What is needed is a precise mathematical model of the multiverse,” says Deutsch. And now he’s made one.
The key to Deutsch’s model sounds peculiar. He treats the multiverse as if it were a quantum computer. Quantum computers exploit the strangeness of quantum systems-their ability to be in many states at once-to do certain kinds of calculation at ludicrously high speed. For example, they could quickly search huge databases that would take an ordinary computer the lifetime of the Universe. Although the hardware is still at a very basic stage, the theory of how quantum computers process information is well advanced.
In 1985, Deutsch proved that such a machine can simulate any conceivable quantum system, and that includes the Universe itself. So to work out the basic structure of the multiverse, all you need to do is analyze a general quantum calculation. “The set of all programs that can be run on a quantum computer includes programs that would simulate the multiverse,” says Deutsch. “So we don’t have to include any details of stars and galaxies in the real Universe, we can just analyze quantum computers and look at how information flows inside them.”
If information could flow freely from one part of the multiverse to another, we’d live in a chaotic world where all possibilities would overlap. We really would see two tables at once, and worse, everything imaginable would be happening everywhere at the same time.
Deutsch found that, almost all the time, information flows only within small pieces of the quantum calculation, and not in between those pieces. These pieces, he says, are separate universes. They feel separate and autonomous because all the information we receive through our senses has come from within one universe. As Oxford philosopher Michael Lockwood put it, “We cannot look sideways, through the multiverse, any more than we can look into the future.”
Sometimes universes in Deutsch’s model peel apart only locally and fleetingly, and then slap back together again. This is the cause of quantum interference, which is at the root of everything from the two-slit experiment to the basic structure of atoms.
Other physicists are still digesting what Deutsch has to say. Anton Zeilinger of the University of Vienna remains unconvinced. “The multiverse interpretation is not the only possible one, and it is not even the simplest,” he says. Zeilinger instead uses information theory to come to very different conclusions. He thinks that quantum theory comes from limits on the information we get out of measurements (New Scientist, 17 February, p 26). As in the Copenhagen interpretation, there is no reality to what goes on before the measurement.
But Deutsch insists that his picture is more profound than Zeilinger’s. “I hope he’ll come round, and realise that the many worlds theory explains where the information in his measurements comes from.”
Why are physicists reluctant to accept many worlds? Deutsch blames logical positivism, the idea that science should concern itself only with objects that can be observed. In the early 20th century, some logical positivists even denied the existence of atoms-until the evidence became overwhelming. The evidence for the multiverse, according to Deutsch, is equally overwhelming. “Admittedly, it’s indirect,” he says. “But then, we can detect pterodactyls and quarks only indirectly too. The evidence that other universes exist is at least as strong as the evidence for pterodactyls or quarks.”
Perhaps the skeptics will be convinced by a practical demonstration of the multiverse. And Deutsch thinks he knows how. By building a quantum computer, he says, we can reach out and mold the multiverse.
“One day, a quantum computer will be built which does more simultaneous calculations than there are particles in the Universe,” says Deutsch. “Since the Universe as we see it lacks the computational resources to do the calculations, where are they being done?” It can only be in other universes, he says. “Quantum computers share information with huge numbers of versions of themselves throughout the multiverse.”
Imagine that you have a quantum PC and you set it a problem. What happens is that a huge number of versions of your PC split off from this Universe into their own separate, local universes, and work on parallel strands of the problem. A split second later, the pocket universes recombine into one, and those strands are pulled together to provide the answer that pops up on your screen. “Quantum computers are the first machines humans have ever built to exploit the multiverse directly,” says Deutsch.
At the moment, even the biggest quantum computers can only work their magic on about 6 bits of information, which in Deutsch’s view means they exploit copies of themselves in 26 universes-that’s just 64 of them. Because the computational feats of such computers are puny, people can choose to ignore the multiverse. “But something will happen when the number of parallel calculations becomes very large,” says Deutsch. “If the number is 64, people can shut their eyes but if it’s 1064, they will no longer be able to pretend.”
What would it mean for you and me to know there are inconceivably many yous and mes living out all possible histories? Surely, there is no point in making any choices for the better if all possible outcomes happen? We might as well stay in bed or commit suicide.
Deutsch does not agree. In fact, he thinks it could make real choice possible. In classical physics, he says, there is no such thing as “if”; the future is determined absolutely by the past. So there can be no free will. In the multiverse, however, there are alternatives; the quantum possibilities really happen. Free will might have a sensible definition, Deutsch thinks, because the alternatives don’t have to occur within equally large slices of the multiverse. “By making good choices, doing the right thing, we thicken the stack of universes in which versions of us live reasonable lives,” he says. “When you succeed, all the copies of you who made the same decision succeed too. What you do for the better increases the portion of the multiverse where good things happen.” Let’s hope that deciding to read this article was the right choice.
Interfering with the multiverse, you can see the shadow of other universes using little more than a light source and two metal plates. This is the famous double-slit experiment, the touchstone of quantum weirdness. Particles from the atomic realm such as photons, electrons or atoms are fired at the first plate, which has two vertical slits in it. The particles that go through hit the second plate on the far side. Imagine the places that are hit show up black and that the places that are not hit show up white. After the experiment has been running for a while, and many particles have passed through the slits, the plate will be covered in vertical stripes alternating black and white. That is an interference pattern. To make it, particles that passed through one slit have to interfere with particles that passed through the other slit. The pattern simply does not form if you shut one slit.
The strange thing is that the interference pattern forms even if particles come one at a time, with long periods in between.
So what is affecting these single particles?
According to the many worlds interpretation, each particle interferes with another particle going through the other slit. What other particle? “Another particle in a neighbouring universe,” says David Deutsch. He believes this is a case where two universes split apart briefly, within the experiment, then come back together again. “In my opinion, the argument for the many worlds was won with the double-slit experiment. It reveals interference between neighbouring universes, the root of all quantum phenomena.”
The Cycle of Remembrance
The idea of sharing in your own conditions, and methodologies, is the idea that you are willing to express yourselves, the idea that you are willing to come together for a singular purpose and the overall idea of whether or not you may find many individuated purposes within this overall idea. It is a singular purpose in that you are willing to give of yourselves, that you are willing to explore the beings that you are, and you are willing to understand on a very deep level all of the ideas that have remained hidden from your conscious mind for many thousands of years. This includes a willingness to wake up to the understanding that this exploratory age in which you now live is a prime example of the changes that are going on within the consciousness’ you are, within the reality you have created to experience yourselves within.
The very concept of physiological reality is now changing. The idea that you are beginning to be aware of yourselves as consciousness, rather than simply the product of physiological circumstances, is, in itself, an indication of an expansion of awareness that will create many changes upon your planet – experiential, physiological changes.
Because of your willingness to explore what it is that makes you what you are, you will begin to see in your physiological reality changes that you have always seen occur, but in a much more connected way to the changes that go on within you. You will begin to realize that all the changes you are seeing in your physiological reality, all the differences that are now appearing in your culture, are the result of not only what you are as a social being, but what you actually are as a being of consciousness. And that you have always been primarily responsible for the structures that do exist in your society, not just on a physiological level. For the very concepts of these structures to exist and for the ability of even physical structures to exist, all these ideas have come from the wellspring of the consciousness that you are.
Even in your own literature you have said you are made in the image of the Creator. What that means is that you are also an infinite creator – a multi-dimensional creator. And the attributes that you possess as a multidimensional creator are so automatic, so second-nature, that you create the reality around you so spontaneously that you have even been able to create the scenario that you have forgotten that you are creating it, so easily does it come to you.
You have the ability to create the state you call “forgetfulness.” You have the ability to create this scenario, this illusion in your reality, because your ability to create physical reality is so smoothly operational. You do not have to pay attention to it, it is quite automatic.
But now! Now you are at the end of the cycle of limitation! You are at the end of the cycle of forgetfulness. You have played out all the probable scenarios that can be played out within this particular linear reality that involved the original idea that you projected yourselves into – into this material existence. The original way in which you chose to manifest the belief in forgetfulness has now culminated.
This is the end of the cycle of forgetfulness and the beginning of the cycle of remembrance, the beginning of the awakening.
You are now awakening to the fact that you have been living a particular dream for many thousands – many tens, many hundreds of thousands of years. And now you are awakening into a new understanding that you are the creators of that dream. That you are not simply caught up in the machinations of some objectified universe that is existent outside of you, that goes on with you, or without you.
You are beginning to recognize that what you have called the universe, is in fact, the product of your imagination! The product of your perspective. The product of your perceptions. The product of your beliefs. The product of your feelings. AND, the product of your thoughts.
Even your own scientists are now beginning to realize that all of these ideas come from YOU. They are not truly independent of you. The material universe is but a reflection, perhaps a collective reflection on one level, and an individual reflection on another, but a reflection none the less of the ideas at any given moment which you most stongly believe.
Therefore, as you begin to awaken into the understanding that the universe is your projection, then all the changes that you now make within your consciousness, all the changes that you now allow to occur within the consciousness that YOU ARE, are within the idea that you are,and will be able to be seen by you to manifest that much more obviously, that much more transparently, and that much more quickly in your physiological reality.
Thus you can begin to see the connection between your thoughts and the physical reality you experience. Whereas before you created yourselves a world of time (time being your illusion as well), you created a very large time lag – a thickening of the atmosphere that prevented you from understanding that what you thought, is what created the ideas you are experiencing in your life. This time lag gave you the opportunity to think that your thoughts and your feelings were formed after you created the experiences! But now that you are living more in the moment and not needing to experience the idea of linear time so much, you are beginning to realize that it is your thoughts and your beliefs that actually create your experiences.
Thus you are beginning to reverse all the scenarios that you have been previously taught in your society for how creation is what you experience. You have been taught previously the idea that “seeing is believing”. But now you are beginning to understand that “believing is seeing”. And even though you may not be aware of that fact, you now are awakening to the understanding that when you have a situation occur in your life, in the physical reality, that that is not what creates your beliefs. It is the product of your beliefs!
Now these scenarios may reinforce the beliefs that you have, and may then allow you to experience feelings that you feel are the result of that experience. But understand, a belief exists within you first, and then you have the feeling. There is no such thing as a feeling, a reaction, out of the blue. Energy follows thought, not the other way around.
No situation in any way, shape, or form, can ever prompt any particular built-in feeling from you if you do not already have a built-in belief about what that situation means.
When you attract a situation into your life and then find the reaction within you, it is that reaction and that situation that lets you know beyond a shadow of a doubt, what the belief was that was imbedded and ingrained within your consciousness that allowed for the existence of that situation to begin with.
These situations are not here to show you that you are stuck with these ideas in life. No. They are there to show you that you have the belief that has attracted this situation. And now that you are aware of what this belief is, you can now alter that definition with your imagination. For once again you will begin to realize that your “physiological reality” is only – and can only be – a shadow of the soul, a reflection of the idea at any given moment that you are.
toxoplasmosis changes behavior of host
OPTOGENETIC HARDWARE SETUP
DIY laser diode box
[ Zip folder ]
Arthur English’s group at Emory has developed a custom device that they have used for stimulating peripheral nerves optically in anesthetized mice using a standard optical fiber. The device is compact, rechargeable battery-operated, and controlled either manually or by computer using an analog input. Essentially, laser LED illumination is coupled to an optical fiber by a collimator and can be attached to a standard optical fiber patch cable with an FC/PC Connector (e.g.ThorLabs #M82L01). The device is considered a class 3B laser, so appropriate safety precautions must be taken. As described, the device outputs blue light suitable for activation of channelrhodopsin (473nM), but could be adapted to produce light of different wavelengths.
The zip file linked above includes
- Laser diode driver construction notes – detailed instructions for building the device
- Laser diode box wiring – instructions for internal wiring of the enclosure
- Laser diode driver V2A BOM – bill of materials (parts list)
- Eagle PCB files
- Board – top side – PDF view of top of board
- Schematic – PDF of electrical schematic
- Laser_diode_driver.sch – CadSoft Eagle schematic
- Laser_diode_driver.brd – CadSoft Eagle board layout
- Luminance graph
- Laser LED power output graph – A graph of the typical power output vs. voltage input
- Complete set of phots to aid in construction
Optogenetics in Neural Systems: Neuron Primer
[ PDF ]
Yizhar O, Fenno LE, Davidson TJ, Mogri M, Deisseroth K.
