evidence for the apparent existence of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1) & Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the second kind (ITE-2) or bright ITE

American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-53 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajmp doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20160503.14 ISSN: 2326-8867 (Print); ISSN: 2326-8891 (Online) Apparent Detection via New Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities

(ITE) Ruggero Maria Santilli Thunder Energies Corporation, Florida, U. S. A. Email address: research@thunder-energies.com To cite this article: Ruggero Maria Santilli.

Apparent Detection via New T elescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE). American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 45-53. doi: 10.11648/j.aj mp.20160503.14 Received: December 24, 2015; Accepted: December 25, 2015; Published: June 8, 2016

Abstract: By using telescopes with concave lenses, known as Santilli telescopes (trademark and patent pending by the U.S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation), we review preceding evidence for the apparent existence of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cosmic rays.

Independently from these astrophysical detections, we present for the first time evidence for the apparent existence of entities in our terrestrial environment that are solely visible via telescopes with concave lenses, while being invisible to our eyes and to conventional Galileo telescopes with convex lenses, which entities leave dark images in the background of digital cameras attached to the santilli telescopes.

These entities are here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1) or dark ITE.

We then present, also for the first time, evidence for the apparent existence in our terrestrial environment of additional entities that are also visible to telescopes with concave lenses while being invisible to our eyes and to conventional telescopes with convex lenses, which entities leave bright images in the background of digital cameras.

These additional entities are here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the second kind (ITE-2) or bright ITE .

It is pointed out that both types of entities generally move in the night sky over sensitive areas, and their behavior generally suggests unauthorized surveillance.

This paper has been motivated by the significance and diversification of the collected evidence, as well as available independent confirmations, that warrant systematic inspections of the sky over our sensitive civilian, industrial, and military installations via telescopes with concave lenses, so as t o detect possible unauthorized surveillance. Keywords: Antimatter, Santilli Telescope, Invisible Terrestrial Entities 1.

 