Neuron. 2011 July;72:9-34.
Here we provide a primer on the application of optogenetics in neuroscience, focusing on the single-component tools and highlighting important problems, challenges, and technical considerations.
Optetrode: a multichannel readout for optogenetic control in freely moving mice.
[ PDF ]
Anikeeva P, Andalman AS, Witten I, Warden M, Goshen I, Grosenick L, Gunaydin LA, Frank LM, Deisseroth K.
Nature Neuroscience. 2011 Dec 4;15(1):163-70.
We designed and validated the optetrode, a device that allows for colocalized multi-tetrode electrophysiological recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice. Optetrode manufacture employs a unique optical fiber-centric coaxial design approach that yields a lightweight (2 g), compact and robust device that is suitable for behaving mice. This low-cost device is easy to construct (2.5 h to build without specialized equipment). We found that the drive design produced stable high-quality recordings and continued to do so for at least 6 weeks following implantation.
Integrated device for combined optical neuromodulation and electrical recording for chronic in vivo applications.
[ PDF ]
Wang J, Wagner F, Borton DA, Zhang J, Ozden I, Burwell RD, Nurmikko AV, van Wagenen R, Diester I, Deisseroth K.
J Neural Eng. 2012 9:016001.
We previously demonstrated, in vitro, the dual capability (optical delivery and electrical recording) while testing a novel hybrid device (optrode-MEA), which incorporates a tapered coaxial optical electrode (optrode) and a 100 element microelectrode array (MEA). Here we report a fully chronic implant of a new version of this device in ChR2-expressing rats, and demonstrate its use in freely moving animals over periods up to 8 months.
Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue.
[ PDF ]
Zhang J, Laiwalla F, Kim JA, Urabe H, Van Wagenen R, Song YK, Connors BW, Zhang F, Deisseroth K, Nurmikko AV.
J. Neural Eng. 2009 Oct;6(5):055007.
We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (?optrode?) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array.
Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures.
[ PDF ]
Zhang F, Gradinaru V, Adamantidis AR, Durand R, Airan RD, de Lecea L, Deisseroth K.
Nat Protoc. 2010;5(3):439-56.
Interrogation of even deep neural circuits can be conducted by directly probing the necessity and sufficiency of defined circuit elements with millisecond-scale, cell type-specific optical perturbations, coupled with suitable readouts such as electrophysiology, optical circuit dynamics measures and freely moving behavior in mammals. Here we collect in detail our strategies for delivering microbial opsin genes to deep mammalian brain structures in vivo, along with protocols for integrating the resulting optical control with compatible readouts (electrophysiological, optical and behavioral).
An optical neural interface: in vivo control of rodent motor cortex with integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology.
[ PDF ]
Aravanis AM, Wang LP, Zhang F, Meltzer LA, Mogri MZ, Schneider MB, Deisseroth K.
J. Neural Eng. 2007;4:S143-S156.
We describe here a novel optical neural interface technology that will allow neuroengineers to optically address specific cell types in vivo with millisecond temporal precision. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), an algal light-activated ion channel we developed for use in mammals, can give rise to safe, light-driven stimulation of CNS neurons on a timescale of milliseconds. Because ChR2 is genetically targetable, specific populations of neurons even sparsely embedded within intact circuitry can be stimulated with high temporal precision. Here we report the first in vivo behavioral demonstration of a functional optical neural interface (ONI) in intact animals, involving integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology.
“We were excited to discover that bees’ tiny hairs dance in response to electric fields, like when humans hold a balloon to their hair,” says lead author Gregory Sutton. “A lot of insects have similar body hairs, which leads to the possibility that many members the
insect world may be equally sensitive to small electric fields.”
Bumblebees use the fine hairs covering their bodies to detect electrical fields produced by the flowers they feed on and pollinate, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Bristol. The findings, just published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may help to solve the mystery of how insects and other terrestrial creatures detect and respond to electric fields.
It’s well known that bumblebees use their sense of smell, as well as visual cues such as the colour, shape, and patterning of flowers, to find nectar, and in 2013, biologist Daniel Robert and his colleagues reported the surprising finding that they can also detect floral electric fields.
The ability to detect electric fields was first discovered in sharks and rays, whose electrosensory organs consist of small tubular cavities filled with a conductive jelly that stays in equilibrium with the water; electrical changes in the jelly trigger impulses in the attached sensory nerve endings. Some land animals, such as the platypus, also use electroreception, but rely on organs that have to be submerged in water in order for them to do so. Air does not conduct electricity, however, so we still know very little about how the electric sense might work in insects and other land animals.
When flitting between flowers to forage for food, bumblebees accumulate a positively charged electric field around their bodies. Flowers, on the other hand, produce weak, negatively charged electrical fields. Robert’s team showed that these floral electric fields distort the bees’ own fields as the insects approach them, and that variations in the shape and size of flowers’ electric fields enable the bees not only to tell flowers apart from one another, but also to learn which ones are the best sources of food.
Now, Robert and his colleagues believe they have identified the honeybee’s electric sensor. They knew that spiders use mechanosensory hairs covering their bodies to detect fluid flow and the speed of sound particles, and that honeybee antennae move in response to the electrical fields produced by nestmates performing a waggle dance nearby, and so reasoned that one of these structures might also be involved in the electric sense of the bumblebee.
To test this, they mounted dead bees on pins and used lasers to measure the movements of antennae and mechanosensory body hairs in response to weak electric fields comparable to those produced by flowers in the wild. They found that both the antennae and the body hairs moved in response to the applied electric fields – the hairs, however, being shorter and more rigid than the antennae, moved more than ten times faster, and also deflected further, when the fields were applied.
Further experiments revealed that the mechanosensory hairs were significantly more sensitive to electric fields than the antennae. In response to the applied electric fields, the tips of the hairs deflected almost half a millimetre, movements that are large enough to be visible under the microscope (see video above).
The researchers then anesthetized bumblebees, mounted them on a small clay post, and inserted micro-electrodes into the nerve cells located at the base of the hairs and antennae, to determine how they respond to the applied electric fields. This revealed that the neurons associate with the mechanosensory hairs increased their firing rate in response to the electric fields, whereas those associated with the antennae increased their firing rates only in response to puffs of air or olfactory stimuli such a lavender oil.
These findings hint at the mechanism by which bumblebees detect electric fields. As a bee approaches a flower, the floral electric field distorts the field around the bee’s body, and these distortions deflect the mechanosensory hairs, causing in them a lever-like movement which triggers the nerve cells at their base to fire off signals to the brain.
“We were excited to discover that bees’ tiny hairs dance in response to electric fields, like when humans hold a balloon to their hair,” says lead author Gregory Sutton. “A lot of insects have similar body hairs, which leads to the possibility that many members the insect world may be equally sensitive to small electric fields.”
Sutton, G. P., et al. (2016). Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields. PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1601624113
Presidential Commission: Directed Energy Weapons Used On American Citizens in Tests
Source: The Intel Hub
Shepard Ambellas & Joe Joseph
In the dawn of 2012, many Americans, still left in the dark and unawakened to the fact that their omnipotent government and floundering leaders in Washington would have anything less than the peoples best interest at heart, will now face one of their biggest fears.
Factions within the U.S. Government’s Military Industrial Complex have been, and indeed are testing Directed Energy Weapons, along with chemical, nuclear and biological agents on the civilian populace.
The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues is composed of 13 members and was established in November of 2009 by way of Executive Order 13521 which was issued by President Barrack H. Obama.
According to the PCSBI official government website;
“The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (PCSBI) advises the President on bioethical issues that may emerge from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.
The Commission works with the goal of identifying and promoting policies and practices that ensure scientific research, health care delivery, and technological innovation are conducted in an ethically responsible manner.”
The documentation provided on the PCBSI website concludes that the commission has engaged in various studies over time, one of which was the Dec 15, 2011 study entitled — Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research.
The opening statement in Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research reads like a mad scientists diary stating;
The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues today issued its report concerning federally-sponsored research involving human volunteers, concluding that current rules and regulations provide adequate safeguards to mitigate risk.
In its report, “Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research,” the Commission also recommended 14 changes to current practices to better protect research subjects, and called on the federal government to improve its tracking of research programs supported with taxpayer dollars.
The statement goes on to openly admit that the U.S. Government spread bio-agents (STD’s) to Guatemalans in the mid 40′s stating;
President Obama requested that the Commission undertake an assessment of research standards following the October 2010 revelation that the U.S. Public Health Service supported unethical research in Guatemala from 1946 to 1948 that involved intentionally exposing thousands of Guatemalans to sexually transmitted diseases without their consent.
The President gave the Bioethics Commission two assignments: to oversee a thorough fact-finding investigation into the specifics of the studies (released September 13, 2011); and to assure that current rules for research participants protect people from harm or unethical treatment, domestically as well as internationally.
The statement goes on to highlight the Key Findings:
In the report’s central finding, the Commission found that the “U.S. system provides substantial protections for the health, rights, and welfare of research subjects.”
Evidence has now been brought to light that over 55,000 human testing projects (with numerous people per project) took place during the year 2010;
In assessing the current regulations that protect human subjects, the Commission learned that there is no central source with information about the overall size, scope, and cost of the government’s research involving human subjects.
The Commission requested information from 18 individual agencies that conduct most federal human subjects research, but discovered that many federal offices could not provide basic data about the research they support.
The Pentagon, for example, required more than seven months to prepare information on specific studies supported by the Department of Defense.
In its report, the Commission found that the federal government supported more than 55,000 projects involving human subjects around the globe in Fiscal Year 2010, mostly in health-related research, but also in other fields such as education, engineering and social science.
The PCSBI sounds great to the average person nearly skimming the surface pages of the government website.
However, a closer look reveals that the commission has possibly been put in place to aid in a massive cover-up of what is really taking place right in front of our eyes on a daily basis, congress has approved it, and apparently it’s legal.
The Best in uncensored news, information, and analysis
A Note on Timothy Trespas, Gang Stalking and the Gospel, by Bridget Howe. From:FaithWriters.com-Christian Encouragement –
Authors note: This touched my heart clearly just what I needed to hear. Thank you Bridget Howe for your clear insight and expression of these truths. This is a compelling, touching message, I want to share with others.
As always, I find myself quietly amazed when our Lord GOD answers even me! Calling me to continue seeking God’s truth and love.)
A Note on Timothy Trespas, Gang-stalking and the Gospel
“I have sinned terribly against God.” Timothy Trespas
To some who were confident of their own righteousness and looked down on everyone else, Jesus told this parable:
“Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. The Pharisee stood by himself and prayed: ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other people—robbers, evildoers, adulterers—or even like this tax collector. I fast twice a week and give a tenth of all I get.’ “But the tax collector stood at a distance. He would not even look up to heaven, but beat his breast and said, ‘God, have mercy on me, a sinner.’ “I tell you that this man, rather than the other, went home justified before God. For all those who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted.” Luke 18:9-14
There is nothing pleasant or positive about being a “targeted individual”. When you first learn that you are being targeted and you understand the implications, it is like being diagnosed with a terminal disease. You process through all the stages of grief coming to terms with the criminal act being perpetrated against you. In addition to that you have to cope with the fact there there is no one who is willing to listen or do any thing to help, because the reality and the horror of gang-stalking is hidden from the minds of non targeted individuals. Most Americans feel way too safe here and most of the time are completely unaware of the danger looming over our heads. Stuff like gang-stalking isn’t supposed to happen here.
In fact it isn’t supposed to happen at all.
- Human beings are supposed to be civil.
- They are supposed to respect other people’s rights.
- Lawyers are supposed to defend victims.
- Law Enforcement is supposed to protect us from criminals.
- Judges are supposed to be fair.
- Doctors have a sworn oath to ” do no harm”.
- Preachers are supposed to preach the truth and not deny it, and
- the church is supposed to take a stand against corruption.
We have a constitution, the Bill of Rights and the law.
There is something inside of all if us that cries for justice.
We have an inborn sense that there is something called “right” and it’s opposite “wrong”.