Introduction

As it is well established in particle physics laboratories, matter and antimatter particles “annihilate” at mutual contact by transforming their masses into light. One of the necessary conditions for a consistent, quantitative representation of this experimental evidence is that all characteristics of antimatter must be opposite to those of matter. It as also been established that the use of 20th century mathematics for the representation of both, matter and antimatter, leads to predictable catastrophic inconsistencies. Therefore, a consistent, quantitative representation of matter-antimatter annihilation requires the continued use of conventional mathematics for the representation of matter, while antimatter must be represented with a basically new mathematics characterized by a suitable conjugation of 20th century mathematics known as the isodual map (technically given by an anti-Hermitean map). In summer 1993, while visiting the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, the author initiated the construction of the new mathematics needed for anti matter, with the proposal of new numbers, today known as isodual numbers , whose basic unit has the negative value -1, thus assuring that all quantities measured with the new numbers are opposite those of matter [1]. By noting that the possible existence of antimatter galaxies must be studied at the macroscopic, and therefore classical level, thus preventing the use of quantum mechanics , and that galaxies must be assumed as being neutral, thus preventing the use of the charge for the conjugation from matter to antimatter, in the following paper [2] (also written in Dubna), the author presented the first, and, apparently, the only known classical representation of neutral antimatter based on the new isodual numbers and ensuing new mathematics.   46 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) In summer 1995, while conducting research at the Institute for Basic Research at the Castle Prince Pignatelli in Italy, the author conducted systematic studies on the novel isodual mathematics via a step-by-step isodual image of 20th century mathematics, thus including the isodual image of functional analysis, differential calculus, algebras, geometries, etc. [3]. In spring 1996, the author presented at the First International Workshop on Anti-matter in Sepino, Italy, the prediction of isodual mathematics that light emitted by antimatter-stars, here called “antimatter-light,” i s different than our ordinary matter-light in an experimentally verifiable way [4]. The above prediction was based on the fact that ordinary light has no charge. Therefore, the only known consistent way to conjugate light from matter to antimatter is the map under isoduality of all other physical characteristics of light. This lead to the prediction that antimatter light has negative energy , by therefore confirming the original 1928 conception of antimatter by P. A. M. Dirac as having negative energy, this time, with the resolution of its historical in consistencies permitted by the novel isodual mathematics. A systematic study of the ensuing isodual theory of antimatter was presented in monograph [5] in 2006, including the isoduality of Newtonian mechanics, Ga lileo relativity, Einstein special and general relativity , and quantum mechanics, with the first known classical representation of the gravitational field of antimatter bodies. In particular, Ref. [5] presented the proof that the isodual theory of antimatter verifies all known experimental data on antimatter at both the classical and particle level s. At the classical level, experimental data are verified by the interplay between the conventional Newton’s equation for particle and their isodual for antiparticles, while at the particle level experimental data on antimatter are verified because the isodual map is equivalent to charge conjugation. In Ref. [5], the author also presented the prediction at all levels of study, including the isodual Newtonian mechanics, isodual special and general relativity and isodual quantum mechanics, that matter and antimatter experience gravitational repulsion , thus including the prediction that antimatter-light is repelled by a matter gravitational field (Figure 1). Figure 1. A necessary condition for a consistent, quantitative representation of matter-antimatter annihilation into light at con tact is that “all” characteristics of antimatter are opposite those of matter. This basic requirement implies the prediction that light emitt ed by antimatter, viz., antimatter-light, is repelled by a matter gravitational field, and the consequential prediction that, when propagation wit hin a matter-medium such as water, antimatter-light has a “negative” in dex of refraction opposite to the conventional “positive” index of refraction of matter-light. In 2012, the author presented at the International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics held in Kos, Greece, the prediction of the isodual theory of antimatter according to which, when traversing a transparent matter-medium, antimatter-light has a “negative” index of refraction (in the sense of being opposite to the conventional “positive” index of refraction of matter-light), thus requiring “concave” lenses for the focusing of it. Figure 2. The first view depicts the structure of all existing, refractive, Galileo telescopes whose primary lens must be “convex” due to the positive index of refraction of matter-light. The second vie w depicts the structure of the novel, refractive, Santilli telescopes whose primary lens must be “concave” under the prediction that antimatter-light has a negative index of refraction (See Figure 1). The main principle of detection of the Galileo and Santilli telescopes is the following. In the Galileo telescope, all antimatter- light is dispersed by the convex lens into the internal walls of the telescope, thus permitting images of matter-light to be focused in a camera without significant interferences by antimatter-light. By contrast, ordinary matter- light is dispersed by the convex lens of the Santilli telescope, thus permitting images of antimatter-light to be focused in a camera without major interferences from matter-light. The images shown in Figures 1 and 2 are referenced in [6]. Subsequently, the author constructed the first know n telescopes with concave lenses , today known as Santilli telescopes (trademark and patent pending by the U. S.   American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 47 publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation , http://www.thunder-energies.con). Since no conventional im age can be seen with concave lenses, Santilli telescope s were paired to conventional, refractive Galileo telescopes of the same size, with curvature of the primary lenses and focal distance conjugated into negative values (Figures 2 and 3). Experimental paper [7] of 2014 presented the first known evidence of the apparent existence in our universe of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cos- mic rays via the use of a pair of 100 mm Galileo an d Santilli telescopes with attached digital camera Cannon 600D used at ISO 1600 under a 15 seconds exposure. These first detections were independently confirmed in Refs. [8, 9]. The detections consist of black streaks over a conventional background of a digital camera attached to the Santilli telescope, which black streaks are absent in the Galileo Figure 3. A view of the 50 mm, 70 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm pairs of Galileo and Santilli telescopes used for the detections presented in this paper, that are under production and subsequent sal e by the U. S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation (www.thunder- energies.com). Santilli telescopes cannot be effici ently used alone because the human eye has a convex cornea, thus being unabl e to focus images of antimatter-light. The efficient use Santilli telesc opes is that of pairing them with optically aligned, Galileo telescopes of the s ame size with exactly the same, yet opposite curvatures of the primary lenses and focal distances (Fig. 2). The Galileo telescope is then used for focusing images of matter-light. The related settings are then transferred to the Sa ntilli telescope. Images in the Santilli telescope are considered for analysis if and only if they do not appear in the Galileo telescope, are not caused by impurities in the lens and verify other conditions. Note that the pairs of telescopes depicted in this figure are equipped with two identical cameras, one per telescope, however, detections selected for publication are generally achieved via one single camera, first used in the Galileo telescope to verify focusing, and then transferred to the Santilli telescope. The very focusing of images via a telescope with concave lenses constitutes direct experimental evidence for the existence in nature of light with a negative index of refraction, while the black character of the streaks constitute s direct experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis of Ref.[4] according to which antimatter-light carries negative energy. In turn, both these features are considered as experimental evidence for the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter due to its need to achieve a negative index of refraction. A number of independent studies exist on isodual mathematics and on the isodual theory of antimatter among which we quote: Ref. [10] on the need to conduct sy stematic studies on the still unknown means to detect antimatter asteroids prior to their impact on Earth that have occurred in the past without advance detection; Ref. [11] on quantitative calculation of the trajectories and speed under whi ch antimatter asteroids can hit Earth despite the indicated gravitational repulsion from Earth; and Ref. [12] providing, a list of all known contributions in the field published in refereed journals as of early 2015, including the l ink to numerous PRWeb Releases on the ongoing search for antimatter galaxies in the universe. In a language accessible to the general audience, thus without any equation, in this paper we present for the first time the detection of entities existing in our terrestrial envi-ronment here defined as including our atmosphere, terrestri and lunar orbits and under the sea, which entities are not visible by our naked eye or via existing optical me ans, yet they are fully detected in cameras attached to the novel telescopes with concave lenses. To prevent a prohibitive length as well as unnecessary repetitions, a knowledge of papers [7-9] is essential for the understanding of this paper. 2. Detection of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the First and Second Kind (ITE-1 and ITE-2) On September 5, 2015, at 9.30 pm the author aimed a pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes at the ni ght sky over Tampa Bay, Florida, as seen from the NE orient ation of the terrace of room 775 of the Vinoy Renaissance Ho tel in St. Petersburg. Both telescopes were equipped with a So ny camera model SLT-A58K set at ISO automatic and 15 seconds exposure, the two cameras being activated j ointly by remote shutters. The tests were merely intended for the search of an timatter galaxies and, consequently, the paired telescopes w ere aimed at the sky, but sudden clouds halted the tests and the author oriented the pair of telescopes horizontally over T ampa Bay. To his great surprise, unidentified yet clearly vis ible entities immediately appeared in the screen of the camera attached to the Santilli telescope, without any enl argement, without the same entities being visible to the nake d eyes, and without any corresponding image existing in the scr een of the camera attached to the Galileo telescope. This unexpected discovery triggered a novel systema tic use of the pair of Galileo and Santilli telescopes, this time, for the search of entities, here called Invisible Terrestrial En- tities , that are invisible to our eyes as well as to our op tical instruments with convex lenses, but are otherwise f ully visible via the Santilli telescope with concave len ses, and are located in our terrestrial environment , as defined in Section 1. Following systematic tests, the author has detected the existence of at least two different types of ITE, with the acknowledgement that additional types may be identi fied in the future. Thanks to independent confirmations on the existence of ITE, such as that by K. Brinkman [13] and others, the author first presented the discovery of ITE on   48 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) September 25, 2015, at an invited lecture delivered to the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club [14]. In Figures 4, 5, and 6, we report representative ex amples of rather numerous detections of Invisible Terrestr ial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1), here defined as entities that: 1) are not visible to the human eye or to conventional optical instruments with convex lenses, but are otherwise fully visible via Santilli telescopes wit h concave lenses; 2) exist in our terrestrial environment as defined in Section 1, rather than in deep astro-physical spaces; and 3) leave “ dark images ” in the background of digital cameras attached to Santilli telescopes. In Figures 7 to 11, the author presents representat ive examples of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the s econd kind (ITE-2), here defined as entities that: 1) are not visible to the human eye or to conventional optical instruments wish convex lenses, but are otherwise fully visible via Santilli telescopes wit h concave lenses; 2) exist in our terrestrial environment as defined in Section 1, rather than in deep astro-physical spaces; and 3) leave “ bright images ” in the background of digital cameras attached to Santilli telescopes. A first significant aspect of the detections presen ted in Figures 4 to 11 is that they establish beyond “cred ible doubt” the capability of telescopes with concave lenses to focus images visible in the background of a digital camer a attached to Santilli telescopes. These images are at times, visible without enlargement, thus establishing the utilitie s of telescopes with concave lenses. A second salient aspect is that the focusing of ima ges via concave lenses is solely possible for light having a negative index of refraction in the sense of being opposite that of ordinary light (Section 1). A third salient aspect is that the emission of anti matter- light does not mean that the entity is made up of antimatter, because the existence of the entities within our at mosphere would imply a cataclysmic explosion due to matter- antimatter annihilation. Yet another salient aspect is that the emission of antimatter-light could well be evidence that their propulsion system is based on the extraction of antimatter fro m space intended as a universal substratum of the entire un iverse with an extremely high energy density (also known as zer o point energy) [15]. In short, it appears that ITE-1 consist of matter-e ntities in our terrestrial environment achieving locomotion vi a the acquisition of antimatter in their interior with co nsequential use of matter-antimatter propulsion, and achieve in visibility via the emission of antimatter-light as a sort of e xhaust. A Post Ph.D. mathematical study of the new type of lo comotion via the use of the new isodual Minkowskian geometry for antimatter is available in monograph [5]. A third salient aspect is that the creation of “dar k images” in the background of digital cameras for ITE-1 (Fig ures 4-6) establishes that the light originating from the ima ge has negative energy , since only a negative energy can annul the conventional positive energy existing in the pixels of the cameras. Consequently, the dark images of ITE-1 are caused by a type of light either equivalent or identical t o antimatter- light as presented in the preceding section. By contrast, ITE-2 (Figures 7 to 11) appear to be s tructures composed of matter which ordinary light (because of their bright character), yet possessing means to achieve in- visibility via the conversion of their index of ref raction from a positive to a negative value. It should be indicated that ITE-1 appear to be loca ted mostly in the areas of terrestrial or lunar orbits. By contrast, ITE-2 are generally located directly over sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations, and appear t o behave in a way strongly suggesting their unauthorized surveill ance. Figure 4. A view of an Invisible Terrestrial Entity of the f irst kind (ITE-1) detected in two different photos on September 5, 20 15, in the evening sky over Tampa Bay. Florida, via the pair of 100 mm Gal ileo and Santilli telescopes with Sony Camera SLT-A58K set at ISO aut omatic and 15 seconds exposure. The entity is classified as an IS E-1 because it is solely detected via the Santilli telescope (thus emitting light with negative index of refraction), and it leaves a black image in the bac kground of the digital camera (thus emitting light with negative energy). Since we are dealing with two different photos each taken with 15 seconds exp osure, the entity moves at a relative small speed. Note the ridges of ordin ary light surrounding the entity, which can only be explained quantitatively via the gravitational repulsion of ordinary light by the entity because, in the absence of such repulsion, ordinary light should merely experience diffraction. Note additionally that the entity “cannot” be composed o f antimatter because, being within our atmosphere, it would annihilate wi th a cataclysmic explosion. Therefore, the entity is predicted to be made up of ordinary matter, although emitting antimatter light. These c onditions support the hypothesis of locomotion based on the e xtraction   American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 49 of negative energy from space conceived as a univer sal substratum (also known as negative point energy). A ccording to this interpretation, the entity achieves invisib ility to our eyes as well as to all conventional refractive tele scopes by merely emitting antimatter-light as a kind of “exha ust” from its locomotion [15]. Figure 5. Views of another ITE-1 taken in three consecutive pictures by the digital camera of the Santilli telescope on Septemb er 5, 2015 in the night sky over Tampa Bay, Florida. Note that the entity not o nly moves slowly from photo to photo, but also rotates. This particular t ype of motion excludes impurities in the telescope lens or in the camera a s possible interpretations. Figure 6. Views of an ITE-1 independently taken by K. Brinkm an from the night sky of St. Petersburg, Florida, on September 20, 2015 via the use of the pair of 150 Galileo and Santilli telescopes, under a series of three burst (rapid) shots [13]. The entity is clearly an ITE-1 because it was in our terrestrial environment, it was only visible in the Santilli telescope, and it produced a dark image on the background of the digi tal camera. Note that this entity too, not only moves with respect to an image caused by an impurity in the telescope lens, but also rotates (s ee the original report [13] for more pictures and details). 3. Concluding Remarks In works [1-7], the author presented evidence on th e apparent existence of antimatter galaxies, antimatt er asteroids, and antimatter cosmic rays obtained via dark images in the background of a digital camera attached to a telesc ope with convex lenses, known as the Santilli telescope . The same astrophysical entities are completely invi sible to our naked eyes as well as to conventional Galileo t elescopes with convex lenses because matter-antimatter annihilation mandates that all characteristics of antimatter mus t be opposite those of matter. Consequently, light emitt ed by antimatter has an index of refraction opposite that of matter, thus requiring a concave lens for its focusing, and carries   50 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) negative energy as predicted in 1928 by P. A. M. Di rac, thus explaining the dark character of the images. Figure 7. A view in the top of an Invisible Terrestrial Enti ty of the second kind (ITE-2) taken on September 5, 2015, in the nig ht sky of the Tampa Bay, Florida, from room 775 of the Vinoy Hotel in St. Pe tersburg at 9.15 pm via the 100 mm Santilli telescope. We have an ITE-2 bec ause the entity is in our terrestrial environment; it is only visible in the Santilli telescope and it produces a bright image in the digital background, as established by the fact that ordinary light remains visible under strong co ntrast (bottom view) These data imply that the entity produces light wit h a negative index of refraction, but with positive energy, thus constitu ting discovery of a basically new form of light here presented apparent ly for the first time. In the author’s opinion, ITE-2 are indications of stru ctures composed by ordinary matter which emit ordinary light, but achi eve invisibility to the human eye as well as to conventional refractive tel escopes via the inversion of its index of refraction. This paper has been mot ivated by the need for our monitoring the possible presence of ITE-1 and/or IT E-2 over sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations sin ce they could be conducting unauthorized surveillance. 11 The historical inconsistencies of negative energies have been resolved for antimatter by the underlying new mathematics specifically constructed for antimatter , known as isodual mathematics , with ensuing, novel, isodual theory of antimatter [1-5]. The above results have been confirmed by a number o f independent contributions, such as those of Refs. [ 8-11]. Ref. [12] provides a comprehensive list of scientific pa pers published in refereed journals and links to PRWeb R eleases in antimatter up to early 2015. Figure 8. Another ITE-2 (top view) detected under the same c onditions as those of the preceding figure. The entity was also invisible to the naked eyes and to the Galileo telescope but fully detected via the Santilli telescope in the night sky of the Tampa Bay. Again, the entity w as releasing light with negative index of refraction, yet carrying positive energy as established by the bright residue following maximal contrast (bott om view). Note that this particular ITE-2 moves and, most importantly, cause s rings of ordinary light in its surroundings, which can only be quantitative ly explained via a gravitational repulsion of ordinary light by this p articular entity. On technical grounds, we should recall that the conven tional (positive) index of refraction, and the consequential reduction of the speed of light within transparent media, are due to the attraction of lig ht by matter via complex electromagnetic interactions at atomic distances. T he negative index of refraction of antimatter-light when passing through a matter-medium such as water, is then expected to be due to the repulsi on of antimatter-light by matter. Note finally that the reversal of the index of refraction implies that antimatter light travels in ordinary water at speed s faster than that of light in vacuum [15].   American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 51 Figure 9. Photos of a cloudy night sky over Tampa Bay, Flori da, taken from the third floor of the valet parking garage of the Westin Hotel on September 19, 2015, at 10.20 pm via two Sony cameras SLT-A58K set at ISO Automatic and 15 seconds exposure, attached at the proper foc al distance to the pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes. All photos were taken with simultaneous remote shutters. The photos were taken in the presence of the author, his wife Carla Santilli, and an independent witness. The first photo depicts the lights of the Gandy Bridge in the Tampa Bay as seen from the 100 mm Galileo telescope without any enlargement. T he second photo clearly depicts a bright ITE-2 taken with the 100 m m Santilli telescope also without any enlargement, which entity was completel y invisible in the Galileo telescope as well as to the eyes of the thr ee eyewitnesses. The third picture compares the first photo (top) to the secon d (below). In comparing the two photos, one should note: 1) The illuminatio n of the clouds in the first photo, and the absence of such an illumination in t he second photo; 2) The lights viewed with the Galileo telescope are statio nery (except for small fluctuations due to wind), while the lights viewed via the Santilli telescope are pulsating; and 3) Close inspection of the view from the Santilli telescope shows that we are dealing with one single light tha t, not only pulsates, but moves backward and forward with respect to the tele scope in a horizontal plane. This peculiar behavior clearly suggests that this ISE-2 was conducting unauthorized surveillance of the Tampa A rea solely visible with the Santilli telescope, thus confirming the need fo r systematic views of sensitive civilian, industrial and military install ations. Figure 10. We present here a photo taken on a cloudy night sk y of Tampa, Florida, taken from room 775 of the Vinoy Renaissan ce Hotel, St. Petersburg, on September 5, 2015, at 9:15 pm via tw o Sony cameras SLT- A58K set at ISO Automatic and 15 seconds exposure a nd connected at the proper focal distance to the pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes. All photos were also taken with simultaneous remote shutters. No view from the Galileo telescope is here reported due to lack of any meaningful image. The top view depicts a very unusual and bright ITE- 2 as seen from the Santilli telescope without any enlargement. The rem aining views depict the same photo under progressively increasing enlargeme nts. A first striking aspect is that this particular entity was not seen at all by the author with his naked eyes despite its size and brilliance. A secon d striking aspect is the complexity of the entity that, due to the 15 second s exposure, show some clear ongoing operation. The most striking aspect i n the view of the author (a theoretical physicist) is the sharpness of the l ight at its edges, as shown by the last view, since such a feature is against know n physical laws requiring light to experience diffraction at its edges with a short yet progressive decrease from full brightness to full darkness. Clo se inspection of the photo indicates that the entity is in the process of rele asing “seven” smaller equally bright ITE also of the second kind, that ar e reminiscent of the bright ITE-2 of the preceding figure. The unusual features of this particular ITE-2 confirm the need to conduct a systematic surveillan ce of our sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations, wh ich mandated the writing and release of this paper.   52 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) Figure 11. In the top view of this figure we present an enlar gement of a second ITE-2 depicted in the top right of the main photo of Figure 10, while the remaining views show progressively increasing e nlargements. As one can see, the entity consists of “three” lights of d ifferent colors that are pulsating and move synchronously in the cloudy nigh t sky over the Tampa Bay, according to a rather complex trajectory durin g the 15 seconds exposure, including a point in which motion apparen tly stopped for a few seconds, to resume thereafter. The synchronous moti on of the three separate trajectories strongly suggest that this particular entity consists of one single structure made up of matter that achieves invisibil ity to the human eyes and to our optical instruments via the creation of a ba sically new light with negative index of refraction but positive energy pr esented in this paper apparently for the first time. In the author’s opin ion, such a behavior suggests again the conduction of unauthorized surve illance of Tampa Bay that motivated the author to write and release this paper. Via the use of pairs of Galileo and Santilli telesc opes, in this paper we have presented for the first time exp erimental evidence on the apparent existence of two types of entities existing in our terrestrial environment (as defined in Section 1), here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first and second kind (ITE 1 and ITE-2), that are also completely invisible to the naked eyes as well as to Galileo t elescopes, yet they are fully visible via Santilli telescopes. Consequently, both ITE-1 and ITE-2 have a negative index of refraction when propagating in a matter medium s uch as glass. Their main difference is that the former ent ities, also called dark ITE , carry negative energy, thus causing dark images in the background of a camera attached to Sa ntilli telescopes, while latter entities, also called bright ITE , carry positive energy, thus causing bright images despite their negative index of refraction. The detection of ITE-1 and ITE-2 has been independe ntly verified by colleagues [13], and was disclosed for the first time at an invited lecture delivered at the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club on September 25, 2015 [14]. We point out that ITE-1 and ITE-2 must be made up o f matter to prevent a cataclysmic explosion due to th eir immersion in our matter-atmosphere, but their locom otion appears to be based on the internal presence of ant imatter and the use of matter-antimatter repulsion, according t o a structure studied at the mathematical level in mono graph [5]. The above and other aspects imply that ITE-1 and IT E-2 are structures dramatically beyond 20th century kno wledge for a number of reasons, such as the complete inapp licability of 20th century knowledge to the classical treatmen t of neutral antimatter, the change of the index of refr action, the apparent new typo of locomotion, and other reasons [15]. We also point out that the above terrestrial entiti es achieve invisibility to our eyes and to Galileo telescopes either via the emission of antimatter light as a form of exhaust ( ITE-1), or via engineering means capable of inverting the inde x of refraction of ordinary light (ITE-2). The writing of this paper has been motivated by the fact that ITE-1 and ITE-2 behave in a manner strongly su ggesting the conduction of unauthorized surveillance of our sensitive, civilian, industrial and military installations, th us warranting their societal knowledge. On scientific grounds , the documentation presented in this paper establishes beyond credible doubt the existen ce of two new types of light that are totally outside any pos sibility of treatment via 20th century physical knowledge, but are fully treatable via the new methods [1-15] specifically d eveloped to treat neutral or charged antimatter at the class ical as well as particle levels. On industrial grounds , the findings presented in this paper establish, also beyond credible doubt, the utility of Santilli telescopes, not only for basically novel astrophysi cal advances, but also for issues pertaining to persona l, industrial and national security. The author would like to stress that, being a scien tist, his duty is only that of reporting the documentation on the existence of ITE-1 and ITE-2, with the understanding that their identification , or lack thereof, belongs to the U.S. Government. The original photos presented in this paper shall b e made available to qualified colleagues for supervised in spection. More importantly, pairs of Galileo and Santilli tel escopes are in production and subsequent sale in various sizes (Figure 3)   American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 53 at the U. S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation (www.thunder-energies.con), and they can be made available at no cost for supervised verificati ons anywhere in the U. S. A. References [1] R. M. Santilli, “Isonumbers and Genonumbers of Dimen sions 1, 2, 4, 8, their Isoduals and Pseudoduals, and; Hi dden Numbers; of Dimension 3, 5, 6, 7,” Algebras, Groups and Geometries Vol. 10, 273 (1993), http://www.santilli – foundation.org/docs/Santilli-34.pdf. [2] R. M. Santilli, “Representation of antiparticles via isodual numbers, spaces and geometries,” Comm. Theor. Phys. vol. 3, 1994, pp. 153-181, http://www.santillifoundation.org/docs/Santilli-112 .pdf. [3] R. M. Santilli, “Nonlocal-Integral Isotopies of Diff erential Calculus, Mechanics and Geometries,” in Isotopies of Contemporary Mathematical Structures,” P. Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (19 96), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-37 .pdf. [4] R. M. Santilli, “Does antimatter emit a new light?” Invited paper for the proceedings of the International Confe rence on Antimatter, held in Sepino, Italy, on May 1996, Hyp erfine Interactions vol. 109, 1997, pp. 63-81, http://www. santilli- foundation.org/docs/Santilli-28.pdf [5] R. M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Ap plications to Antigravity, Grand Unifications and Cosmology, S pringer (2006), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/san tilli-79.pdf. [6] R. M. Santilli, “The Mystery of Detecting Antimatter Asteroids, Stars and Galaxies,” The American Instit ute of Physics, in press, 2012, http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/antimatter-asteroids.pdf. [7] R. M. Santilli, “Apparent detection of antimatter ga laxies via a telescope with convex lenses,” Clifford Analysis, Cli fford Algebras and their Applications vol. 3, 2014, pages 1-26 (Cambridge,UK),http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/Antimatter-telescope-2013-final .pdf.