The “inalienable rights” spoken of in our Constitution alludes to the idea that there is an unwritten moral code that pre- existed any written code and in fact supersedes any written code. Those “inalienable rights” are based on the unchanging character of our very Holy God. When you become a gang-stalking victim you know that something has gone terribly wrong.
When I became aware that I was being targeted, I was researching. I wanted to understand and I did a lot of reading. I was shocked and appalled by what I learned. I am a Christian and there was a whole load of ramifications to this because of my faith. I was at first shocked, angry, terrified and confused. I of course asked myself and God what on earth I could have done that could be so terrible as to deserve such abuse. I never saw myself as a perfect shining example of Christianity. I did however give it everything I had. The entire focus of my life was on being truly Christian. I was charitable, concerned about and prayed constantly for others. I was consistently involved in my church. There were in fact sins I needed to overcome. There was no excusing myself when I sinned. I consistently sought God’s forgiveness and I was repentant. There was nothing I was hiding from God, and there was no sin in my life that I was ignoring. There was however a war going on inside me that I could never understand. I hungered for God. I longed to be a part of his ministry. However, I always felt like I was on the outside looking in. I felt shunned, ignored and excluded most of the time. Though I participated, volunteered and gave a tithe and offerings, it never changed. It wasn’t until I learned that I was being targeted that I began to understand why.
In researching my problem I learned that the power structure in this nation is absolutely corrupted, and the church is a part of that power structure and also a part of the corruption.
It goes deep, very deep, and it encompasses the political structure of your home town all the way to the office of the President of the United States.
The church is snared in the web because of two things; a) The Christian faith emphasizes a godly respect for authority, and b) corrupted authority has capitalized on that and deliberately deceived the church. Ergo it has become possible for the church to become ensnared in cooperating with an ugly crime.
The crime begins with isolating the victim, and targets in the church can very quickly become isolated and alone and even ostracized. One woman I spoke to was ostracized from her church because gang-stalkers told members of her congregation that she was lesbian. It wasn’t true, but it served to isolate her from anyone who might have, and should have, provided support. In fact I have spoken with very many targeted individuals and only one has ever said they found support and encouragement in the church.
So here I am with God.
And I am standing here wondering if God is judging me for something. I know the scripture.
I have been a believer since I was 15 years old, and I am 55.
Of course I quickly became aware that my stalkers were full of malice and one of their goals was to destroy my faith. To that end they disrupted my relationship with my church and targeted my mind and emotions with directed energy weapons. Their attack was designed to make me believe that God had abandoned me and I was not his child anymore.
They don’t believe that God exists. Problem is, he does and he is not silent. They lie. He speaks the truth. He says, “My love is not quenched.” They can’t contend with the Holy Spirit living inside of me. They can’t deceive him nor manipulate him into cooperating with their destructive game.
Well the questions arise, “If I am a child of God why am I suffering like this? Why am I being raped with microwave weapons? Why are my finances being attacked? Why is my workplace a battleground? Why did my family and friends not understand when I told them what was happening? Why does the church fail to respond? Is God disciplining me for something?
Does God hate me or love me?
In the first place, when we sign up with God we are signing up for the cross.
Our redeemer was crucified. All of his disciples bar one fled the cross when this happened.
Jesus said to his disciples, “If any man would come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. –Matt. 16:24, NIV.
In the Hebrew, the word for cross is literally translated torture stake. Torture is one of the greatest evils of fallen, sinful human beings. It turns the human personality upside down. It is the ultimate violation of the image of God stamped into our very being.
However, Jesus does not call us to resist the cross, but to embrace it. The writer of Hebrews says, “For the joy set before him he endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. Consider him who endured such opposition from sinners, so that you will not grow weary and lose heart.” –Hebrews 12:2 NIV.
Indeed, consider him.
And what does it mean, “scorning its shame”?
People were crucified because they had allegedly committed a crime. However, as can be clearly seen in the scripture, the process of convicting the criminal was in fact corrupted. Jesus was probably not the only man convicted on trumped up charges. Nevertheless the convicted hung on the cross for all the world to see, having been like Jesus beaten and scourged.
But here is the irony of the thing. Jesus was in fact sinless.
Those that accused him, lied.
Those who beat him were senselessly cruel and in fact were guilty of murder.
Pilate knew Jesus was innocent but for political reasons allowed an innocent man to die. But, even when those being crucified are in fact guilty of some crime, they are all of them sentenced, beaten, and crucified by people who all deserve death ( Romans 3:23…for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.; Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord, NIV).
They are not any less guilty then those who are hanging on the cross. Jesus knows this.
Perhaps that is what he despises. They who pass judgment on the crucified, are all worthy of death. The punisher is no less guilty then the punished. The punished endures the shame, while the punisher gets off scott free.
Another likely reason Jesus scorned the “shame” of the cross was that it was a symbol of brutal tyranny.
The Jews of Judea lived in the shadow of the cross. They traveled on foot or by donkey and as they passed the roads the crosses of the crucified bodies of the convicted lined the roadway and adorned the tops of the hills. The gruesome macabre sight of the tortured bodies, some of them still alive and writhing in excruciating pain, were reminders to passers bye of the consequences of resisting Roman rule or breaking Roman law. The intent was to intimidate. It worked. In addition, the religious leaders of the day, instead of defending their people against the tyrannical abuse of the Roman government, curried the favor of the political elite by engaging in tyrannical rule of their own people. They had thus become corrupt. This was likely the reason Jesus denounced them publicly (Matt 23:13-38).
Jesus went to the cross to say, “Look, you want to crucify someone, take me. Go ahead drive the spikes into my hands and the spear into my side. I will take the blame for all of you, and overcome it.” And he did. Indeed, consider him.
Several years ago, before I began my research quest, I had a dream. In my dream there was a war going on. I was grabbing people and dragging them into the church thinking we would find shelter there. I had them go down to the floor between wooden pews in defensive posture with their hands covering their heads. I was saying, ” It’s okay, we will be safe in here.” No sooner had those words left my mouth, then the entire side wall in the sanctuary was blown out. On the other side of that wall were Roman Soldiers on horseback, and they were dragging people out of the church and conscripting then into labor. I remembered the dream because it was so vivid, but I really did not understand the meaning of the dream.
It wasn’t until years later when I learned that I was being targeted and I began digging for information that I understood the dream. For one of the things I learned was that the occult has heavily infiltrated the church. Former Grand Druid, John Todd, from the Illuminati Collins family, testified before a church congregation that the Illuminati, the inner core of the Freemason cult, spend billions of dollar yearly training their people to act like evangelical Christians so they can infiltrate and manipulate the church (John Todd, The Illuminati and Witchcraft, 1978 http://www.kt70.com.). Another Illuminati defector, Svali Walthrop whose interview with Greg Szymanski can be heard at a WordPress web page (http://email@example.com), also testified that she grew up in the church but her family was occult. She was one of their top mind control programmers. When she finally realized everything she had been taught was a lie, and she left the cult. However, as a cult member, she taught at a Christian school.
In addition there are a load of pastors out there who are Freemasons. That doesn’t necessarily mean they are not Christian, but Freemasonry is designed to systematically destroy the faith of a believer.
Many Christians who are members of the Freemason cult do not realize that the cult is Luciferian, not Christian.
Both John Todd and Svali Walthrop converted to Christianity, and they have blown the whistle on cult activity in the church.
Cathy O’Brien, who travels with her husband Mark Phillips speaking out against the occult infiltration of the US Government, also reveals that in her catholic School, a CIA occult operative disguised as a priest forced her to perform oral sex on him while she was in the confessional (Cathy O’Brien, Mark Phillips; Trance Formation of America (Frankston, Texas;Reality Marketing Inc., 1995, p 300). The priest/CIA operative was in charge of the now infamous MONARCH mind control operation. I recommend reading Cathy’s book with great caution. It is the true life story of a woman who grew up in a 3rd generation occult family. It is full of sexually explicit material. I only read the book in patches. There was material in that book I was not willing to read because it was so graphic and contaminating.
What many in America don’t realize, especially in the church, is that we are seeing the prophesied resurgence of Roman tyranny on the political scene worldwide. This is evidenced in America by the blatant violation of human rights and complete disregard of the Constitution or of the rule of “we the people”. Thus we have American people gang-stalking their fellow Americans and torturing them with directed energy weapons while the US Government, the Department of Justice, local governments, the American BAR association, the American Medical and Psychiatric Associations and Law Enforcement turn a blind eye.
While the cries of 3,000,000 Americans go unheard, and millions more worldwide, stalkers, with the consent of the US Government and governments worldwide are free to tag anyone they wish, torture them covertly with directed energy weapons causing them to hear voices, endure terrible even suicidal depressions, migraine headaches, painful muscle cramps, even ritual rape, loss of sleep, vomiting and diarrhea etc. Targeted individuals also endure terrible isolation because stalkers trained in cover assault tactics have persuaded family, friends and other associates to cooperate with their scheme through deception, bribery or even blackmail leaving the targeted person without anyone to talk to, defend them or provide emotional support. They have literally been forsaken at the cross.
God sent his own son to the cross to bear our shame and endure death on our behalf so he could rescue us from an eternity in Hell. Though God disciplines the son or daughter he loves, he does not rape, torture or otherwise abuse them.
However, we are living in a broken and corrupted world. God asks us sometimes to endure patiently for the sake of others who are also suffering as a witness to the cross.
Suffering is also ordained by God to bring about change in us. I would be the first to say that I need to change. I want to be more like Jesus. God wants to being that about for me. I want a heart that is pure, free of malice, resentment or spiritual pride. I want no sexual impurity in me at all. I want no worldly desires to get in the way of my obedience to Christ.
That does not mean to say that God approves of those who are torturing me or my fellow targeted individuals. He certainly does not. But God has something to say to them too. In suffering we are humbled and, before God, we wait patiently for deliverance.
While those who torture us go on torturing with impunity, we are bearing witness of the truth of the Gospel. I am dismayed by those who insist that if we had been obedient to God, these things wouldn’t have happened to us. I was upset because some woman said something like that to my targeted brother, Timothy Trespass ( https://timothytrespas.wordpress.com/2014/04/01/881-timothytrespas-thank-the-lord-lost-and-suffering-honestly-struggling/). The implication is that if we targeted individuals were more like her, then we would not be suffering so.
In fact we do stumble and we do experience the consequences of our own actions. In my own confusion, I wondered if I had done something terrible enough for God to give up on me. As I was pondering over this, God brought to my mind King David. God called him a man after his own heart. King David we know was guilty of murder and adultery. He was severely disciplined by God, but God did not forsake him, and King David humbled himself under the Lord’s hand and endured patiently. He put his faith in God’s unfailing love and refused to budge.
Sometimes our suffering makes no sense at all.
Job was robbed by a gang of ruthless criminals, and Job’s friends were convinced he must have done something terrible. Job probably struggled with the same “why?” questions that gang-stalking victims struggle with. Job wrestled because he believed in the goodness of God and could not imagine God being willing to devastate his life in such a way for anything he had done. He hadn’t in fact done anything worthy of such punishment. God himself finally had to step in to settle the question.
Honestly, God’s answer to Job never made any sense to me. What did make sense to me was Job’s resolution, “I know that my redeemer lives, and that in the end he will stand on the earth. And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God; I myself will see him with my own eyes—I, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!” (Job 19:25-27 NIV).
Whether or not you think you have done something horrible for which God would discipline you, putting your faith in God’s unfailing love and refusing to budge will keep you from destructive despair which is where your stalkers will drive you if they can.
The truth is that the methodology and philosophy behind gang-stalking is amoral. The gang-stalking community operates with a worldview that does not allow for an understanding of a moral or ethical code. Though many gang-stalkers believe that they are executing some kind of justice, they that lead them have no sense of right or wrong. The leaders of these gangs are pretty expert at manipulating people to do their bidding. They are likely connected to the intelligence community and they have an agenda with no regard for the Constitution, Bill of a Rights or common decency. Deception is the name of their game. The stalkers have a strong sense of justice which is manipulated by their leaders to persuade them to do the things they do.