Source: 10.11648.j.ajmp.20160503.14 – ITE-paper-12-15-15.pdf

Antimatter-telescope-2013-final

CLIFFORD ANALYSIS, CLIFFORD ALGEBRAS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
CACAA – http://www.cliordanalysis.com
Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-26, 2014

c CSP – Cambridge, UK; I&S – Florida, USA, 2014
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER
GALAXIES VIA A REFRACTIVE TELESCOPE
WITH CONCAVE LENSES
Ruggero Maria Santilli 1
1 The Institute for Basic Research 150 Rainville Rd, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689, U.S.A.
? Corresponding Author. E-mail: basicresearch@i-b-r.org
Abstract. In preceding works, the author has: 1) developed an anti-Hermitean image of the
mathematics used for matter characterized by a map called isoduality and denoted with the
upper symbol d; 2) achieved the isodual classical representation of neutral antimatter via the
conjugation of all physical quantities and their units, thus resolving the inconsistencies of
negative energies; and 3) shown that the the isodual (antimatter) light has negative energy
Ed = 􀀀E, experiences a negative curvature tensor Rd = 􀀀R gravitational repulsion) when
in a matter gravitational eld, and possesses a negative index of refraction nd = 􀀀n when
propagating within a transparent matter medium. In this paper, we show, apparently for the
rst time, that the only possible detection of antimatter light with a negative index of refraction
is that via a telescope with concave lenses; we build the rst known antimatter telescope
verifying these conditions; and report the rst known detection of images apparently focused
by a telescope with concave lenses, which images appears as being of darkness, rather than
light, thus supporting the negative energy of their origination. In the event conrmed, these
unusual images may result in being the rst detection of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids
and antimatter cosmic rays. The main result of this paper is an apparent conrmation
of Dirac’s [5] original 1928 conception of antiparticles as possessing negative energy because
necessary for consistency with the negative energy of light in the electron-positron annihilation
e+ + e􀀀 􀀀!
+
d, the consistency of negative energies being apparently assured by
their treatment via the isodual mathematics. The paper ends with the suggestion to test the
gravity of the photons in the electron-positron annihilation and conduct other truly basic
tests on antimatter.
2010 PACS: 03.65.Ta; 14.60.Cd; 29.30.-h
Keywords:antimatter, isodual light, antigravity
2 Ruggero Maria Santilli
1 HISTORICAL NOTES
As it is well known, Newtons mechanics [1], Galileos relativity [2] and Einsteins special [3] and
general [4] relativities were conceived before the discovery of antimatter and, consequently,
they have no provisions for the classical representation of neutral antimatter since their only
conjugation is the sign of the charge.
In fact, the rigorous prediction of antimatter via the negative energy solutions of wave
equations was done by P. A. M. Dirac [5] in 1928, and experimentally veried in 1933 by C.
D. Anderson [6]. However, Dirac noted that particles with negative energy violate causality
and other physical laws and was consequently forced to represent antiparticles solely at the
level of second quantization in his celebrated equation.
A number of hypotheses were considered to resolve the causality problem of negative
energy solutions, such as the old hypothesis that antimatter evolves according to a negative
time (moves backward in time) as apparently necessary to represent the annihilation of matter
and antimatter.
However, Dirac is reported stating that this hypothesis does not solve the causality problem
of negative energy solutions because the Minkowski line element is quadratic in time,
thus admitting both motions forward and backward in time.
As a result of the inability by the Newtonian, Galilean and Einsteinian theories to provide
a classical representation of neutral antimatter, and Diracs restriction of the treat- ment of
antimatter solely at the level of second quantization, it has been generally believed for about
a century that antimatter does not exist in the large scale structure of the universe, and solely
exists at the particle level when produced in our laboratories.
However, our planet has been devastated in the past by antimatter asteroids, such as the
1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia that had the energy equivalent of one thousand Hiroshima
atomic bombs, yet it left no crater or residue in the ground (that could be explained via an ice
comet), and excited the entire Earth atmosphere for several days (that can only be explained
via the annihilation of an antimatter asteroid in our atmosphere [7]).
Similarly, astronauts and cosmonauts have routinely detected
ashes of light in the upper
dark side of Earths atmosphere that can be best explained via antimatter cosmic rays
annihilating at the rst contact with our atmosphere [8]. Finally, large
ashes of light in our
upper atmosphere are routinely detected in various parts of our planet (see the websites of
NASA, FERMILAB, CERN and other laboratories).
In summary, there is sucient evidence indicating the possible risk that our planet is hit
again by a large antimatter asteroid, with consequential devastations on the grounds as well
as the disruption of all civilian, industrial and military communications for days due to the
excitation of our atmosphere.
It is evident that the physics community cannot responsibly address these risks without
the conduction of systematic studies on antimatter primarily at the classical level evidently
because antimatter asteroids cannot possibly be treated in second quantization. In turn,
no such a study can be seriously conducted without surpassing Newtonian, Galilean and
Einsteins theories via formulations specically conceived and constructed for the classical
treatment of antimatter as a premise for the subsequent quantization.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 3
2 ISODUAL MATHEMATICS
The author has been interested since his graduate studies at the University of Turin, Italy, in
the mid-960s to ascertain whether a far away galaxy is made up of matter or of antimatter.
He soon learned that Newtonian, Galilean and Einsteinian theories had no value for the
indicated problem since far away galaxies must be assumed to be neutral, in which case said
theories had no distinction whatsoever between matter and antimatter.
For this reason, the author initiated a long journey that rst required the identication
of mathematical means for the consistent classical distinction between neutral matter and
antimatter prior to any possible physical application. In this way, after years of search- ing
for an existing mathematics, the author discovered that a mathematics for the consistent
classical treatment of neutral (or charged) antimatter did not exist and had to be built.
Following the study of a number of alternatives, the author gave priority to the search for
new numbers since all mathematics used in physics must be based on a numeric eld as a
condition for experimental verications. In any case, all aspects of applied mathematics can
be built on a given numeric eld via simple compatibility arguments.
In 1993, the author [9] nally identied the desired new numbers under the name of of
isodual real, isodual complex and isodual quaternionic numbers, which verify the condition of
being anti- isomorphic to the conventional real, complex and quaternionic numbers, respectively.
The word isodual was suggested to indicate a duality under the preservation of the
conventional abstract axioms of numeric elds.
The crucial condition of anti-isomorphism was achieved via the anti-Hermitean conjugation
called isoduality and indicated with the upper symbols d of all elements of a numeric
eld and all its operations. Given a conventional eld F(n; 1) with elements n, m, : : :,
conventional associative product n m = nm and trivial unit 1, , Santilli isodual elds,
are denoted Fd(nd;d; 1d), and are characterized by a negative basic unit 1d = 􀀀1y = 􀀀1,
isodual numbers nd = n1d and isodual product
nd d md = nd(1=1d)md = nm1d:
Following the identication of the desired numbers, the author passed to the systematic
construction of the isodual image of all main mathematics used for the study of matter, including
functional analysis, dierential calculus, metric spaces, Lie algebras, symmetries, Euclidean,
Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, etc. These isodual formulations were rst
presented in the mathematical memoir [10] and rst treated systematically in monographs
[11]. The resulting mathematics is today known as Santilli isodual mathematics. Independent
mathematical reviews and advances can be found in Refs. [12-14].
It may be of some value to indicate that isoduality is a new transformation not reducible to
parity and/or other conventional transformations. We should also recall the new symmetry
identied by the isodual mathematics, called isoselfduality [10,11], namely, the invariance
under the isodual transformation, which is veried by the imaginary number i id as well
as by Dirac’s equation.
Contrary to a possible perceptions of mathematical complexities, the isodual mathe- matics
needed for applications can be constructed via the application of the simple anti- Hermitean
map
Q 􀀀! Qd = 􀀀Qy
4 Ruggero Maria Santilli
provided it is applied to the totality of quantities and to the totality of their operations used
for the treatment of matter. Readers should be alerted that, in the absence of even one isodual
map, there are inconsistencies that generally remain undetected to non-experts in the eld.
Before appraising the results of this paper, readers are suggested to meditate a moment on
the dierences between conventional and isodual mathematics. As an illustration, a checking
account in the isodual world with $ 1M in the bank is in red because $ 1M is counted with
respect to the basic unit $1d = 􀀀$1 which is negative. Similar conjugations occur at virtually
all levels of study.
3 ISODUAL THEORY OF ANTIMATTER
After achieving mathematical maturity, the author initiated systematic applications of isodual
mathematics to the study of antimatter at the classical and operator levels as well for neutral
or charged antimatter, resulting in the new theory today called isodual theory of antimatter
as one of the branches of the broader hadronic mechanics (for brevity, see Refs. [22,32]).
A main feature is that all quantities that are positive (negative) for the study of matter
become negative (positive) for the study of antimatter, with the clarication that, for matter,
all positive and negative quantities are referred to positive units of measurements, while for
antimatter all negative and positive quantities are referred to negative units.
In particular, antimatter is predicted to have negative energy Ed = 􀀀E (exactly as conceived
by Dirac [5]) and evolves along a negative time td = 􀀀t according to an old attempt
to understand annihilation of matter and antimatter. Causality and other physical problems
are resolved by the isodual mathematics, since negative quantities are measured in terms of
negative units. Hence, antimatter evolving backward in time with respect to negative units of
time is as causal as matter evolving forward in time with respect to positive units of time. The
same holds for negative energy referred to negative units, and of other negative quantities.
The image under isoduality of the entirety of the formulations for matter including the
isodual image of all quantities and all their operations, with no exclusion at all, is today
known as Santillis isodual theory of antimatter (see monographs [11,22] and independent
works [12-14,25-32].
Ref. [10] (written in 1993) presented the rst known formulation of Newton equation
for classical and neutral antiparticles thanks to the isodual dierential calculus discovered
by Santilli in Ref. [10] and currently developed by the mathematician S. Georgiev in great
details [38]. The resulting equations are today known the Newton-Santilli isodual equations
md d ddvd
ddtd = Fd(td; rd; vd; : :🙂;
verify all known experimental data on the classical behavior of antiparticles, and are at
the foundation of all subsequent classical and operator formulations.
Ref. [11] (rst edition in 1993 and second edition in 1995) provided a systematic presentation
of the isodualities of Euclidean, Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, Lie theory,
rotational, Galilean, Lorentz and Poincare symmetries, Galilean and special relativities,
and other basic formulations. In particular, Refs. [11] presented the rst known consistent
representation of the gravitational eld of an antimatter body via the Riemann-Santilli isodual
geometry.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 5
Ref. [15] of 1993 proposed a new isoselfdual cosmology (a cosmology verifying the new
symmetry of isoselfduality) for equal amounts of matter and antimatter, in which case all total
quantities of the universe, such as total time, total mass, total energy, etc., are identically
null to avoid a discontinuity at creation and set up the basis for continuous creation.
Fig. 1 The prediction of rRepulsion of antimatter light by a matter gravitational eld
Ref. [16] of 1994 conrmed the expected verication of the isodual theory with all particle
data on antimatter since, at the operator level, isoduality is equivalent to charge conjugation
by conception and construction. The main dierence is that isoduality applies at all levels
of treatment, beginning by conception at the classical level, while charge conjugation solely
applies at the operator level. Another important dierence is that isoduality maps our spacetime
into the new isodual spacetime, while charge conjugation maps our spacetime into itself.
It then follows that, according to isoduality, antimatter exists in a new spacetime, which
is distinct yet coexisting with our own spacetime while, according to conventional views,
antimatter exists jointly with matter in our spacetime.
Ref. [17] of 1994 indicated the prediction of the isodual theory at all levels, including the
Newton-Santilli, Minkowski-Santilli and Riemann-Santilli isodual formulations, that matter
and antimatter experience gravitational repulsion (antigravity). Ref. [17] then proposed the
measure of the gravity of positrons in horizontal
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled
tube.
Ref. [18] of 1997 presented technical aspects of the isodual special relativity studied in
Refs. [11] with particular reference to the hidden verication of special relativity axioms
under isoduality (due to the quadratic character of the Minkowskian line element), with the
understanding that matter-antimatter interactions are structurally beyond the sole use of
special rel- ativity beginning at the classical level and then, expectedly, at the operator level,
because requiring the joint use of special relativity and its isodual.
Ref. [19] of 1997 applied all preceding knowledge to initiate the study of antimatter-light,
the light emitted by antimatter, also called isodual light, resulting in a prediction of main
character for this paper according to which antimatter light is physically dierent than matter
light in an experimentally veriable way. Since the photon has no charge, the only possible
conjugation is that for all other physical quantities.
6 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 2 The prediction of negative index of refraction of antimatter light within matter water.
As a result, antimatter-light is predicted to possess negative energy while all other characteristics
are opposite to those of matter light. In particular, antimatter light is predicted to be
repelled by matter gravity (see Fig. 1), thus permitting the conception of experiments, e.g. via
neutron interferometry, to verify whether one of the two photons emitted in electron-positron
annihilation experiences repulsion in our gravitational eld.
Ref. [20] of 1998 presented an isotopic unication of Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries
for matter (namely, their unication into a single geometry and their dierentiation
via the generalized unit). Ref. [20] then presented their isodualities for point-like antimatter
in vacuum (exterior dynamical conditions) as well as for extended antimatter bodies moving
within physical media (interior dynamical conditions).
Ref. [21] of 1999 conrmed that isodual mathematics does indeed permit a consistent
classical representation of antimatter at the Newtonian, Minkowskian and Riemannian levels
in a way compatible with all available classical experimental data on antimatter.
Ref. [23] of 2006 presented a comprehensive study of antimatter in irreversible conditions
achieved via the Lie-admissible covering of Lie formulations.
Monograph [22] of 2006 presented a comprehensive study of isodual mathematics and its
application to antimatter, including one of the only known grand unication of electroweak
and gravitational interactions with the inclusion of antimatter at the gravitational level in a
way parallel to the treatment of antimatter in electroweak interactions. Ref.[22] also indicated
the prediction of a causal spacetime machine and the need for isoduality to represent all four
directions of time existing in nature, namely, motion forward to future time t and forward
from past time 􀀀t, as well as motion backward in past time td and backward from future
time 􀀀td.
Ref. [24] of 2012 addressed the open problem of the detection of possible antimatter
asteroids and presented the rst known hypothesis that antimatter light possesses a negative
index of refraction nd = n when propagating within a transparent matter medium. Again,
the consistent characterization of neutral antimatter requires the conjugation of all quantities
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 7
Fig. 3 The two identical Galileo telescopes and the camera on arrival.
with no exclusion to avoid catastrophic inconsistencies. This implies the necessary conjugation
of the index of refraction into a negative value referred to our positive units of measurements
since it is observed in our matter world (see Fig. 2).
An important implication of the isodual theory of antimatter is the clarication that the
conventional Dirac equation characterizes the tensorial product of one point-like particle with
spin 1=2 and its antiparticle without any need for second quantization (see Sect. 2.3.6 of Ref.
[22]). In essence, the author could not accept the conventional 20th century view that Dirac’s
equations represents only one particle with spin 1=2 because there exists no irreducible or
reducible representation of the SU(2)-spin symmetry with the structure of Dirac’s gamma
matrices. Therefore, the author re-inspected Dirac’s equation and showed that

k =

0 k
dk 0

; ^
4 =

I22 0
0 Id
22

;
thus yielding the indicated characterization of a spin 1=2 particle and its antiparticle.
In his genius, Dirac himself provided the true foundation of the isodual theory of antimatter
by characterizing antiparticles with the negative unit 􀀀I22. Dirac merely missed the
mathematics for the consistent physical treatment of negative energies. Note that there is no
contradiction for a representation of antiparticle at the quantum mechanical level because the
isodual theory of antiparticles applies at the classical level, let alone that of rst quantization.
The reader should be aware that a negative index of refraction implies that antimatter
light propagates within a transparent matter medium at superluminal speeds. A con- ceptual
interpretation of this prediction is that the ordinary (positive) index of refraction for matter
light propagating within a transparent matter medium is due to various, ultimately attractive
interactions that slow down the speed of matter light. By contrast, when antimatter light
propagates within a transparent matter medium, for consistency, all features of matter have
to be conjugated, resulting in new repulsive interactions between antimatter light and the
matter medium that, as such, accelerate antimatter light to superluminal speeds.
Numerous independent studies have been conducted on Santilli isodual theory of antimatter,
among which we indicate: the theoretician J. Dunning-Davies [25] who con- structed
the rst known thermodynamics of antimatter bodies; the experimentalists A. P. Mills [26]
and V. de Haan [27] who conrmed the feasibility and resolutory character of Santillis proposal
to test the gravity of positrons in horizontal
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled
8 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 4 The parallel mount of the Galileo and antimatter telescopes with related nder scopes.
tube (see monograph [22] for details); the mathematician B. Davvaz et al [28] who identied,
apparently for the rst time, the multi-valued, four dimensional hyperstructural character
of the universe suggested by two dierent yet coexisting spacetimes; the thermodynamicist
A. Bhalekar who studied in Ref. [30] Santillis representation of the four directions of time
[2] and in Ref. [31] the rst known study of antimatter in irreversible conditions via the
Lie-admissible formulations of ref. [23]; R. Anderson et al [31] who presented a review of
the isodual theory of antimatter which is an excellent introduction to this paper; and the
physicists I. Gandzha and J. V. Kadeisvili [32] who wrote a systematic outline of the various
studies here referred to for matter and antimatter.
4 THE ANTIMATTER TELESCOPE
In this section, we report the initiation of experimental verications or denial of the prediction
of the isodual theory of antimatter according to which a consistent conjugation from
matter to antimatter requires that antimatter light has a negative energy Ed = 􀀀E with
ensuing repulsion by a matter gravitational eld (Fig. 1 and Ref. [19]) and a negative index
of refraction (Fig. 2 and Ref. [24]).
To conduct the tests, we here introduce apparently for the rst time that, under these
premises, antimatter light from distant sources can only be focused via a new refracting telescope
with concave lenses, because a conventional telescope with convex lenses will disperse
light with a negative index of refraction.
It should be indicated from the outset that the above predictions imply that the human
eye cannot distinctly see far antimatter light sources since our iris has been designed by
nature to be convex in order to see matter light. As such, our eye will disperse throughout
the retina antimatter light with a negative index of refraction.
Consequently, all tests here reported have been conducted under the condition that possible
views of distant antimatter light have to be recorded with a suitable camera, and then
the pictures, their analyses and their enlargements can be seen by the human eye.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 9
Fig. 5 A close up view of the mounting of the camera directly in the telescope in place of the eyepieces.
We should also indicate from the outset that we expected no antimatter star in our galaxy.
Hence, the main hope of our tests has been to see whether there exist detectable far distant
antimatter galaxies, since a central open problem of contemporary astrophysics and cosmology
is to ascertain whether the universe is solely composed of matter galaxies or antimatter
galaxies also exist and, if so, what is their distribution.
Following the above clarications, we should indicate the expected existence in our galaxy
as well as in our planetary environment of possible antimatter asteroids [7] and antimatter
cosmic rays [8].
It should be noted that collisions between matter and antimatter bodies appear to be
minimized by nature in the event their gravitational repulsion [22] is conrmed. Similar
gravitational de
ections are expected for weak antimatter gamma and antiparticle radiations.
Only antimatter bodies and radiations with a threshold energy and a special trajectory can
eventually hit Earth according to the isodual theory of antimatter.
Regrettably, we had to exclude from our search the detection of possible antimatter asteroids
due to our lack of any knowledge at this writing on the optics of antimatter light, such
as the behavior of matter light from our Sun, when hitting an antimatter asteroid.
Therefore, our search was restricted to the detection of possible far away antimatter galaxies
and possible antimatter radiations annihilating in our upper atmosphere without unrealistic
expectations of nal resolutions in these rst tests, and the mere hope of results suciently
unresolved one way or the other to justify additional investments and more accurate tests.
After verifying the current lack of availability of a refracting telescope with concave lenses,
the author had no other alternative than that of securing from specialized opticians and their
companies the design and construction of the needed refracting telescope with concave lenses,
hereon refereed to as the antimatter telescope.
For these objectives: 1) we secured the design and fabrication of two identical Galileo
refracting telescopes (of course, both with convex lenses) and both without the star diagonal
viewer to avoid any unnecessary re
ection of antimatter light; 2) we had one of the two telescopes
converted to a concave version with identical but conjugated foci; 3) we secured one
single suitably selected camera to obtain pictures from both the Galileo and the antimat10
Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 6 Main characteristics of the Galileo and antimatter primary lenses (courtesy of Jianmin Guo from
China).
Fig. 7 Schematic view of the telescopes with convex and concave lense (courtesy of Jianmin Guo from
China)
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 11
ter telescopes; 4) we secured a tripod with mount suitable for the parallel housing of the
two telescopes; 5) we optically aligned the two telescopes on the tripod by keeping in mind
the evident impossibility of doing visual alignments with the antimatter telescope; 6) we
conducted a number of day views with the so mounted and aligned pair of Galileo and
antimatter telescopes to verify that astronomical objects visible in the former are not visible
in the latter; 7) we conducted a number of night views of the same region of the sky via
the so mounted and aligned Galileo and the antimatter telescopes; 8) we obtained a number
of pictures from both telescopes via the selected camera; and 9) we nally conducted a
comparative inspection of the pictures from both telescopes under a variety of enlargements
and contrasts to see whether the pictures from the antimatter telescope contained focused
images absent in the pictures from the Galileo telescope under the same enlargement and
contrast.
Fig. 8 Enlarged view of one of the streaks of matter light representing a far away matter star or galaxy
identied in the main picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky near Vega obtained on
November 7, 2013, via the Galileo telescope [34].
Along the above nine steps, we requested the astronomer Nilesh Vayada from India to
design for us two identical straight refracting Galileo telescopes with 100 mm eective primary
lenses, 900 mm focal length and with ratio 8.82, each having the nder scope, where
straight means without the star diameter viewer to avoid unnecessary de
ections of antimatter
light. Following acceptance of the drawings, the two telescopes were fabricated for us by
Galileo Telescope Makers, 503A, Prem Kunj, Navroji Lane, Ghatkopar(W) Mumbai 400 086,
12 Ruggero Maria Santilli
India (website http://www.galileotelescope.com). Fig. 3 shows the two identical Galileo refracting
telescopes on arrival to our laboratory at the Institute for Basic Research, 150 Rainville Rd,
Tarpon Springs, FL 34689, U.S.A. It should be indicated that the telescopes were ordered
under the assurance by the manufacturer that they could see galaxies.
Fig. 9 The rst focused streak of light detected in the antimatter telescope in the Epsilon Alpha and Beta
region of the night sky on November 7, 2013, expectedly originated by a far away antimatter galaxy [35].
Galileo Telescope Makers also supplied the selected camera by Cannon, model EOS 600D
with image sensor of type CMOS, and Bayer Filter. Light from the telescope primary lenses
passes through a Low-Pass lter, then through an IR and a UV Filter, then through a Pixel
Micro-Lens, and nally through a Pixel Color Filter after which light hits the pixel silicon
photo diode where there is the conversion of light into electric signals. The conversion from
analogue to digital allows the storage of raw data or their con- version into visible images
in the LCD screen, as well as for storage in said visible format. A re
ex mirror in front of
the camera sensor used for the viewnder is automatically retracted at the time an image
is captured. In all tests the camera was directly attached to the two telescopes via a T ring
adaptor and housed in lieu of the eyepieces. A picture of the camera is available in Figs. 4
and 5).
We then purchased an Orion Sky View Pro Equatorial Telescope Tripod model number
09829 equipped with an Orion Narrow Side-by-Side Plate model number 07956 for the housing
of the two telescopes in a parallel fashion (see also Figs. 4 and 5). The tripod is equipped
with three manually operated means for positioning the direction of the telescopes, one for
the altitude, one for for right ascention, and one for declination.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 13
Fig. 10 The second streak of light detected in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region with the
antimatter telescope also expectedly due to another antimatter galaxy [35].
We then contacted the optician Jianmin Guo from China who designed the conversion
of the two lenses per our specications (Figs. 6 and 7). Following their approval
by us, we shipped one of the two telescopes to Guos company, Zhengzhou Union Optics
Co. LTD, No.10 ChenXu Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou City, China 450011 (web site
http://www.unionoptics.com) to perform the transformation of the telescope from the Galileo
form with 100 mm eective convex primary lenses, to our antimatter telescope with features
identical to those the Galileo one but conjugated as described above. Since the camera is
directly attached to the telescope without the eyepiece, this conversion essentially consisted
in the fabrication and assembly of concave lenses as per the data of Fig. 6. Fig. 7 provides a
comparative view of the Galileo and the antimatter telescope.
Following reception in late October 2013 from China of the telescope modied for antimatter,
we assembled the two telescopes in the above described tripod with parallel dual mount
and conducted their alignment during the daytime as follows: we rst aligned the nder scope
to the Galileo telescope via the view of a far object (a transformer in a far electric pole);
then we aligned the nder scope of the antimatter telescope to the same view of the Galileo
telescope; and nally aligned optically the antimatter telescope to the Galileo one. It should
be indicated that extreme accuracy in alignment of the two telescopes was of no relevance
for our initial tests. Our primary objective was to see whether or not antimatter galaxies can
be detected with our concave lens telescope, since the identication of their precise location
was quite unrealistic for these initial tests due to our current complete lack of knowledge of
the optics of antimatter light.
14 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 11 The third streak of light detected in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region with the
antimatter telescope also expectedly due to a third antimatter galaxy [35].
Following the availability of the so mounted and aligned pair of telescopes, we initiated
night views by rst conrming that, as expected, any celestial object visibly focused by the
Galileo telescope was not focused at all with the antimatter telescope. In particular, the view
of details of our Moon, which were very nicely focused by the Galileo telescope, resulted in
a diuse light when seen from the antimatter telescope without any possible identication.
The same occurred for planets and nearby matter stars.
Following the above preparatory steps, we nally initiated preliminary views of the sky at
night with said pair of telescopes. Among a variety of tests not indicated here for brevity, we
report the tests conducted between 10 and 11 pm of November 7, 2013, at the Gulf Anclote
Park, Holiday, Florida, GPS Coordinates: Latitude = 28.193 , Longitude = -82.786.
The camera was set at the exposure of 15 seconds for the specic intent of having streaks
of light from far away matter stars caused by Earth rotation, since streaks can be better
identied with the limited capabilities of the available telescopes compared to individual dots
of light in the pictures. Additionally, streaks from matter stars have a clear orientation as well
as length that are important for the identication of possible streaks from antimatter light.
Following various tests, we selected the setting of the camera at ISO 1600 because various
tests with smaller and bigger ISO resulted inconclusive and ambiguous for various reasons.
Detailed values of the various additional settings of the camera are available from Ref. [33].
All pictures were analyzed by the expert photographer Scott Randall of Night Fox Productions,
P. O. Box 252, Dunedin, Florida 34697,U.S.A.(websitewww.NightFoxProductions.com)
who conducted extensive analyses with particular reference to the identication of the background
as well as impurities in the camera sensors that are evidently present in both pictures
from the Galileo and the antimatter telescope.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 15
Fig. 12 The rst streak of darkness identied in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha ane Beta region of the
night sky taken on November 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope [35] providing possible evidence of a far
away antimatter star or galaxy as an alternative for the streaks of light.
Fig. 13 Another representative streak of darkness present in the antimatter telescope [35] but absent in the
Galileo telescope that may constitute an alternative to the streak of light.
16 Ruggero Maria Santilli
The camera was rst focused in the Galileo telescope via the rack and pinion of the
telescope terminal and via the sharpness of the view in the camera optical view nder. The
position of the rack and pinion was marked. When the camera was used in the antimatter
telescope, the only possible focus was to assure that the position of the rack and pinion was
the same as that of the Galileo telescope due to the identity of the foci (Figs. 6 and 7).
Following these preliminaries, we oriented the telescopes at the indicated location and
time toward the star Vega, and then specialized the orientation for the pair of matter stars
Epsilon Alpha and Epsilon Beta near Vega. In order to properly interpret expected anomalies
Fig. 14 Seemingly connected streaks of darkness identied in a picture of the Vega region of the night
sky on November 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope that could be due to the annihilation of a shower of
small antimatter asteroids in our atmosphere, in a way much similar but the conjugate of the frequent view
in the night sky of the streaks of light caused by the annihilation of a shower of small matter asteroids in our
atmosphere.
in the pictures, we should recall the following properties of the isodual theory of antimatter
[22].
As indicated in Sect. 3, isodual mathematics predicts that antimatter possesses negative
energy according to Dirac’s original conception [5], although referred to a negative units of
energy when considered in the antimatter world.
When antimatter is considered in the matter world represented with a conventional Hilbert
state j >, a rst line of current thinking is that the energy of antimatter is positive. This view
can be represented via the isodual eigenvalue equation
Hd d j >= E j >; E > 0;
where d is the product in the antimatter world. In this case, antimatter light hitting the
pixels of the camera should produce the same voltage and, therefore, the same image as those
of matter light. Hence, we rst looked for ordinary streaks of light that are present in the
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 17
pictures from the antimatter telescope but absent in the Galileo telescope. In particular, we
used a camera exposure causing a streak of light (due to Earth’s rotation) suciently long
to be clearly distinguishable from the background.
Fig. 15 The rst of numerous circular traces identied in a picture of Vega regions of the night sky on Nov
ember 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope that could be due to the annihilation of an antimatter cosmic
ray.
However, our current knowledge of antimatter is extremely limited. Therefore, we have
to consider for completeness the possibility that antimatter light is received by the camera
pixels as having a negative energy from the alternative eigenvalue equation
Hd j >= 􀀀E j >; E > 0;
where “” is now the product in our matter world as requested by isodual mathematics. In
this second case, antimatter light hitting the pixels of the camera are expected to produce
a voltage opposite that of matter light, thus causing a streak of darkness, rather than light.
This suggested the additional search for streaks of darkness that are present in the pictures
from the antimatter telescope but absent in those from the Galileo telescope.
In regard to the alternative of streaks due to positive or negative energies, we should
recall that the invariance under isoselfduality (veried by Diracs equation [22]) requires that
matter-antimatter annihilation jointly produces matter and antimatter liht. This can be seen
from the conventional particle reaction
e+ + e􀀀 􀀀!
+