Though gang-stalkers come from all walks of life, some seem to me to be people who have been underprivileged and have learned to resent people who have more. The operators who lead them capitalize on this and exploit it. I have heard a gang-stalker say, “I just think everybody should have the same amount.” One day I came home and found a book cover from a children’s book that had been obviously and deliberately dropped inside my fenced in patio. The book cover was new, not worn or torn. It was clean with not a speck of dirt on it. It hadn’t been blown there by wind. The title and the caption of the book was about a woman who was basically a rich snob. I wondered if the stalkers were told that’s what I was in order to gain their cooperation in targeting me. The leaders of these groups seem to have cultivated a socialist/communist mindset in their members. It is also a concern among targeted individuals that gang stalkers work as reducing the target’s economic viability. Most targeted individuals become either unemployed or under employed. This echo’s historically the Bolshevik revolution. Gang-stalking is also used as a revenge service and frequently used to silence whistleblowers. Large cooperations hire them to get rid of someone they don’t want to pay the cost of firing.
Gang-stalking victims are also possibly being punished for believing in a moral code and believing in God. It is possible that the stalker and/or their cult leaders believe that people who adhere to an ethical code are actually mentally unhealthy. Members of the occult refer to people who believe in a right or wrong as “moralists”.
Satanists and Luciferians do not believe in love and they work at destroying a person’s ability to form and maintain loving relationships and this is a common element with satanic ritual abuse, trauma based mind control and gang-stalking. Therefore a targets relationships are also targeted. There is indication that the Freemason cult is at the root at the gang-stalkers mission.
A stalker who confessed explained that the Supreme Council is the power behind gang-stalking. The Supreme council is the 33rd level of the Freemason cult (http://gangstalkingsurfers.wordpress.com/confessions-of-a-gang-stalker-aka-life-in-the-syndicate/).
Another targeted individual links secret courts run by Freemasons to gang-stalking (If you Discover You Are a Victim’ ; Hearing Voices is Voice to Skull: Implant Victims, Gang-stalking Wiki<http://www.hearingvoices-is-voicetoskull.com/WhatNext.htm.) The US intelligence community for years has funded research into trauma based mind control. This was the subject of the Senate investigations in the 70s (United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress Hearings Before the Senate Select Committee to a Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities [online] // – AARC Public Digital Library, 1976. – August 16, 2009. http://www.aarclibrary.org). Cults including the Freemason cult, Satanists and the like are employing the fruits of that research to force believers to recant their faith, though it is all done covertly in secret and deceptively using directed energy technology, electronic surveillance and satellites. They are also using deception to encourage family members, friends etc to participate in the game of isolating the victim. Those that participate may actually believe they are doing something good, when in fact they are participating in the murder of a soul.
If you are a target then I encourage you to put your faith in God’s unfailing love and hang on. They can’t deceive God and they can’t manipulate him. As the scripture admonishes “Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; ( for he is faithful that promised;) Hebrews; 10:23 KJV).”
Timothy Trespass has a very humble and repentant spirit. He was weeping over the remark the woman made to him. He is truly broken hearted over his own sin, and he is the perfect example of the repentant sinner in the parable Jesus told in Luke 18 which I have quoted above. I share his grief. I too have sinned terribly against God. God be merciful to me, a sinner.
SURVIVAL, EVASION, RESISTANCE AND ESCAPE MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES
Fleet Aviation Specialized Operational Training Group, Atlantic Fleet, Naval Air-Station, Brunswick, Brunswick ME 04011-5000
STUDENT HANDBOOK D/E-2D-0039
I TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I…………………..CODE OF CONDUCT…………………….3
CHAPTER II…………………GENEVA CONVENTION…………………7
CHAPTER III……………….WATER PROCUREMENT…………………21
.RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING…..47
………………INDUCED CONDITIONS …………………84
THE WILL TO SURVIVE
PERSONAL SURVIVAL KIT AND RECOMMENDED READING
This UNCLASSIFIED handbook is designed to provide SERE students with information to review during the basic SERE course and as an aid for retention. SERE graduates are encouraged to periodical review this information and continue your SERE education from the recommended reading list
I 1SURVIVAL, EVASION, RESISTANCE AND ESCAPE
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST
DECIDE TO SURVIVE!
S – Size up the situation.
Physical condition Adequate water intake Injuries, Illness Food Surroundings Equipment
U – Use all your senses, slow down and think.
R – Remember where you are.
V – Vanquish fear and panic.
I – Improvise and improve.
V – Value living.
A – Act like the natives.
L – Live by your training and experience
a.Assess immediate situation…
THINK BEFORE YOU ACT!
b.Take action to protect yourself from Nuclear, Biological or Chemical hazards. (See Chapter XI)
d.Assess medical condition; treat as necessary. (See Chapter X)
e.Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information.
f.Sanitize area, hide equipment you are leaving.
h.Move away from initial site; zigzag pattern recommended.
i.Use terrain to advantage; communication and concealment.
j.Find hold-up site.
2.HOLD-UP SITE (See ChapterIX)
a.Reassess, treat injuries, inventory equipment.
b.Review plan of action; establish priorities (See Chapter VI)
c.Determine your current location.
e.Execute plan of action…
f. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand.
3.CONCEALMENT (See Chapter IX)
a.Select a place of cover and concealment providing:
(1)Adequate cover; ground and air.
(2)Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communication.(LOCs)
(3)Listening and observation point.
(4)Multiple avenues of escape.
(5)Protection from the environment.
(6)Possible communication/signaling opportunities.
b.Stay alert, maintain security.
4.MOVEMENT (See Chapter IX)
a.Travel slowly and deliberately.
b.Do not leave evidence of travel, use noise and light discipline.
c.Stay away from LOC’s.
d.Stop, Look, Listen, and Smell; take appropriate action.
e.Move from one concealed area to another.
f.Use evasion movement techniques
5.COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALING (See Chapter VII)
a.Communicate per theater communication procedures, particularly when considering transmitting in the “blind”.
b.Be prepared to use devices on short notice.
c.Communication/signaling devices may compromise position.
6.RECOVERY OPERATIONS (See Chapter VI)
a.Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans.
b.Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear.
c.Select best area for communications and signaling devices.
d.Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOCs.
e.Follow recovery force instructions.
3 CHAPTER I CODE OF CONDUCT
The Code of Conduct represents a formal expression of the standards of military conduct understood and accepted by most countries for centuries. It serves as a guideline to be followed by all members of the armed forces, particularly when in a captured or detained status. It is professional and inspirational rather than a penal code. Failure to live up to the full extent of its obligations is not a criminal offense.
Adequate authority exists under the Uniform Code of Military Justice for that malfeasance’s which can be properlytermed criminal acts. Should a service member engage in actions punishable under the UCMJ, they maybe prosecuted under that statute, but not under the Code of Conduct.
It is recognized that inhuman treatment and the application of psychological techniques have succeeded in individual cases in forcing involuntary departures from the standards set forth by the Code and can be expected to do so in the future. Notwithstanding these past and possible future departures, it would be unwise to officially advocate voluntary departures for any reason. The individual must be expected to adhere to both the spirit and the intent of the Code of Conduct to the full extent of their physical, mental, and moral resources. The wisdom of the Code of Conduct has been confirmed by former captives who found it a source of strength in situations of severe duress.
I am an American, fighting in the forces which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.
Article I of the Code of Conduct apply to all service members at all times.
A member of the armed forces has a duty to support the interests and oppose the enemies of the United States regardless of the circumstances, whether in active participation in combat or captivity.
Past experience of captured Americans reveal that honorable survival of captivity requires that a member possess a high degree of dedication and motivation. Maintaining these qualities requires knowledge of and a strong belief in its institutions and concepts. Possessing the dedication and motivation fostered by such beliefs and trust will enable prisoners to survive long, stressful periods of captivity and return to country and family honorably and with their self-esteem intact.
I will never surrender of my on free will.
If in command I will never surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist
Members of the Armed Forces may never voluntarily surrender. Even when isolated and no longer able to inflict casualties on the enemy or otherwise defend themselves, it is their duty to evade capture and rejoin the nearest friendly force. When cut off, shot down or otherwise isolated in enemy controlled territory, they must make every effort to avoid capture. The courses of action available include concealment until recovered by friendly rescue forces, evasive travel to a friendly or neutral territory, and evasive travel to other pre-briefed areas.
4 The responsibility and authority of a commander never exceeds to the surrender of command, even if isolated, cut off or surrounded, while the unit still has the power to resist, break out, or evade to join friendly forces. Only when evasion by members is impossible and further fighting would lead only to their death with no significant loss to the enemy, might the means to resist or evade be considered exhausted.
Capture does not constitute a dishonorable act if all reasonable means of avoiding it have been exhausted and the only alternative is certain death.
If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.
The duty of a member of the Armed Forces to continue resistance to enemy exploitation by all means available is not lessened by the misfortune of capture. Contrary to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, enemies which U.S. forces have engaged since 1949 have regarded the PW compound as an extension of the battlefield. The Prisoner of War (PW) must be prepared for this fact.
In disregarding provisions of the Geneva Conventions, the enemy has used a variety of tactics to exploit PW’s for propaganda purposes or to obtain military information. Resistance to captor exploitation efforts is required by the Code of Conduct.
Physical and mental harassment, general mistreatment and torture, medical neglect and political indoctrination have all been used against PW’s in the past.
Under the guidance and supervision of the senior military person and PW organization, PWs must be prepared to take advantage of escape opportunities whenever they arise. In communal detention, the welfare of the PWs who will remain behind must be considered. A PW must “think escape,” must try to escape if able to do so and must assist others to escape. The enemy has tried to tempt PWs to accept special favors or privileges not given to other PWs in return for statements or information desired by the enemy or for a pledge by the PW not to try to escape. A PW must not seek special privileges or accept special favors at the expense of his fellow PWs. Parole agreements and promises given the captor by a prisoner of war to fulfill stated conditions, such as not to bear arms or not to escape, in consideration of special privileges, such as release from captivity or lessened restraint. The United States does not authorize any service member to sign or enter into any such parole agreement
If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information
or take or take part in any action which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will
take command. If not, I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them
up in every way.
Officers and non-commissioned officers will continue to carry out their responsibilities and to exercise
their authority in captivity. Informing or any other action detrimental to a fellow PW, is despicable and is
expressly forbidden. Prisoners of war must especially avoid helping the enemy to identify fellow PWs
who may have knowledge of value to the enemy and who may therefore, be made to suffer coercive
PWs, for their own benefit, should organize in a military manner under the senior
person eligible for command. The senior person (whether officer or enlisted) within the PW camp or with
TARGETING, GANGSTALKING, MORGELLONS, REMOTE-NEURAL-MONITORING,VOICE-2-SKULL, COVERT DRUGGING, ENERGY BASED WEAPONS, ATTACKS WITH FLEAS, MITES, VIRUS, BACTERIA, NEMATODE, NANOBOTS, SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY, NANOTECHNOLOGY, MICROWAVE WEAPONS, TRASHING THE VICTIM,COVERT DRUGGING, FUNGUS, MOLD, ERGOT, LSD,DMT, MIND-FUKING THE VICTIM, ETC, ETC ,
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TARGETING, GANG-STALKING, MORGELLONS, REMOTE-NEURAL-MONITORING,VOICE-2-SKULL, COVERT DRUGGING, ENERGY BASED WEAPONS, ATTACKS WITH FLEAS, MITES, VIRUS, BACTERIA, NEMATODE, NANOBOTS, SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY, NANOTECHNOLOGY, MICROWAVE WEAPONS, TRASHING THE VICTIM,COVERT DRUGGING, FUNGUS, MOLD, ERGOT, LSD,DMT, MIND-FUCING THE VICTIM, ETC, ETC… at first you notice things … Continue reading
My name is timothytrespas: I am a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL…
The New World Order or whatever they wish to call it, is Falling into place.
These statements are facts, as every other TARGET knows.
It is TIME FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC TO KNOW THE TRUTH ABOUT MIND CONTROL-
IT IS REAL and THEY ARE PERFECTING IT FOR USE ON EVERYONE as you watch this.So, if there is no false flag alien innovation (BLUE BEAM), the creek don’t rise, and there ‘ain’t no meltdown, WAKE UP WORLD because FREEDOM of THOUGHT is nothing but a fond memory (until they discover how to remove even that memory from your brain, then what?) Remote neural connectivity with an artificial intelligence used for brain mapping and mind control, covert drugging , 330 west 51st street is a government safe house and some tenants are being used for non-consensual human experimentation. Highest levels of government, military, academia, scientific, medical, law enforcement, and intelligence communities are working to END FREEDOM. YOU will be the next enemy, the next insurgent, the next TERRORIST!Authors note: It is 3 years later and I am quite sick with what may be Lyme’s disease like symptoms possible infection with spirochetes or other organisms. as well as mogellons or whatever they did to us. I suffer greatly in pain.
I understand the difficulty many have in understanding how this could be happening. I, too, had difficulty believing what was happening, even as it was happening to me. eventually, you reach a stage where it is so incredibly insane you simply can not deny the reality that there are a group of people targeting you and doing strange things and attacking you in ways that are difficult if not impossible to prove without expensive technology and experts. Then there are the cover stories, the other reasons that the people and doctors refuse top believe you.
Many statements I make are my opinion based on assumptions based on observations based on projected reality. some may be fantasy. some correct, some wrong. Those who have experienced this reality understand.
Others perhaps not. u keeping an open mind for possibility is better than a closed mind full of half truths and misconceptions.
IMHO, This would have to be a huge well funded and complicated but well planned and executed operation.
what the goal is, I can not say. there may be many. does it even matter?
I thought human beings have a god given right not to be used, enslaved, made sick, murdered, programmed, brainwashed, etc.
But who will enforce these rights?
If not our GOD, then us?
how do we reconcile reality with the matrix like fantasy built up around us.
compartmentalized so that so one on the lower end of the pyramid sees the entire plot.
Thank you for reading watching and please, pray for each other and for me and petra and all victims. everyone. Blessings and peace
I have turned my life over to Yeshua, the Christ, as best as I am able.
I pray not only for myself, for the other victims of these crimes, others who suffer and for the people who choose to do evil rather than follow the will and law of our creator.
This is the real crime and I pray humanity will survive log enough to awaken to its own promise of compassion and togetherness.
Together we may thrive.
If we stop believing in lies and always look for truth.
If we can trust in each other and our creator.
that would be a world I wish I could live to see.
Timothytrespas: Targeted Individual: SICK! After 3 days of vomiting I look closer to death
Timothytrespas: Magnet-head! MIGRAINE HEADACHE Microwave attack attempted mitigation: 2x 20lb magnets on my head!
Blessings and peace to those being murdered by the New world order evil technology you are in my prayers. Please pray for me, Petra,my love and friend and partner, for all the victims everywhere and all humans and animals and plants who suffer and die because of the secret takeover of humanity.
May Yeashua come back to help us all. at this point if this lovely world ended., It would not shock me at all!
Timothytrespas:Sick nausea shaking sweating freezing headache LOUD frequency attack incapacitates. Morgellons? Lyme’s? Microwaves?
I was sick all night and in the morning vomiting, defecating, sweating, shaking freezing, headache, pain everywhere, and the LOUDEST high frequency I have EVER heard in my Left ear.
I thought my head would explode.
I took my medicine for sleep, and some medicinal natureopathic plant medicine, and my narcotic-replacement-therapy medicine, and my anti-anxiety medicine, and suffered until I fell (mercifully, Thank you lord) asleep.
I awoke somewhat better but still weak and sickly.
I pray for everyone who is suffering from sickness, disease, and pain.
I pray for all who suffer that they may find relief from their pain.
HEALTH is an issue that many ignore until they are dying or sick.
Health is a BLESSING! I wish to THANK EVERYONE who PRAYED for ME! PLEASE Please pray for one another.
It does help, even if the person has no idea. I am a victim of New World Order secret mind control program, the newest MK-ULTRA.
I am suffering from morgellons syndrome which I believe to part of the mind control agenda by building nano machine radio parts inside of us, and messing with our DNA. DEPOPULATION comes to mind.
Global mind control. Or a pandemic of infected human beings. Lyme’s? Morgelons? Nanotechnology? What are they doing to us all? Hey, to those who have not yet suffered and do not believe the facts, WAKE UP!
this is the 21st century and lots of the stuff from past science fiction may NOW BE SCIENCE FACT!
Source: Microsoft Word – NOAA Weather Scales 04-11-11.doc – NOAAscales.pdf
Practical Real Time Spectrum Analyzer Applications Part 1 — Basics Of Interference Hunting And Spectrum Monitoring | Signal Hound
Learn how a spectrum analyzer can hunt for interfering signals, or even perform long-term monitoring of wireless spectrum in a specific area
The capabilities of a real time spectrum analyzer create a valuable tool for “seeing” the signals in your environment and provide a starting point for a deep look into interference issues.
As you continue to spend time observing and monitoring the wireless spectrum, you’ll begin to develop a keen sense of where potential interferers lie.
Disruptive EPIC sensor with multiple proven applications in high sensitivity electric potential sensor that can be used in either contact or non-contact mode.
- Contact mode: measures bio-electric signals like ECG, EMG, EOG and EEG.
- Non-contact mode: measures disruption in the electric field caused by human body movement enabling. Also Proximity sensing, Movement Sensing, and Gesture recognition.
The human body, because it acts as a large container of conducting/polarizable material, causes a large perturbation in the electric field and so presents an easily detectable target for the sensor.
The ability of EPIC to resolve signals unique to various muscles or groups of muscles presents opportunities for improved man-machine interaction
Strong demand for products with major applications
- Communications – smart-phones and tablets for ECG and proximity sensing
- Consumer – remote sensing controllers for video games consoles
- Automotive – alertness, occupancy and slow speed collision avoidance
- Medical – ECG, tomography and “smart bed” applications
EPIC PCB hybrids and chips for all electric potential sensing applications
- The integrated circuit provides a unique high impedance amplifier design
- The PCB hybrid solution includes EPIC chip, tuning circuit and the sensor electrode
Because of EPIC’s mode of operation, it can be used to detect any disturbance in the local electric field at distances of up to several tens of meters. The human body, because it acts as a large container of conducting/polarizable material, causes a large perturbation in the electric field and so presents an easily detectable target for the sensor.
Sitting a few meters away from the sensor, one has only to raise the sole of one’s foot to create a strong signal.
Arrays of sensors can be used to provide spatial resolution and therefore the location of a target.
Such arrays can also distinguish between humans and quadrupeds because the time signature of the response is a direct function of cadence.
Such a system of sensors could perhaps be used for border security in remote areas.
The ability of EPIC to resolve signals unique to various muscles or groups of muscles presents opportunities for improved man-machine interaction.
For example, a quadriplegic who currently depends on either a unicorn stick or a suck/blow tube to issue commands to equipment within his or her local environment could achieve a faster and more efficient interaction using EPIC for eye tracking and detection of activity in any muscle groups still under voluntary control.
Alternatively, because EPIC can assign a unique signature to the use of certain muscle groups, it opens up many possibilities for interfacing with and controlling prosthetic limbs.
EPIC is also a useful tool in the microscopic domain. Small sensors scanning a microchip, for example, can show areas of high or low potential, allowing the user to map the current distribution within metal tracks and other circuit elements. Faults in dielectric materials can also be detected either by passive means (by detecting piezoelectric effects) or by identifying leakage paths in an active circuit.
Recently a ≈6 µm sensor has been used to reveal a human fingerprint left on an insulating PTFE material (Figure 6) and to characterize its decay over time . The advantage to the forensic scientist of being able to date a fingerprint is obvious. The technique is nondestructive and leaves no chemical residue, which means that DNA samples can be taken at a later date.
What Is EPIC?
EPIC is an acronym for “Electric Potential Integrated Circuit” but the term has become synonymous with the integrated circuit technology, the sensor itself, and, in a wider context, the physical principles of operation of the device within a system.
EPIC is a noncontact electrometer, meaning that there is no direct DC path from the outside world to the sensor input, a condition that is somewhat analogous to the gate electrode of an MOS transistor. The electrode is protected by a capping layer of dielectric material to ensure that the electrode is isolated from the body being measured. The device is AC coupled with a lower corner frequency (-3dB) of a few tens of MHz and an upper corner frequency above 200 MHz. This response is adjustable and can be tailored to suit a particular application. Such an electrometer cannot be DC coupled because the Earth’s electric field close to the surface is ≈100-150 V/m.
In single-ended mode the device can be used to read electric potential; used in differential mode it can measure the local electric field; or it can be deployed in arrays to provide spatial potential mapping (locating a conducting or dielectric material placed within free space).
Figure 1 shows a basic block diagram of the EPIC sensor . The size of the electrode is somewhat arbitrary and depends on the input capacitance required for a particular application. For bodies placed close to the electrode, the electrode’s size is important and the device operation can be understood in terms of capacitive coupling. For devices that are several meters away, the coupling capacitance is defined only by the self-capacitance of the electrode and the device’s response is largely a function of the input impedance as it interacts with the field. This is rather counterintuitive but is a function of the very small amount of energy that EPIC takes from the field in active mode.
The input resistance to the device can be boosted by using bootstrapping techniques while the input capacitance can be reduced using guarding techniques. The input capacitance can be driven as low as 10-17F with the input resistance being boosted to values up to around 1015Ω, thus keeping the interaction with the target field to an absolute minimum and ensuring that all currents are small displacement currents only.
A better understanding of the feedback mechanisms can be obtained by considering the input buffer of the amplifier and its associated impedances as shown in Figure 2. The resistors RG1 and RG2 are used to set the gain of the first stage, which is nominally unity. Cin and Rin represent the input capacitance and resistance native to the amplifier, respectively, and include any parasitic components due to layout or substrate issues. The capacitor Cext models the capacitive coupling to the measurement target.
For close coupling (Cext >> Cin) this is usually defined as
a = the equivalent shared electrode/target area
d = the distance between target and sensor
ε0 = the permittivity of free space
εr = the relative permittivity of the dielectric in which the sensor is operating
For loose coupling (Cext << Cin) we have the limiting case (self-capacitance) shown as
Where r is the diameter of the sensor plate.
Analysis of the circuit shows us that we have a classic single-pole transfer function shown as
The Bode plot for this is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Bode plot for the transfer function of Equation 3
The corner frequency (Fc1) can be expressed as
By applying the bootstrapping techniques mentioned earlier, we can control the values for Cin and Rin to give effective values, allowing us to control both the gain plateau and the corner frequency (Fc1 moves to Fc2). The response of the sensor can be further controlled by the design of subsequent stages and positive feedback loops. Thus we have a sensor that can be tailored to suit the particular application at hand.
Figure 4 shows a pair of Plessey EPIC sensors and the associated control box. The control box is an amplifier/filter combination and is used for demonstration purposes only. The electrodes shown here have been tailored for contact ECG measurement but can also be used for remote sensing and other applications.
A great amount of interest has been generated within the medical community where the primary focus is on using EPIC for surface body electrode physiology applications such as electrocardiograph (ECG), electromyograph (EMG), electroencephalograph (EEG), and electrooculargraph (EOG).
The EPIC sensor can be used, for example, as a replacement technology for traditional wet-electrode ECG pads, because it requires neither gels nor other contact-enhancing substances. When the EPIC sensor is placed on (or in close proximity to) the patient, an ECG signal can be recovered. The sensor is capable of both simple ‘monitoring’ ECG as well as making more exacting clinical diagnostic measurements. In the latter application it can be used as a replacement for the traditional twelve-lead ECG, in which electrodes are placed on the limbs and torso (each pair of electrodes is called a lead and each lead measures the electrical activity of the heart from a slightly different perspective) to achieve a clearer picture of how the patient’s heart is working. An array of EPIC sensors placed on the chest can be used to recreate the lead required with resolution as good as or better than that achieved using traditional systems. Figure 5 shows a comparison between the results using EPIC and using traditional wet electrodes for leads II and aVL . These two leads are important in the diagnosis of conditions such as coronary artery occlusion.
Figure 5. ECG readouts showing the results using EPIC (top) vs. traditional wet electrode ECG (bottom)
The sensor can also be used for recovering other physiological signals such as those caused by the electrical activity of the eye muscles as one looks left, right, up, or down. These signals have unique signatures; an EOG can be used to track the position of the eyes and therefore produce targeting information for military and gaming applications, for example. Perhaps the most exciting application in the medical field is that of electroencephalography (EEG) where the electrical activity of the brain is recorded. Application of the EPIC sensor to this field is still in its infancy but the potential ability to record identifiable signals against known thought patterns opens up possibilities that currently only exist in science fiction.