which isoselfduality is veried in the left but not in the right side. The verication of isoselfduality
for both sides then requires the revised formulation
18 Ruggero Maria Santilli
e+ + e􀀀 􀀀!
+
d
resulting in the indicated production of two lights (see Ref. [24] for apparent insuciencies of
Feynman’s diagrams for particle-antiparticle annihilation due to violation of the isoselfdual
invariance, impossibility of representing annihilation via the notion of particle exchange, and
other shortcomings).
Consequently, any conrmation that antimatter light has a negative energy, either via the
pictures of this paper or via the possible experimental detection of gravitational repulsion for
antimatter light in a matter eld, would conrm Dirac’s original conception of antiparticles
as having negative energy [5[ while isomathematics would resolve known inconsistencies.
Following the above clarications for a tentative interpretation of expected anomalies, we
provide in Ref. [34] the main picture of the indicated Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the
sky from the Galileo telescope in both compiled and raw forms, where one can easily identify
the Epsilon Alpha and Epsilon Beta pair of matter stars near Vega.
Fig. 8 provides the typical view of a far away matter star or galaxy in the indicated region
of the sky which view can be easily identied in the main picture of Ref. [34] under suitable
magnication. One should note the length and orientation of the streak of light of Fig. 8
due to Earths rotation during the 15 second exposure, as well as its weakness due to the
fact that the sky was inspected in an essentially urban area with consequential unavoidable
diuse luminescence. An additional reason for the weakness of the streak is that the tests
were conducted at the Gulf Anclote Park which is at the edge of the Gulf of Mexico, thus
implying signicant humidity of the air, with ensuing additional weakness of the streaks of
light due to water absorption of light. The reader should keep in mind these limitations so
as to avoid the expectation of the detection of brilliant streaks of light in the antimatter
telescope.
Ref. [35] provides the compiled and raw forms of the corresponding pictures of the same
region of the sky from the antimatter telescope.
As indicated above, in our analysis of the latter picture we rst identied streaks of light
reported in Figs. 9 to 11 that are present in the antimatter telescope but can arguably be
conceived as being absent in the Galileo telescope. The magnication has been obtained via
the Gimp 2.8 software. The position of the anomalous streaks of light of Figs. 9 to 11 is
indicated with squares in the main picture visible under no magnications. The anomalous
streaks of light will then appear under suitable magnication.
It should be noted that streaks of light are of dicult identication, particularly for their
corresponding absence in the Galileo telescope, thus being unsettled at this writing, since the
background is also made up of light. We have indicated them in representation of the current
rst line of thinking that antimatter light, and therefore antiparticles, have positive energy.
It should also be noted that the focal position of the camera was accurately marked in the
transition from the Galileo to the antimatter telescope, but not its angular orientation due to
the primitive character of the available equipment, thus implying possible small dierences
in orientation of the streaks in the Galileo and antimatter telescopes. Hence, expectations of
extreme accuracy in the orientation of the matter and antimatter streaks would be unrealistic
for these rst tests.
As indicated above, we additionally conducted a search for streaks of darkness in the main
pictures of the indicated Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky from the antimatter
telescope under the conditions that: 1) said streaks are present in the antimatter telescope
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 19
Fig. 16 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Deneb regions of the night sky with the antimatter
telescope.
but not in the Galileo telescope; 2) the streaks have approximately the same orientation and
length of the streak of matter light of Fig. 8; and 3) the streaks are clearly distinguished from
the background. Note that, since the background is predominantly that of light, streaks of
darkness are more distinguishable than those of light, thus being less controversial.
Two representative streaks of darkness verifying these requirements are reported in Figs.
12 and 13. Note the apparent clear organization of dark pixels over illuminated ones with
a low statistical probability if occurring at random. The streaks of Figs. 12 and 13 are
here tentatively presented as providing possible evidence, following due verications, that
antimatter light may cause fpcused images of darkness when hitting the pixels of the selected
camera (that was evidently produced to detect matter light).
In Fig. 14 we present seemingly correlated streaks of darkness of unknown origin, but
which could be arguably due to a shower of small antimatter asteroids annihilating in or
passing through our upper atmosphere. This is due to the fact that their orientation is not
compatible with that caused by the fteen second exposure of the camera as set by the streak
of Fig. 8, thus solely allowing for interpretation an essentially instantaneous event.
It should be noted that the author could locate no additional, clearly identied streaks
of light or darkness in pictures of various regions of the sky obtained with the antimatter
telescope besides the streaks reported in Figs. 9 to 14, although the search was at random
and denitely not systematic. Arguably, the absence of additional streaks besides those of
the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region could be due to the fact that possible antimatter galaxies
are too much far away for the very limited possibilities of the used 10 cm telescopes, thus
suggesting the construction of a bigger pair of Galileo and antimatter telescope for their
possible dection.
20 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Besides said linear streaks, the author has identied numerous, completely unexpected
circular traces in pictures of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region as well as in other regions
of the night sky, which traces are present in the antimatter but not in the Galileo telescope.
Representative examples of these circular traces are reproduced in Figs. 15 to 19. As one can
see, these circular traces all have approximately the same diameter for a given magnication;
and are clearly distinct from the background.
Fig. 17 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Altair regions of the night sky with the antimatter
telescope.
After due analysis, it is possible that these circular traces might be due to the annihilation
of antimatter cosmic rays in the upper region of our atmosphere, thus yielding approximately
the same diameter of the trace at sea level due to the same travel in air. This interpretation
is also suggested by the fact that the circles show no motion during the fteen seconds of
exposure, thus implying extremely fast events. An additional aspect supporting the indicated
interpretation is the variety of the circular traces identied by the author in numerous regions
of the sky.
It can be argued that, during the annihilation, of possible antimatter cosmic rays in our
atmosphere matter light may quickly dissipate in the atmosphere, while antimatter light may
continue its path along the original direction. The detected circles might then characterize,
in reality, a cone of antimatter light.
In the event conrmed, these circular traces would be the rst detection at sea level of the

ashes of light seen by astronauts and cosmonauts in the upper dark side of our atmosphere.
Note that, again in case of verications, the
ashes seen by astronauts and cosmonauts would
only be originated by matter light due to the convex character of our iris, while our view at
sea level would be due to antimatter light seen via concave lenses.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 21
Note that the circular traces could also be due to antimatter gamma rays, their arrival
at sea level in the forms of cones being possibly due to eects inherent in the yet unknown
optics of antimatter light.
As one can see, the circular traces appear to be predominantly, but not denitely due to
circles of darkness, rather than light. Consequently, the circular traces of darkness of Figs.
15 to 19 support the hypothesis that antimatter light causes images of darkness, rather than
light, in a camera built for matter light.
A resolution of the alternative between images of light or darkness suggests the of a
special camera with inverted sign of the pixel voltage, or other means under which matter
light is detected as darkness in order to see whether antimatter light produces visible images.
Needless to say, the construction of such a special camera should be complemented with the
construction of bigger and more accurate pair of Galileo and antimatter telescopes.
There is no doubt that, besides the above proposed special camera and bigger telescopes,
a considerable amount of additional mathematical, theoretical and experimental research is
needed for the resolution of the background central issues: whether matter-antimatter annihilation
veries the symmetry of isoselfduality; whether annihilation jointly produces distinct
matter and antimatter light; and whether antimatter and/or light experiences gravitational
repulsion in a matter eld.
Among the needed research, we indicate: the great need to develop the antimatter optics,
also called by the author isodual optics [24]; the measurement of the gravity of the positron
in horizontal
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled tube [22,26,27]; and the experimental
resolution whether the two photons emitted in the electron positron annihilation
e+ + e􀀀 􀀀!
+
d
both experience gravitational attraction, or one experience attraction and the other repulsion.
Until all this basic knowledge is achieved, any resolution of the origin of the anomalous
streaks and circles reported in this paper, whether in favor or against, will be purely illusory.
It should be noted that the cap[ability by a telescope with concave lenses to focus images
appears to be an experimental verication of the novel isodual dierential calculus [10,38[.
Additional information in the above measurements can be found in Ref. [39[.
5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
Following a rather long scientic journey for the construction of the isodual theory of neutral
or charged antimatter applicable at all levels of treatment, from classical mechanics to second
quantization, the author has presented in this paper apparently for the rst time pictures
of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky via a telescope with concave primary
lenses as suggested by isodual mathematics.
These pictures show anomalous streaks and circles that are absent in pictures of the same
region of the sky from a Galileo telescope, thus suggesting antimatter as their origination,
and their main common feature is that of being streaks and circles of darkness, rather than
light, as it should be after all expected under matter-antimatter conjugation, by therefore
supporting the negative energy of light predicted by the isodual theory of antimatter.
In the event conrmed, the anomalous traces presented in this paper may emerge as being
the rst experimental detection of antimatter galaxy, antimatter asteroids and antimatter
cosmic rays.
22 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 18 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Sadr regions of the night sky with the antimatter
telescope.
The main result of this paper is an apparent conrmation of Dirac’s [5] original 1928
conception of antiparticles as possessing negative energy because necessary for consistency
with negative energy of light in the electron-positron annihilation, the inconsistencies of
negative energies being apparently assured by their treatment via the isodual mathematics.
The author would like to close this paper with a call of the physics community to balance
experiments at very high energies with complementary experiments at very low energies,
because the former do not appear to have new objectives worth the use of large public funds,
while only the latter can yield fundamental new advances in virtually all scientic elds.
In particular, we recommend the measurement of the gravity of the positron in horizontal

ight [22,26,27] (with caution in the use of antiprotons expressed in Appendix A due their
possible confusion with the pseudoproton and other reasons), as well as the complementary
measurement of the gravity of the photons produced in electron-positron annihilation [24].
Only these tests can yield the necessary scientic knowledge to prevent that Earth is
devasted again by a large antimatter asteroid without the physics community being able to
provide any advance detection.
6 APPENDIX A: Antiprotons or pseudoprotons?
A few words of caution should be voiced in regard to other proposed measurements of the
gravity of antimatter in a matter eld via current production of antiprotons [36]. This is
due to the fact that, in the event the isodual theory of antimatter is conrmed, true matterantimatter
annihilations solely produce light without any residual particles or antiparticles,
as it was the case for the 1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia (since the production of particles
would have destroyed all trees in the ground).
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 23
Fig. 19 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Gienah Cyngi regions of the night sky with the
antimatter telescope.
But the currently claimed proton-antiprotons annihilations, such as that of the Bose-
Einstein correlation, produce a large number of particles, as well known (see Ref. [32] for
a review and quotations), thus casting shadows as to whether the particles currently called
“antiprotons” are truly characterized by antimatter or they are at least in part the “pseudoprotons”
predicted by hadronic mechanics[37].
In essence, at the time a proton beam hits a matter target as it is the case for the currently
production of apparent antiprotons, we have all the necessary energy for the synthesis of the
neutron from a proton and an electron
p+ + e􀀀 􀀀! n + ;
as occurring in the core of a star. This synthesis is quantitatively represented solely by
hadronic mechanics due to 0.782 excess rest energy of the neutron over the sum of the rest
energies of the proton and the electron that would require, for the use of quantum mechanics,
a “positive binding energy” under which the Schrodinger’s equation becomes inconsistent in
favor of its non-unitary covering equation of hadronic mechanics (for brevity the review and
quotations, see also Chapter 6 of Ref. [32]).
Following the quantitative representation of the neutron synthesis, hadronic mechanics
quite easily predicts the “pseudoproton” which is characterized by the synthesis of the proton
and an electron pair in singlet coupling (as normally existing in atomic orbitals of the target),
p+ + (e􀀀
” ; e􀀀
# )J=0 􀀀! ~p
(without any need to emit the hypothetical neutrino), yielding a fully “matter” particle
without any antiparticle content, with a negative elementary charge, a meanlife similar to
24 Ruggero Maria Santilli
that of the isolated neutron (about fteen minutes) and a mass close to that of the proton
due to the apparent balance between the negative energy of the strongly attractive Coulomb
interactions at very short distances with the positive energy due to the isorenormalization of
rest energies under deep wave overlapping as necessary for the synthesis of the neutron (see
Ref. [37] for here inessential calculations mostly similar to those for the neutron synthesis).
It is evident that the pseudoproton can quickly capture a positron to form a kind of
“hybrid Hydrogen atom” composed by a matter nucleus and an orbiting antimatter particle,
thus being predominantly constituted by matter. Consequently,experiments via the use of the
currently produced “antiprotons” and related “anti-Hydrogen atoms” are predicted by hadronic
mechanics to yield a full gravitational attraction, thus being potentially insidious for basic
advances in antimatter, unless the claimed antiprotons are truly proved to be as such via
consistent annihilation processes and not via the sole measurement of the charge and mass.
In view of these and other ambiguities, the author has stressed in Ref. [22] the need that
the rst test of the gravity of antimatter be done with positrons in our matter eld, since
positrons are the only certain antiparticle known at this writing.
7 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author has no words to thank Alex Nas of Thunder Fusion Corporation and Scott Randall
of Night Fox Computer Services for invaluable technical assistance without which this
paper would not have been completed within a reasonable period of time. Additional thanks
are due for penetrating criticisms and comments to all participants of the following meetings
where the isodual theory of antimatter was discussed in detail: the International Conference
on Antimatter held in Sepino, Italy. in June 1996; the Third International Conference on the
Lie-admissible Treatment of Irreversible Systems of Matter and Antimatter held on January
2011 in Nepal; the International Conference on Antimatter Astrophysics held at the Republic
of San Marino in September 2011; the International Workshop on Hadronic Mechanics
for Matter and Antimatter held in September 2012 in Kos. Greece, as part of 2012 ICNAAM;
the Workshop on Santillis New Mathematics for 21st Century Sciences held in April
2013 in India; the International Conference on Iso-, Geno- Hyper- and Isodual Mathematics
held in Rhodes, Greece, in September 2013 as part of 2013 ICNAAM: and the International
Workshop on Hadronic Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics held in October 2013 India.
Prior to this paper, the author solely presented the antimatter telescope at the above indicated
2013 meeting in Rhodes via power point available from the link http://www.santillifoundation.
org/docs/antimatter-telescope-2013.pptx The author would like to thank the audience
for not so frequent grace and interest shown in being exposed to such an unusually
dierent telescope, which are a sign of serious commitment to research intended as the pursuit
of new knowledge. Additional thanks are due to the referees of this paper for its in depth
critical analysis, and to Dorte Zuckerman for its editorial control, although the author is
solely responsible for the content due to various subsequent nalizations.
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DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES,
ASTEROIDS AND COSMIC RAYS

1. Foreword

Dr. R. M. Santilli, Chief Scientist of Thunder Energies Corporation (see his Curriculum , Prizes and Nominations , Publications in antimatter , and the General Archives ) has conducted three decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies on antimatter initiated in the early1980s when he was at at Harvard University under DOE support.

This extended research has produced basically new telescopes, today known as Santilli telescopes, which have been conceived, designed, constructed, tested and produced to detect antimatter galaxies, antimatter cosmic rays and antimatter asteroids (international patent pending irrevocably owned by TEC without royalty payments).