Currently the sensor is available with mid-range (flat-band) voltage gains of x10 or x50. This corresponds to around 20dB and 34dB.
The PS252xx and PS254xx family (square compact) require a bipolar supply of between ±2.5V and ±4.5V.
The PS25012x family of application boards generate the bipolar supply from a single supply, and so require only a unipolar supply of between +4 and +8V.
The PS251xx family of sensors require only a unipolar supply between +4.75 to +8.0V.PLESSEY SEMICONDUCTORS | TAMERTON ROAD | ROBOROUGH | PLYMOUTH | DEVON | UK | PL6 7BQ
© PlPLESSEY SEMICONDUCTORS | TAMERTON ROAD | ROBOROUGH | PLYMOUTH | DEVON | UK | PL6 7BQ
© PlPLESSEY SEMICONDUCTORS | TAMERTON ROAD | ROBOROUGH | PLYMOUTH | DEVON | UK | PL6 7BQ
Some peculiarities of auditory sensations evoked by pulsed microwave fields – Tyazhelov – 1979 – Radio Science – Wiley Online Library
Rectangularly pulsed, 800-MHz microwaves were coupled via waveguide from a 500-W source to the parietal area of the head of normal human observers (Os).
Pulse widths from 5 to 150 μS and pulse-repetition rates (PRRs) from 50 to 20,000 pulses per second (pps) were employed.
Sine-wave audio-frequency (AF) signals could be presented alternately to or concurrently with microwave pulses (RF signal) under conditions in which O could adjust the amplitude, frequency and phase of the AF signal.
By matching timbre and loudness of the perceived RF and AF signals during a succession of psychophysical measures—some while O’s head was being immersed in water—the Os yielded the following results:
- (1) Both loudness and perceptual thresholds of the RF signal were biphasic functions of pulse width and of PRR;
- (2) When pulse widths increased toward 100 μs, some subjects perceived a different sound that was lower in pitch and was referred externally to the head;
- (3) By appropriate phasing of AF and RF signals after matching for pitch and timbre, loudness of the RF signal could be reduced below the threshold of perception; and
- (4) Extent of immersion of the head in water was correlated with reduced loudness of the RF signal. Some of the data are interpreted as posing explanatory difficulties for an exclusively ther-moelastic mechanism of RF hearing.
SHIELDING? Get SHUNGITE mineral -STONE OF HEALTH! Neutralize high-frequency electromagnetic radiation & they reflect all possible magnetic fields
“Shungite’s absorption ability in redox reactions and catalytic properties are very active chemically and also biologically, have bactericidal effects and neutralize the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation; they also reflect all possible magnetic fields…”
Cordial thanks for authors whose materials are used: J. LIPOVSKY, B. BOKROVSKY, A. ORLOV, F. GORDEJEV, M. POLEVAYA, O. RYSKOV, G. KUBARDIN
Shungite physical properties
- Density – 2.25 to 2.40 g / сm3;
- Porosity – 0.5 – 5%;
- Uni-axial compressive strength of 100 to 150 МPa;
- Elasticity (Е) – 0.31 * 10 5 МPа;
- Conductivity – (1 – 3) х 10 3 S / m;
- Thermal conductivity – 3.8 W / mK
- Average temperature coefficient of thermal expansion from 20… 600°С – 12х10 – 6 1/deg.
Shungite chemical properties
Shungite represents a certain way organized Geological age of shungite reaches more than 2 billion years (some estimates 3.5 billion years), but its origin is still unknown.
By one hypothesis shungite deposits are the remnants of the planet Phaeton that once existed in our solar system; the other is the based of the theory of hyper-old solidified oil from spores.
Shungite is mined in only one place on earth, in Zazhoginskoje deposit in Karelia.
It consists of 30% shungite carbon and 68% silicates.
Inventory amount of shungite is 35 million tons with annual production of 200 000 tons of ore which is mainly used in metallurgy and water purification needs.Ton of shungite replaces 1.3 tons of coke; in water purification shungite ensures efficient elimination of petroleum products and heavy metals.
In shungite carbon minerals are located in “globules” with a diameter of about 10 nm.
Those carbon Carbon is an integral part of life to exist.
In nature carbon werehistorically known to exist in two forms: diamond and graphite.
The recently discovered new, previously unknown carbon structure, which give high hopes for medics: hollow spherical molecules – fullerenes *.
The first fullerene to be discovered, and the family’s namesake, was buckminster-fullerene C60, made in 1985 by Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley. The name was homage to Richard Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic domes it resembles.
Such structures of carbon with its absorption ability in redox reactions and catalytic properties are very active chemically and also biologically, have bactericidal effects and neutralize the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation; they also reflect all possible magnetic fields.
Among the natural minerals, fullerenes are found only in shungite and that explains the effects of the treatment of various diseases, preserving youth, their beauty and freshness of human bodies and organs.
In mineral fullerite the thickness of the surface of a spherical molecule is 0.1 nm and molecular radius of C of graphite (2.3 g / сm 3) or diamond (3.5 g / сm3).
Fullerenes molecular structure with different carbon atom numbers in it.
Use of shungite to improve the living environment
From water-soluble part of Shungite ore fullerenes form 1% (solubility in water is 1.3×10 -11 mg/mL). They are unique and long-life antioxidants, which effectiveness exceeds many times other natural “rivals” (vitamins C, E). Fullerenes bind free radicals to their surface, where they lose their harmful effects by recombination. Fullerenes themselves will remain in living organism for a very long period of time while the “rivals” perish together to form harmless compounds with free radicals. Biologists and pharmacologist use fullerenes “ball” to deliver a wide variety of substances (molecules inside the molecule!) to the surface of cell membranes and into the cells: antibiotics, vitamins, hormones, and even the fragments of the genetic code for the creation of transgenic animals and plants.
Fullerenes have also antitoxic ability to accelerate the neutralization of a wide variety of poisons while maintaining their inertia. Fullerenes-catalysts accumulate in the body in the most critical points: the liver, kidney, pancreas, thyroid, lung, small intestine and rectum. Of particular importance is their accumulation into the liver, which protects liver against toxic substances and accelerates the neutralization of the latter.
Fullerenes normalize cellular metabolism, enhance the activity of ferments and increase the stability of the cell, including the genetic mechanism of resistance to external influences from overheating to viral infections. Tissues regenerating capability will increase. In critical situation fullerenes normalize the exchange of neurotransmitters in the nervous system chemistry and thereby enhance resistance to stress. Fullerenes have clearly pronounced anti-inflammatory and antihistamine effects – analgesic, anti-allergenic and immunity rising.
Preparation of shungite water
Shungite removes free radicals from water 30 times effectively than activated coal. Shungite as powerful reducer absorbs oxygen from the water: a co -operational chemical process forms atomic oxygen, which is the strongest oxidant and releases shungite surface for new absorptions. Shungite cleans water from practically all organic substances, including oil and pesticides, metals and many non-metals, bacteria and microorganisms, removes an unpleasant odor and flavor from the water. Production of shungite filters for water purification began in 1991. By using such treated water for drinking and cooking, improvements in patients with chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, biliary and pancreatic diseases, colecistite, high blood pressure, kidney stones, heart, ischemic, parodontose, different forms of allergy, even eczema had followed – and all those effects just from the using shungite filter purified water. People with diabetes have received effective assistance; shungite is also an ideal material for oncological prophylaxis. There is no form of the disease that can’t be healed by the treatment with fullerenes. Fullerene’s contact with water causes water restructuration: each fullerene molecule ball forms multilayer cover of orientated water molecules around him (about 10 layers) that excess fullerene molecule weight by 1000 times. Restructured water does not freeze at 0 degrees, but at -2.8. In this way fullerenes stabilize and protect the surrounding biomolecules, thereby helping us to activate our DNA segments. Astonishing is how fullerenes control microelement balance in water “by eliminating” unnecessary and adding the missing!
The simplest yet sufficient way is to dump 30-60 kg crushed shungite (macadam) into well. Longer filter life and better purification quality can be achieved by following technologies: the aggregate thickness of 5.0-15.0 mm, which is dumped into the pre-cleaned (also from gravel) well to form 20-50 cm thick layer (about 200-500 kg).
For treating water in apartment pour 3 liters of filtered (also brought to boiling point) water over 200-300 g shungite leaving the container open. After 30 minutes the water has already acquired the above-mentioned bactericidal activity. Complete mineralization occurs after 2-3 days. Then pour the treated water into separate container and consume it during 3 days. For finer gravel it is advisable to replace shungite after half of the year treatment. Filter life may be prolonged up to one year if after every couple of months wash gravel with saltwater or bicarbonate of soda dilution. Using coarse aggregate or larger pieces can significantly increase filter’s useful life if after using for a couple of months clean stone surfaces (e.g. with sandpaper). Shungite water is recommended to drink on an empty stomach 1-2 glasses at a time (small draughts) and to use for cooking.
Water, which has been treated with shungite filter, has strengthening and rejuvenating impact on the body: it cleanses the facial skin, reducing wrinkles, rashes, skin becomes more elastic and springing. Such water will strengthen the hair roots, reduce the formation of flakes, gives hair a healthy shine. Shungite water heals kidney-, liver- and gallbladder diseases, relieves heartburn. It is also effective in case of gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and the vegetative nervous system disorders; reduces allergic reactions and improves the body’s overall tone.
Shungite bath, spilling with shungite water and just his normal usage instead of the untreated water affects positively virtually to all body organs and systems. For bath just add to ca 36-degree C° water a pouch of comminuted shungite (~ 500 g for bath). The duration of procedure is 10-15 minutes not often than every other day. Such bath calms, reduces stress, strengthens the body and normalizes sleep. Small cracks and wounds on the skin will improve. Regular shungite bathing will cause heal post-operation wounds faster; furfuration, eczema, fungal diseases and allergic rashes will disappear.
Shungite pyramid – water activator
In water shungite pyramid toroid field activates the structure of water in unique way. One can use Shungite pyramid together with shungite gravel (3-15mm). Place shungite pyramid in bottom of the 3-liter glass jar and fill it with filtered water. Put a jar with water for two nights and days to the light and the water is ready for use. Do not keep it in the refrigerator!
The doctor and bioenergy therapist M.V. Glazkov, who tested water quality, wrote: “… tests have shown that in 48-72 hours shungite pyramid improved quality of water” and “…during this period maximum water structure and mineralization takes place. Upon further storage of water activity will decrease accordingly keeping time. For therapy purposes it is recommended to consume pyramid water 100-150 g three times a day regardless of meals.
Energetic treatment with shungite stones
The human body has quite a number of different energy systems. One of the easiest ways to describe them is the system of the seven energy centers, which consists of three inner and four outer power centers.
Interior ones: I one is located 3.5…5 cm below belly- responsible for the physical body (controls cortex), II is located in the middle of the sternum – the responsible for the emotional energy body (controls the limbic system of the brain), III is located between the eyebrows (third eye) and is responsible for aspects of human mental aspects (controls digestion, breathing and blood circulation, affecting all three centers and linking them to one). Exterior ones are situated on the palms and soles of the feet – place one of these stones there and you will increase your body’s capabilities. Blockages of energy centers are ever-threatening medical emergency you must deal with. By placing shungite stone (may also be a warm-wet), just above the body inner energy centers improves your brain performance. In case of insomnia put the stone under the pillow, for knee pain fasten stones to them during the night, for pains in lumbar vertebrae for daytime. However one can achieve relief by stand-step on shungite macadam during the 3-5 min – very effective for athletes and older people before falling asleep. Arterial blood pressure normalizes. Works well in case of polyarthritis and osteochondrosis etc. If you’re going to meet someone “uncomfortable”, hang shungite over your solar plexus and you will be pleasantly surprised. And you will wear this magic stone with joy everywhere you’re going! Try to recognize that shungite helps you every possible way- miracles will take place. You lose a snatch of harmful habits. Research has shown that the shungite fullerenes balancing the nervous system processes and have positive impact for the exchange of neurotransmitters those increasing operational ability and resistance to stress. Shungite is a rock with higher “Intellect”: it works with you; just feel your individual differences and you’ll find the most effective way it cooperates with your body.