Since matter and antimatter annihilate at contact into light, as a condition for its existence at the classical macroscopic level, antimatter must have all characteristics opposite to those of matter. For instance, matter-light has a positive index of refraction while, as a condition for its existence, antimatter-light must have a negative index of refraction (Figure 1).

Consequently, the focusing of images of matter-light require convex lenses as occurring in the Galileo telescopes, while the focusing of images of antimatter-light requires concave lenses, as occurring in Santilli telescopes (Figure 2).

The above features imply that none of the refractive Galileo-type telescopes existing on Earth or in space can detect antimatter-light because they are all based on convex lenses.

Similarly, we will never see images of antimatter-light with our naked eyes because our cornea is convex, and as such, it disperses images of antimatter-light all over our retina. The sole possibility to detect images of antimatter-light is via images on a digital or film camera.

2. Detection of antimatter galaxies

The Santilli telescopes should always be used in pair with optically aligned conventional Galileo telescopes, both telescopes having the same diameter of the primary lenses. the same curvature of the primary lenses and the same focal distances, with the understanding that curvature and focal distances become negative for the Santilli telescopes (Figure 3).

Under these conditions, the detection of antimatter galaxies with a pair of the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes can be made according to the following rules (consult TEC for more technical information):

1) All alignments in the night sky are done with the Galileo telescope which is generally equipped with an eyepiece;

2) All images are taken from equal digital or film cameras in both the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes as shown in Figure 3;

3) Whether digital or film, the images from the two telescopes are subjected to the same magnification, until faint images become detectable over the background;

4) Digital cameras are sufficient for initial scans of the night sky, although much more detailed views can be obtained via a film camera; and

5) Images focused by the Santilli telescope are considered valid, if and only if, they do not exist in the images from the Galileo telescope under the same magnification.

Since antimatter galaxies cannot exist in our galactic environment and can only exist far away, their images are faint. Consequently, the detection of their images are suggested to be done with long camera exposures, such as exposures for 15 seconds.

This long exposure generates streaks in the digital cameras that, as such, can be clearly distinguished from the background as well as from impurities or imperfections of the cameras since said impurities and imperfections remain stationary.

The tracking of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope is discouraged at the moment. This is due to the fact that, in case of tracking, antimatter galaxies will produce small stationary dots in the camera that, as such, cannot be distinguished with certainty from camera impurities or anomalies.

Matter-Antimatter annihilation also requires that antimatter-light must have energy opposite that of matter-light, as predicted by P. A. M. Dirac in 1932 and verified by R. M. Santilli in his decades of research on antimatter (see the the theoretical confirmation and the experimental confirmation).

Under 15 second exposure, the Galileo telescope creates an image of matter galaxies consisting of streaks of light over the conventional background (Figure 4) while, by contrast, the detection of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope creates streaks of darkness (Figure 5) over the conventional background.

This is essentially due to the fact that the negative energy of antimatter-light annihilates in the camera pixel the positive energy due to matter-light of the background, resulting in this way in streaks of darkness.

It then follows that a conventional matter-light background is necessary (under our current knowledge) for the detection of antimatter galaxies because, in its absence, no image of far away antimatter galaxies could be visible in the camera due to darkness of the background.

This is the reason all detections of the night sky with the Santilli telescope have been done to date at sea level where the conventional matter-light background is sufficient to distinguish streaks of darkness.

3. Detection of antimatter asteroids

The detection of antimatter asteroids follows rules different than those for antimatter galaxies. Since matter and antimatter repel each other gravitationally (antigravity), antimatter asteroids are repelled by Earth’s gravitation and can impact Earth only when they have certain value of kinetic energy computed by Dr. S. Beghella-Bartoli in the scientific work

Therefore, antimatter asteroids hitting Earth must have said minimal impact kinetic energy or more; they annihilate at contact with our matter atmosphere; and they produce instantaneous streaks of darkness (under 15 second exposure) in the digital or film camera generally in the downward direction of penetration in our atmosphere. Streaks of darkness over the matter-light background in the Santilli telescope under 15 second exposure are candidates for the detection of antimatter asteroids when they have a direction different than those of the streaks of matter and antimatter galaxies (Figure 6).

It should be indicated that, at this stage of our knowledge, we do not know how to detect antimatter asteroids in space prior to their impact on Earth, because our matter-light (whether from our Sun or from our lasers) could be absorbed without reflection when hitting antimatter asteroids that generally are at absolute zero degree temperature.

One of the reasons Thunder Energies Corporation is involved in the study of antimatter light is precisely due to the need to develop new technologies for the advance detection of antimatter asteroids because, in the event we are hit by a small antimatter asteroid the size of a football, all our military, industrial and civilian communications will be disrupted for days due to the extreme excitation of our atmosphere from the radiations emitted by the matter-antimatter annihilation, as suggested by Dr. R. Anderson et al. in the scientific work

4. Detection of antimatter cosmic rays

The detection of antimatter cosmic rays follows rules different than those for the detection of antimatter galaxies and antimatter asteroids. As it is the case for conventional cosmic rays of matter, antimatter cosmic rays are the result of primordial explosions in the universe.

Consequently, antimatter cosmic rays reach our atmosphere at very high speeds; they annihilate in the upper layer of our atmosphere; and their sole detection is that via the antimatter-light produced by their annihilation that reaches us at the ground level.

The detection of antimatter cosmic rays via the Santilli telescope is then provided by dots of darkness over the matter-light background despite the 15 seconds exposure, which feature confirm the virtually instantaneous propagation in our atmosphere of antimatter-light originated by the antimatter cosmic rays (Figure 7).

It should be clarified that the instantaneous dots of darkness created by antimatter cosmic rays by the Santilli telescope are not caused by ordinary light since the same dots are absent in the Galileo telescope. Also, antimatter-light is physically different than ordinary matter-light (see Figure 1 for the different refraction).

5. Expected new technologies

Due to the democracy between matter and antimatter requested by physical laws (such as the PCT theorem), the above advances predict the possible future development of a basically new digital camera with pixels detecting photons with negative energy, as a complement of current pixels that solely detect photons with positive energy. In the eventuality, the indicated new camera is developed, the matter-light background is not needed for the detection of antimatter images.

REFERENCES ON ANTIMATTER GALAXIES, ASTEROIDS, & COSMIC RAYS

General treatise on antimatter

R.M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Application to Antigravity, Grand Unification and the Spacetime Machine, Springer (2006)

Experimental references suggested for technical details

R. M. Santilli, “Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses,” Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications vol. 3, 2014, pages 1-26 (Cambridge, UK),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Antimatter-telescope-2013-final.pdf

P. Bhujbal, J. V. Kadeisvili, A. Nas, S Randall, and T. R. Shelke Preliminary confirmation of the detection of antimatter galaxies via Santilli telescope with concave lenses, Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications Vol. 3, pages 27-39, 2014 (Cambridge, UK) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Con-Ant-Tel-2013.pdf

S. Beghella-Bartoli, Prashant M. Bhujbal, Alex Nas, Confirmation of antimatter detection via Santilli telescope with concave lenses, American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 4, pages 34-41 (2015)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/antimatter-detect-2014.pdf

General Review

P. M. Bhujbal, Santilli’s Isodual Mathematics and Physics for Antimatter, International Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2015),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-Isodual-Theories.pdf

 


 

DETECTION OF INVISIBLE TERRESTRIAL ENTITIES (ITE)
OF THE FIRST AND SECOND KIND

While it’s deep space capabilities are well documented in scientific journals, it was only by chance that our telescope detected invisible terrestrial entities within the earth’s atmosphere. Scientifically, this should be impossible because when ordinary matter and anti-matter come into contact, the annihilate one another.

So, what are these invisible terrestrial entities (ITE) that have been observed and photographed? These entities defy our current scientific knowledge. Some appear to move at highly erratic speeds while others appear to be almost stationary. Some ITE appear as dark entities (Figure 8) while others give off a luminous glow (Figure 9). To say anything beyond this would be speculation. What I can say is that these entities are invisible to the human eye and to conventional telescopes and binoculars; they can only be observed with our telescope.

Dr. Santilli has developed his telescope with concave lenses also for the study of other forms of light besides antimatter light. Thunder Energies Corporation is supporting research for the possible conversion of matter-light, from its conventional form with positive index of refraction, into a form with negative index of refraction without its necessary origination from antimatter (TEC international patent pending).

 

REFERENCES ON ITE

BTV original release
Business Television Announces Thunder Energies’ Discovery via the Revolutionary Telescope with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE)
www.prweb.com/releases/2016/01/prweb13168382.htm

BTV YouTube Video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHj3MN9Sf2A

Scientific paper
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent Detection via New Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE)” American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 5, issue 3, pages 45-53, 2016
http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/ITE-paper-12-15-15.pdf

Independent confirmation
K. Brinkman, “Santilli Refractors,” power point from a lecture delivered at the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club on September 25, 2015
http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/Santilli-Refractor.pdf

Additional detection of bright ITE
Thunder Energies report on the bright ITE detected on 01-15-16
http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/TEC-report-ITE-II-01-15-16.pdf

Scientific Archive
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/news.html

Additional ITE detections and independent confirmations
Forthcoming

 

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Parallel universes are no longer a figment of our imagination

Taming the Multiverse

Parallel universes are no longer a figment of our imagination. They’re so real that we can reach out and touch them, and even use them to change our world, says Marcus Chown.

Are you having extraordinary experiences that your left brain can’t fathom, but your inner knowing can? Is this an insane vision?

Not according to David Deutsch of the University of Oxford. Deutsch believes that our Universe is part of the multiverse, a domain of parallel universes that comprises ultimate reality.

Until now, the multiverse was a hazy, ill-defined concept-little more than a philosophical trick. But in a paper yet to be published, Deutsch has worked out the structure of the multiverse. With it, he claims, he has answered the last criticism of the skeptics. “For 70 years physicists have been hiding from it, but they can hide no longer.” If he’s right, the multiverse is no trick. It is real. So real that we can mold the fate of the universes and exploit them.

Why believe in something so extraordinary? Because it can explain one of the greatest mysteries of modern science: why the world of atoms behaves so very differently from the everyday world of trees and tables.

The theory that describes atoms and their constituents is quantum mechanics. It is hugely successful. It has led to computers, lasers and nuclear reactors, and it tells us why the Sun shines and why the ground beneath our feet is solid. But quantum theory also tells us something very disturbing about atoms and their like: they can be in many places at once. This isn’t just a crazy theory-it has observable consequences (see “Interfering with the multiverse”).

But how is it that atoms can be in many places at once whereas big things made out of atoms-tables, trees and pencils-apparently cannot? Reconciling the difference between the microscopic and the macroscopic is the central problem in quantum theory. The many worlds interpretation is one way to do it. This idea was proposed by Princeton graduate student Hugh Everett III in 1957. According to many worlds, quantum theory doesn’t just apply to atoms, says Deutsch. “The world of tables is exactly the same as the world of atoms.”

But surely this means tables can be in many places at once. Right. But nobody has ever seen such a schizophrenic table. So what gives?

The idea is that if you observe a table that is in two places at once, there are also two versions of you-one that sees the table in one place and one that sees it in another place.

The consequences are remarkable. A universe must exist for every physical possibility. There are Earths where the Nazis prevailed in the Second World War, where Marilyn Monroe married Einstein, and where the dinosaurs survived and evolved into intelligent beings who read New Scientist.

However, many worlds is not the only interpretation of quantum theory. Physicists can choose between half a dozen interpretations, all of which predict identical outcomes for all conceivable experiments.

Deutsch dismisses them all. “Some are gibberish, like the Copenhagen interpretation,” he says-and the rest are just variations on the many worlds theme.

For example, according to the Copenhagen interpretation, the act of observing is crucial. Observation forces an atom to make up its mind, and plump for being in only one place out of all the possible places it could be. But the Copenhagen interpretation is itself open to interpretation. What constitutes an observation? For some people, this only requires a large-scale object such as a particle detector. For others it means an interaction with some kind of conscious being.

Worse still, says Deutsch, is that in this type of interpretation you have to abandon the idea of reality. Before observation, the atom doesn’t have a real position. To Deutsch, the whole thing is mysticism-throwing up our hands and saying there are some things we are not allowed to ask.

Some interpretations do try to give the microscopic world reality, but they are all disguised versions of the many worlds idea, says Deutsch. “Their proponents have fallen over backwards to talk about the many worlds in a way that makes it appear as if they are not.”