Shungite pyramid – Your health counsel
Pyramid is a word of Greek origin and is etymologically related to the word “PIR”, which means “fire, energy, internal heat,” referring to symbolist imagination of a single divine flame, existing force of life in all the creatures.
The usual defensive shungite pyramid is not just a souvenir or a geometric form, but solid and effective shield against geopathogenetic radiation. Shungite pyramid absorbs negative energy and “wipe” away any bad “impression.” A good therapeutic effect of pyramid can be explained by the characteristics of pyramid energy both inside and around it. Pyramid reflects back and absorbs geopathogenetic “beams”. Being close to the pyramids or in direct contact with him human immunity improves and the negative impacts on him from its surroundings decrease. Thanks to its unique shape and properties of shungite pyramid creates around itself a torsion field reflecting an neutralizing geopathogenetic influence. Pyramids have healing effects on the body: they decrease nervous tension, headaches and insomnia; improve human energy and the overall tone. Shungite pyramid on car dashboard reduces the number of critical situations and keeps driver awake while driving. The verification revealed a surprise – it saves the fuel!
Shungite pyramid have infinite possibilities of use: offices, industrial plants, schools, institutions, sanatorium, sanatoriums, homes, transport, etc.
You should locate yourself north to the pyramid. Place the pyramid on where you spend the most hours during the day. Place the pyramid on your side (on the distance of not more than 50 cm) and lower than you.
Place the pyramid between yourself and the source of radiation (computer, TV, instrumentation); on the bedside, not below; on a desk, job, car, recreational zones. Don’t point top of the pyramid to a patient or yourself unless you are qualified healer!
More than three thousand years man has used colored stones and crystals in particular to treat and stabilize his body. During enormous medicinal drug development it is time for mankind to return to and recover the usage of natural resources including minerals.
As shungite, especially the pyramids, has become very popular, there are fakes. Shungite is, unlike the other minerals conducting electricity and with the battery, two wires and bulb it is easy to detect forgery.
This enigmatic rock got his name from the town Shunga on the shores of Oneega Lake in Karelia. In 1887, a black rock called shungite was found there, while wondrous properties of the local waters welling up from rock layers were known much earlier.
In recent history, information on shungite healing properties goes back to more than 3 centuries.The first officialannouncement is from the beginning of the 17thcenturyand is related to czarevna (czar’s wife) Marfa Ivanovna (Baroness Ksenja Romanov).After being sent to exile in the village Tolvuya on the northern shore of Oneega a Russian gentry’s woman was close to death with her illness.Local habitants guided the baroness to the miraculous source where from thelayersof black stone the magical healing water welled up.This water of lifehealed the baroness who had lost seven newborns before the exile, and gave birth to a son – Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov – founder of the Russian czar’s 300-year dynasty. Local habitants named this miracle spring Czarevna, but it was soon forgotten with time. In the meantime, while the popularity to broader public of this healing water was lost, local peasants remained loyal to the magical spring.
It was not until a hundred years later the interest in the miracle water was renewed. In 1714, Peter the Great founded there a copper-smelting industry.There is a legend how one employee, suffering from a serious disease, discovered in Revboloty, where ore was sourced for the industry, a spring of water which regained his full health in three days. These rumors came to the ears of Czar Peter, who gave the order to carry out investigations.Water that sprang from shungite deposits proved to be a powerful instrument for healing from anemia, hydropsy, liver disease and many other diseases.Ordinary people began to be treated in all sorts of diseases.Relief was foundusually during 2…3 weeks of treatment.
Peter, whose health was not strong, tried the water and gave the order to build a spa close to the source.It became the first medical institution Russia’s history called “Martsialniye Vody “- in honor of the god of war particularly since Peter’s sick and wounded soldiers got there effective treatment.A variety of diseases were treated there but mainly hypochondria, bile tract disease, gastrointestinal dysfunction, vomiting, constipation, kidney stones (with sand or small stones), epilepsy, and water was also used to drive out intestinal worms.Peter the Great told all his soldiers to carry a piece of shungite (also known at that time as aspidian stone) in their backpacks.By placing a shungite piece in water-filled vessels soldiers got fresh and clean water.There are many historical records which indicate that the Emperor has issued a special order (ukazs) with such prescriptions.Historical sources also tell us about the battle of Poltaava in the hot summer of 1709 when the Russians, who drank their shungite water, were victorious, but the Swedish army suffered from an epidemic of dysentery, including the king himself.
Between 1717-1719 two medics, R.Areskin and L.Blumentrost studied the composition of spring waters, and confirmed its therapeutic qualities.Order (czar’s ukazs) was issued to build the resort along with instructions for use of the magical water.Also an article appeared regarding the waters of healing effect, in which 9 disease cases and their treatment with magical water were briefly described.
In the twenties of the XVIII century Peter the Great healed himself in the spa.Palaces were built for Czar and his family there, but they emptied quickly after Peter’s death and the spa “Martsialnyie Vody” ceased to exist.
Ten years later, in the middle of the XVIII century, Jelizaveta Petrovna tried to revive Russia’s first resort, but sent to region of Olonetsi czarevna’s private doctor Bugajev concluded that local spring had no therapeutic effect.Historians affirm that this research was so-called “ordered” by merchants, who then imported expensive mineral water.Activities in the resort stopped for more than one and a half century. Most of the buildings and palaces collapsed. It was not until the 1910when forthe celebration of the 300-year anniversary of Romanov’s house, a wooden Czarevich spring facility was built.
The official closing of the spa did not misled local habitants, who continued to use the water from the healing spring.Time by time, magical waters there were also of interest to researchers.In one of the works the water was compared to the world-renowned Spa and Marienbad health spas.
The resort began a new life in the thirties in the XX century, thanks to actions of Dr. Med. S.A. Vishnevski. He organized an expedition to study of the waters and restored the reputation of local healing waters.
Shungite is a medicine of 21st century
Shungite (shungit) is the unique in the world the natural mineral containing fullerenes (opened in 1985) – special type of the molecular form of carbon. About importance of opening of fullerenes, speaks that 9 October 1996 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Professor Robert F. Curl, Jr., Professor Sir Harold W. Kroto and Professor Richard E.Smalley for their discovery of fullerenes.
Chemical compound of shungit is:
Carbon – 20 – 95 %,
Silicon – 5 – 60,
Aluminium – up to 4 %,
Iron of-3,5 %,
Magnesium – up to 3,5 %,
Kaliy – up to 12 %,
Sulfur – up to 1,2 %,
Calcium up to 0,58 %, 4
Phosphorus – up to 0,34 %, and many other macroelements and microelements.
The scientists that have investigated Shungit rock have declared unanimously, that it is a miracle mineral! This stone eliminates and absorbs all that imposes a hazard on people, and living beings, but concentrates and restores all that are healthy for a human being. Shungit pyramid is a revolutionary shielding device for harmful electromagnetic radiation from computers, microwave ovens, TV sets, mobile phones and other creations of modern civilization.
Peter I has based the well-known first Russian resort named Marsial waters. Resort water gets curative properties, passing through thickness of Shungite crust layers .The Shungit water helps to struggle with various illnesses: the general condition improves, nervous pressure is removed, and the inflow of energy is sensed. It is easier to obtain a steady remission of some chronic diseases of gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys, and metabolic processes. With the help of the Shungit water skin diseases are cured much more easily and water sprinkling of the head decreases falling out of the hair. Hair is resilient and healthy looking. Face skin rejuvenates, wrinkles smooth down and skin elasticity restores.
But the most important thing for us, people, living under constant stress, strain and unfavorable ecological conditions is regeneration characteristics of the Shungit, which restore vitality in the human. They relieve headaches, backaches, rheumatism, remove neuralgic states, normalize sleep, stabilize blood pressure, clear respiratory tract, increase activity, including the sexual one.
Numerous investigations of the unique properties of Shungit allow it to be rightfully named as a medicine of 21st century.
I can only honestly say that: “Although frequently these products are more HYPE than SCIENCE, the idea behind them is quite sound. It appears that to arrive at the proper application of these principles with each individual, a ‘tuning’ of bio-waveforms with material crystal-matrix resonance for each human (or other being), and earths ‘Schumann’ resonances, would be required, in order to obtain all theoretical benefits, in actuality.
The price is so far beyond my grasp that it would hardly be possible, through only my means, even in fantasy, to ever experience or determine any possible benefits, or to determine, from experience, the actuality, if any, of their claims.
But I would LOVE to find out that it actually worked…”
EMF shielding provides many health benefits, reduces stress. Since 1990, the BioElectric Shield has provided daily benefits for thousands.
Source: Everyday benefits of Shield
EMF Shielding and Other Daily Benefits of Wearing a Bio-Electric Shield
- LOWERS YOUR STRESS: Boosts your immune system by providing shielding from EMF and other unhealthy energies (people, places, things)
- IMPROVES YOUR MOOD: Tired people are not happy people! The Shield lets you use your energy for YOU instead of for protection from EMF
- BALANCES ENERGY. IMPROVES FOCUS. You’re more productive – and that feels great. Organizes your energy to the level of your DNA.
- INCREASES YOUR LIFE FORCE/CHI/PRANA: The crystal matrix generates a harmonious bio-field that adds it’s energy to your own. This strengthens your life force, also known as your chi or prana.
- BALANCES YOUR ENERGY:PHYSICAL, MENTAL, EMOTIONAL, SPIRITUAL: The Shield energy balances your physical, mental, emotional and spiritual energy. People calm down, or feel energized – it all depends on where you need more balance.
- ORGANIZES/PROTECTS YOUR DNA: It organizes and protects your energy at the level of your DNA. EMF’s travel through skin, bones and tissue straight into DNA. (BioInitive Report 2012). The Shield helps the DNA maintain it’s correct blueprints even when attacked by EMF’s.
- THE COCOON: Each Shield contains a matrix of crystals that already vibrate at an Earth Resonant frequency, or Schumann Resonance. When you first put on a Shield, this harmonious earth energy places an energy “cocoon” around you, instantly soothing and balancing your energy field.(Figure A)
- THE PROTECTION: The Shield goes into resonance with your unique energy vibration within 24 hours. It adds balanced, healing energy to reinforce and strengthen your energy vitality. This makes you much less susceptible to any draining energies, lowers stress, and improves focus and mood.
- THE BALANCING AND STRENGTHENING: As it vibrates WITH your energy, it also begins to gradually BALANCE and STRENGTHEN your entire energy field, which is composed of 4 layers. (physical – mental – emotional – spiritual)
- THE VORTEX: After you wear your Shield for 24 hours, a spinning vortex of energy is created at the edge of this protective cocoon. (Figure B). You could even say you’re wearing a Faraday Cage, but it’s living, interactive energy, unlike the Faraday cage.
- This vortex functions as a “gatekeeper”. It lets in the good energy, but deflects any energy that is incompatible with you. This includes negative energy from other people, equipment (cell phones, computers, fluorescent lights, etc.) or places (geopathic stress).
- THE PHYSICS: Physicists have shown that energy has to take the path of least resistance. Simply imagine water flowing AROUND a boulder in a stream, and this will give you an idea of how the negative energy is deflected so it goes around you. Many Shield wearers say life is easier, less tiring, and more relaxed. They don’t get sick often. Can you see how this could benefit you?
- THE DNA BENEFIT: We have also been told by several gifted individuals who see energy fields that the Shield organizes your energy field all the way to your DNA. Perhaps this is another reason why people feel whole and balanced wearing their BioElectric Shield.
- Users report INCREASED FOCUS, RENEWED ENERGY, MORE BALANCE
- YOUR ENERGY IMPROVES OVER TIME: Over time, you will find that your own energy, while staying uniquely “you”, becomes calmer, more focused, more relaxed. The longer you wear a Shield, the greater the benefits.
Balancing and Strengthening Effect as Shown by Kirlian Photography
YOUNG MOTHER BENEFITS FROM SHIELD – SAYS SHE HAS MORE ENERGY AND CREATIVITY
These photos show the changes that typically occur wearing a Shield. We met this woman at a trade show. A kirlian photograph had been taken just before she came to our booth. She agreed to wear the Shield for an hour and then see if it changed her energy.
It did, and she bought a Shield. When we returned the next spring to her area, she came by the booth and another photo was taken. She had not changed her diet or lifestyle in any significant way. She attributed her increased energy, creativity and sense of well-being to the Shield to wearing the BioElectric Shield.
Learn How to Block EMF with BioElectric Shield:
- ENERGY PROTECTION: Deflects and neutralizes the impact of EMF radiation from cell phones, WiFi, computer radiation
- ENERGY REGULATION: Reduces the impact of unhealthy energies from people, places and devices
- ENERGY AMPLIFICATION: Resonates, amplifies and strengthens your energy
How does this EMF blocker work?
Based on Nobel Prize winning physics, inside each Shield is a precision cut matrix of quartz and other crystals. This matrix creates an energy field that vibrates at the same frequency/vibration as the earth. We call it an Earth Resonance Technology.If you have walked by the ocean or deep in an old forest, you have already felt this frequency.
The frequency created by the crystal matrix: protects, regulates, and reinforces your natural energy field making you LESS susceptible to the energies around you. This includes electromagnetic radiation of all forms, other people’s negativity, or geopathic stress.
It promotes perfect balance in all 4 of your energy aspects: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual. We have been told by individuals who see energy to the cellular level, that it balances your energy to the level of your D.N.A.
Users report Increased Focus, Renewed Energy, Feeling more emotionally balanced & stable
The Shield comes in 4 levels of strength. The protective, balancing energy field created by the crystal matric inside the Shield is amplified by the metal that surrounds it.
- Level 1: Brass is a good conductor – best used as a room, pet, or auto Shield.
- Level 2: Silver is a stronger conductor than brass – suitable for anyone in today’s WiFi world.
- Level 3: Combines silver with gold accents and provides stronger protection which is especially helpful, if you are sensitive or use a computer for 6+ hours a day.
- Level 4: Gold is the most powerful amplifier of our Earth Resonance Frequency.
Section 10: The Herxheimer Reaction
In a field in which clinical findings can be vague and imprecise, and where helpful monitoring laboratory tests are lacking, the Herxheimer reaction is an indispensable clinical tool in the treatment of persistent LD, or neuroborreliosis. In theory, Herxheimer reactions occur when an administered antimicrobial agent has successfully led to lyses of certain organisms (107). By definition this phenomenon is not unique to Bb. Fortunately, however, the Herxheimer reaction appears to provide a highly reliable barometer of therapy in Bb, so much so that a treatment course which lacks the Herxheimer response places the diagnosis of persistent Bb in serious doubt.
The reaction was first described in 1895 by an Austrian dermatologist Jarisch Adolf Herxheimer, who was practicing in Vienna, and later confirmed by his brother Karl Herxheimer, who was also a dermatologist, practicing in Frankfort (108,109). During these times, both physicians were responsible for treating syphilitic lesions and employed various preparations of mercury, arsenic and bismuth in these therapies. The key observation noted by both physicians was that, shortly after treatment of syphilitic skin lesions had been administered, many of their patients developed fever accompanied by rigors, drenching sweats, and nausea and vomiting. In addition, they found that the syphilitic skin lesions flared and became larger before healing; results were best in the patients that experienced this reaction, which typically lasted for 2 to 3 days.
The debate about the cause and nature of this predictable reaction has raged on for decades. Various theories have ranged from a vascular reflex mediated by the autonomic nervous system (110) to a direct toxic effect of the antimicrobial on tissues (111). In 1943 Mahoney described the first Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in syphilitic patients treated with the relatively new antibiotic penicillin (112 ). Classically, the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurred when treating the secondary stage of syphilis, at a time when a widespread rash may occur and the spirochetal burden is high. Even today, medical students are taught that a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurs as a result of treatment of secondary syphilis. Most physicians are not aware that the Herxheimer reaction occurs in Bb infections and has been described in a variety of other diseases, many of them caused by spirochetal organisms such as Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and Bb in LD. A short list of treated spirochetal infections noted to manifest Herxheimer reactions includes Relapsing Fever (Borrelia recurrentis), Yaws (a subspecies of Treponema pallidum), Rat Bite Fever (spirullum minus), and perhaps Vincent’s Angina (spirochetal mouth forms) (113). Non-spirochetal infections manifesting the Herxheimer event after treatment include Brucellosis, Glanders, Anthrax, and even Leprosy (mycobacterium leprae) (113).
In 1972 Gudjonsson reported on a summary of experiments that entailed almost a decade of work (114). He concluded that the Herxheimer effect was not allergic in nature and was likely caused by a leukocyte pyrogen released at the time of phagocytosis. Most now believe that the pyrogens in question are exogenous pyrogens, or endotoxins, derived from components of the bacterial cell wall. In the case of Bb, the pyrogen is most likely the lipoprotein moiety which comprises the outer coat of the organism. These lipoproteins, specifically OspA and Osp B, have been shown to have potent B cell mitogenic and cytokine-stimulatory properties (78).
It is widely recognized that antibiotic therapy may promote endotoxin release by virtue of its microbicidal effect which leads to the disintegration of the bacterial organism and exposure, or presentation, of endotoxin. On recognition of the endotoxin, polypeptides such as IL-1, interferons, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF), otherwise referred to as endogenous pyrogen (EP) or pyrogenic cytokines, are released by the monocyte/macrophage system (115). It should be pointed out that only minute quantities of EP are needed in order to generate fever and other systemic symptoms. In the extreme case, such as gram negative bacterial sepsis, high and persistent levels of endotoxin are present and lead to sepsis syndrome with capillary leak syndrome and vascular collapse. In the Bb model, with a relatively low number of organisms present and with limited and inconsistent die-off with each round of antibiotic therapy, one could conceive a model in which constitutional complaints, mediated by pyrogenic cytokines, are manifested in an ongoing and rather unpredictable manner. This then would represent the defining principle for the Herxheimer reaction in Bb infection. In predicting a pattern of response based on our knowledge of Bb infection, we would expect these symptoms to be worse initially, depending on die-off rates, and to not be life threatening, but likely to be life altering. Our clinical experience supports these precepts.
Published reviews have suggested a periodicity exists for Bb activity or replication, specifically that symptoms of fever and malaise, etc. occur at 4 week intervals (116). Others have created so called mathematical models to support this hypothesis. While we respect this author’s opinion, we find it difficult to understand how there could be synchronicity in any given polymorphic Bb population (often consisting of multiple strains) in any given host. The matter merits further study and validation. In females, increased symptoms and increased urinary shedding of Bb has been documented in the perimenstrual period, suggesting a hormonal influence (personal communication Dr. Nick Harris), and so it would seem possible that periodicity may exist in menstruating females (although our more seriously ill female LD patients routinely develop menstrual irregularity).
In our clinic, prior to starting any antimicrobial therapy, especially if our patient is naïve to treatment, we emphasize to the patient that they may notice certain significant clinical events while on therapy. In the occasional patient in whom we have no firm diagnosis but where we are suspicious enough to offer short-term empiric oral therapy, we are intentionally a bit vague about providing information to the patient about the Herxheimer effect, as we do not wish to influence a response by suggestion. We have found the Herxheimer response in LD to be as myriad as the course of persistent LD itself. It is naïve for one to expect to witness simply a flu-like syndrome, although this certainly happens. Instead, generally one sees an intensification of pre-existing symptoms, e.g. increased brain fog or muscle/joint pain, where these symptoms were reported prior to therapy. On the other hand, it is equally common to take reports of new symptoms, e.g. headache in a patient who previously reported symptoms other than headache. In general, the Herxheimer reaction is worse in our most seriously ill patients and most violent at the onset of therapy. The Herxheimer response typically occurs within 3 to 5 days, but may take up to 2 weeks to appear. These symptoms may persist for days or weeks and often become a major management concern as our patient may suffer considerably in the process of treatment. Eventually, as therapy progresses, we tend to witness a dampening of the intensity of the Herxheimer response, as well as some reports of positive clinical gains. Introduction of new therapy, as we cycle antibiotics through our treatment schedule (see treatment program to follow), invariably leads to intensification or new symptoms, all of which are unpleasant. In fact, if we do not observe a new response when therapy is added or substituted, we question the efficacy of our program. Later in this report, we refer to dermal or neurologic Herxheimer phenomena, which we feel reflect local manifestations of pyrogenic cytokines in response to treatment.
Regrettably, but not unexpectedly, we have treated a number of individuals whose Herxheimer experience is so intense and prolonged that continued treatment is virtually impossible. After exhausting all customary supportive and treatment measures, which incidentally never includes the use of systemic steroids, we have learned the art of using a balanced program of anti-oxidants, copius fluid administration, and appropriate wash out therapeutic periods during a treatment protocol. Much more of these concepts will be discussed in our next website edition of 2007.
The escalating headache symptoms experienced by some patients on intensive antibiotic treatment is a Herxheimer effect that merits special attention. This “Lyme” headache is thought to be linked to cerebral edema brought about by Bb die-off and the ensuing creation of inflammatory microfoci in the leptomeninges. In our experience, severe CNS symptoms, such as incapacitating headache, are more likely to occur when the patient has had prominent CNS symptoms or findings pre-therapy, e.g. encephalopathy, aseptic meningitis, optic neuritis, and so on. In 2-3% of our treated cases, we have had to resort to one or more therapeutic lumbar punctures to provide relief by lowering intracranial pressure.
Given the miserable experience which we may exact on our patients during therapy, we would perhaps be better off if we followed the advice of Russell McMillan, DDS, DPH, who wrote the Arthritis Trust of America in 1994 with his personal remedy for the Herxheimer reaction. “I take a saltz bath which consists of adding 1 cup salt, 1 cup soda, 1 cup Epsom salts, 1 cup aloe vera, to a hot bath which I remain in and keep hot for about 11/2 hours all the while consuming about 2 quarts of warm water. Evidently the perspiration and osmotic pressure removes the causative toxins. I find it quite helpful” (117). Hey, sounds ok to us.
rest in peace my little friend!
I am so sorry i could not save you, max. please forgive me.
you were killed by the same people with the same weaponized biology that is killing me.
i pray we will meet in heaven
Nanotechnology and forensics: nano-powders that have been engineered to be used in conjunction with SALDI-TOF2-MS.(Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF)/reflectron (RTOF) mass spectrometry)
Nanotechnology and forensics
Volume 12, Issue 6, Page 6 | Mike Pitkethly
ROAR Particles have looked at extending the use of fingerprints beyond purely improving the definition of the fingerprints.
They have been developing nano-powders that have been engineered to enable them to be used in conjunction with SALDI-TOF2-MS.(Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF)/reflectron (RTOF) mass spectrometry)
This means that when a fingerprint is developed using these powders, the chemicals, both the residues from contact with other materials and excreted, that form part of the fingerprint, can be analyzed and identified.
For example, if the donor of the print has been handling explosives or illegal drugs, then the contact residues will appear in the fingerprint and can be identified.
This is only possible with these nano-engineered powders.
Since the sweat and other secretions are also a means of removing waste chemicals from the body, the analysis can be taken a stage further and the excreted metabolites can also be identified.
So for example the drug users can be differentiated from those who have only handled the drugs.
One paradigm is worth a thousand rules: How can we teach computers compassion (and stop humans from using them to hurt and kill!) ? Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, and theories of mind.
One paradigm is worth a thousand rules: How can we teach computers compassion (and stop humans from using them to hurt and kill!) ? Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, and theories of mind.( from:http://www.epmg.kz/upload/content/File/MIT%20Press%20-%20Mind%20Design%20II%20%281997%29.pdf)
Many experiments (with Artificial Intelligence) have shown that categories appear to be coded in the mind neither by means of lists of each individual member of the category, nor by means of a list of formal criteria necessary and sufficient for category membership, but, rather, in terms of a prototype of a typical category member.
The most cognitively economical code for a category is, in fact, a concrete image of an average category member. (1977, p. 30)
One paradigm, it seems, is worth a thousand rules.
Reading the above text it appears the simplest way for artificial (or synthetic) intelligence to classify things is to stereotype them.