In this category, Deutsch includes David Bohm’s “pilot-wave” interpretation. Bohm’s idea is that a quantum wave guides particles along their trajectories. Then the strange shape of the pilot wave can be used to explain all the odd quantum behaviors, such as interference patterns. In effect, says Deutsch, Bohm’s single universe occupies one groove in an immensely complicated multi-dimensional wave function.

“The question that pilot-wave theorists must address is: what are the unoccupied grooves?” says Deutsch. “It is no good saying they are merely theoretical and do not exist physically, for they continually jostle each other and the occupied groove, affecting its trajectory. What’s really being talked about here is parallel universes. Pilot-wave theories are parallel-universe theories in a state of chronic denial.”

Back and forth

Another disguised many worlds theory, says Deutsch, is John Cramer’s “transactional” interpretation in which information passes backwards and forwards through time. When you measure the position of an atom, it sends a message back to its earlier self to change its trajectory accordingly.

But as the system gets more complicated, the number of messages explodes. Soon, says Deutsch, it becomes vastly greater than the number of particles in the Universe. The full quantum evolution of a system as big as the Universe consists of an exponentially large number of classical processes, each of which contains the information to describe a whole universe. So Cramer’s idea forces the multiverse on you, says Deutsch.

So do other interpretations, according to Deutsch. “Quantum theory leaves no doubt that other universes exist in exactly the same sense that the single Universe that we see exists,” he says. “This is not a matter of interpretation. It is a logical consequence of quantum theory.”

Yet many physicists still refuse to accept the multiverse. “People say the many worlds is simply too crazy, too wasteful, too mind-blowing,” says Deutsch. “But this is an emotional not a scientific reaction. We have to take what nature gives us.”

A much more legitimate objection is that many worlds is vague and has no firm mathematical basis. Proponents talk of a multiverse that is like a stack of parallel universes. The critics point out that it cannot be that simple-quantum phenomena occur precisely because the universes interact. “What is needed is a precise mathematical model of the multiverse,” says Deutsch. And now he’s made one.

The key to Deutsch’s model sounds peculiar. He treats the multiverse as if it were a quantum computer. Quantum computers exploit the strangeness of quantum systems-their ability to be in many states at once-to do certain kinds of calculation at ludicrously high speed. For example, they could quickly search huge databases that would take an ordinary computer the lifetime of the Universe. Although the hardware is still at a very basic stage, the theory of how quantum computers process information is well advanced.

In 1985, Deutsch proved that such a machine can simulate any conceivable quantum system, and that includes the Universe itself. So to work out the basic structure of the multiverse, all you need to do is analyze a general quantum calculation. “The set of all programs that can be run on a quantum computer includes programs that would simulate the multiverse,” says Deutsch. “So we don’t have to include any details of stars and galaxies in the real Universe, we can just analyze quantum computers and look at how information flows inside them.”

If information could flow freely from one part of the multiverse to another, we’d live in a chaotic world where all possibilities would overlap. We really would see two tables at once, and worse, everything imaginable would be happening everywhere at the same time.

Deutsch found that, almost all the time, information flows only within small pieces of the quantum calculation, and not in between those pieces. These pieces, he says, are separate universes. They feel separate and autonomous because all the information we receive through our senses has come from within one universe. As Oxford philosopher Michael Lockwood put it, “We cannot look sideways, through the multiverse, any more than we can look into the future.”

Sometimes universes in Deutsch’s model peel apart only locally and fleetingly, and then slap back together again. This is the cause of quantum interference, which is at the root of everything from the two-slit experiment to the basic structure of atoms.

Other physicists are still digesting what Deutsch has to say. Anton Zeilinger of the University of Vienna remains unconvinced. “The multiverse interpretation is not the only possible one, and it is not even the simplest,” he says. Zeilinger instead uses information theory to come to very different conclusions. He thinks that quantum theory comes from limits on the information we get out of measurements (New Scientist, 17 February, p 26). As in the Copenhagen interpretation, there is no reality to what goes on before the measurement.

But Deutsch insists that his picture is more profound than Zeilinger’s. “I hope he’ll come round, and realise that the many worlds theory explains where the information in his measurements comes from.”

Why are physicists reluctant to accept many worlds? Deutsch blames logical positivism, the idea that science should concern itself only with objects that can be observed. In the early 20th century, some logical positivists even denied the existence of atoms-until the evidence became overwhelming. The evidence for the multiverse, according to Deutsch, is equally overwhelming. “Admittedly, it’s indirect,” he says. “But then, we can detect pterodactyls and quarks only indirectly too. The evidence that other universes exist is at least as strong as the evidence for pterodactyls or quarks.”

Perhaps the skeptics will be convinced by a practical demonstration of the multiverse. And Deutsch thinks he knows how. By building a quantum computer, he says, we can reach out and mold the multiverse.

“One day, a quantum computer will be built which does more simultaneous calculations than there are particles in the Universe,” says Deutsch. “Since the Universe as we see it lacks the computational resources to do the calculations, where are they being done?” It can only be in other universes, he says. “Quantum computers share information with huge numbers of versions of themselves throughout the multiverse.”

Imagine that you have a quantum PC and you set it a problem. What happens is that a huge number of versions of your PC split off from this Universe into their own separate, local universes, and work on parallel strands of the problem. A split second later, the pocket universes recombine into one, and those strands are pulled together to provide the answer that pops up on your screen. “Quantum computers are the first machines humans have ever built to exploit the multiverse directly,” says Deutsch.

At the moment, even the biggest quantum computers can only work their magic on about 6 bits of information, which in Deutsch’s view means they exploit copies of themselves in 26 universes-that’s just 64 of them. Because the computational feats of such computers are puny, people can choose to ignore the multiverse. “But something will happen when the number of parallel calculations becomes very large,” says Deutsch. “If the number is 64, people can shut their eyes but if it’s 1064, they will no longer be able to pretend.”

What would it mean for you and me to know there are inconceivably many yous and mes living out all possible histories? Surely, there is no point in making any choices for the better if all possible outcomes happen? We might as well stay in bed or commit suicide.

Deutsch does not agree. In fact, he thinks it could make real choice possible. In classical physics, he says, there is no such thing as “if”; the future is determined absolutely by the past. So there can be no free will. In the multiverse, however, there are alternatives; the quantum possibilities really happen. Free will might have a sensible definition, Deutsch thinks, because the alternatives don’t have to occur within equally large slices of the multiverse. “By making good choices, doing the right thing, we thicken the stack of universes in which versions of us live reasonable lives,” he says. “When you succeed, all the copies of you who made the same decision succeed too. What you do for the better increases the portion of the multiverse where good things happen.” Let’s hope that deciding to read this article was the right choice.

Multiverse

Interfering with the multiverse, you can see the shadow of other universes using little more than a light source and two metal plates. This is the famous double-slit experiment, the touchstone of quantum weirdness. Particles from the atomic realm such as photons, electrons or atoms are fired at the first plate, which has two vertical slits in it. The particles that go through hit the second plate on the far side. Imagine the places that are hit show up black and that the places that are not hit show up white. After the experiment has been running for a while, and many particles have passed through the slits, the plate will be covered in vertical stripes alternating black and white. That is an interference pattern. To make it, particles that passed through one slit have to interfere with particles that passed through the other slit. The pattern simply does not form if you shut one slit.

The strange thing is that the interference pattern forms even if particles come one at a time, with long periods in between.

So what is affecting these single particles?

According to the many worlds interpretation, each particle interferes with another particle going through the other slit. What other particle? “Another particle in a neighbouring universe,” says David Deutsch. He believes this is a case where two universes split apart briefly, within the experiment, then come back together again. “In my opinion, the argument for the many worlds was won with the double-slit experiment. It reveals interference between neighbouring universes, the root of all quantum phenomena.”

The Cycle of Remembrance

The idea of sharing in your own conditions, and methodologies, is the idea that you are willing to express yourselves, the idea that you are willing to come together for a singular purpose and the overall idea of whether or not you may find many individuated purposes within this overall idea. It is a singular purpose in that you are willing to give of yourselves, that you are willing to explore the beings that you are, and you are willing to understand on a very deep level all of the ideas that have remained hidden from your conscious mind for many thousands of years. This includes a willingness to wake up to the understanding that this exploratory age in which you now live is a prime example of the changes that are going on within the consciousness’ you are, within the reality you have created to experience yourselves within.

The very concept of physiological reality is now changing. The idea that you are beginning to be aware of yourselves as consciousness, rather than simply the product of physiological circumstances, is, in itself, an indication of an expansion of awareness that will create many changes upon your planet – experiential, physiological changes.

Because of your willingness to explore what it is that makes you what you are, you will begin to see in your physiological reality changes that you have always seen occur, but in a much more connected way to the changes that go on within you. You will begin to realize that all the changes you are seeing in your physiological reality, all the differences that are now appearing in your culture, are the result of not only what you are as a social being, but what you actually are as a being of consciousness. And that you have always been primarily responsible for the structures that do exist in your society, not just on a physiological level. For the very concepts of these structures to exist and for the ability of even physical structures to exist, all these ideas have come from the wellspring of the consciousness that you are.

Even in your own literature you have said you are made in the image of the Creator. What that means is that you are also an infinite creator – a multi-dimensional creator. And the attributes that you possess as a multidimensional creator are so automatic, so second-nature, that you create the reality around you so spontaneously that you have even been able to create the scenario that you have forgotten that you are creating it, so easily does it come to you.

You have the ability to create the state you call “forgetfulness.” You have the ability to create this scenario, this illusion in your reality, because your ability to create physical reality is so smoothly operational. You do not have to pay attention to it, it is quite automatic.

But now! Now you are at the end of the cycle of limitation! You are at the end of the cycle of forgetfulness. You have played out all the probable scenarios that can be played out within this particular linear reality that involved the original idea that you projected yourselves into – into this material existence. The original way in which you chose to manifest the belief in forgetfulness has now culminated.

This is the end of the cycle of forgetfulness and the beginning of the cycle of remembrance, the beginning of the awakening.

You are now awakening to the fact that you have been living a particular dream for many thousands – many tens, many hundreds of thousands of years. And now you are awakening into a new understanding that you are the creators of that dream. That you are not simply caught up in the machinations of some objectified universe that is existent outside of you, that goes on with you, or without you.

You are beginning to recognize that what you have called the universe, is in fact, the product of your imagination! The product of your perspective. The product of your perceptions. The product of your beliefs. The product of your feelings. AND, the product of your thoughts.

Even your own scientists are now beginning to realize that all of these ideas come from YOU. They are not truly independent of you. The material universe is but a reflection, perhaps a collective reflection on one level, and an individual reflection on another, but a reflection none the less of the ideas at any given moment which you most stongly believe.

Therefore, as you begin to awaken into the understanding that the universe is your projection, then all the changes that you now make within your consciousness, all the changes that you now allow to occur within the consciousness that YOU ARE, are within the idea that you are,and will be able to be seen by you to manifest that much more obviously, that much more transparently, and that much more quickly in your physiological reality.

Thus you can begin to see the connection between your thoughts and the physical reality you experience. Whereas before you created yourselves a world of time (time being your illusion as well), you created a very large time lag – a thickening of the atmosphere that prevented you from understanding that what you thought, is what created the ideas you are experiencing in your life. This time lag gave you the opportunity to think that your thoughts and your feelings were formed after you created the experiences! But now that you are living more in the moment and not needing to experience the idea of linear time so much, you are beginning to realize that it is your thoughts and your beliefs that actually create your experiences.

Thus you are beginning to reverse all the scenarios that you have been previously taught in your society for how creation is what you experience. You have been taught previously the idea that “seeing is believing”. But now you are beginning to understand that “believing is seeing”. And even though you may not be aware of that fact, you now are awakening to the understanding that when you have a situation occur in your life, in the physical reality, that that is not what creates your beliefs. It is the product of your beliefs!

Now these scenarios may reinforce the beliefs that you have, and may then allow you to experience feelings that you feel are the result of that experience. But understand, a belief exists within you first, and then you have the feeling. There is no such thing as a feeling, a reaction, out of the blue. Energy follows thought, not the other way around.

No situation in any way, shape, or form, can ever prompt any particular built-in feeling from you if you do not already have a built-in belief about what that situation means.

When you attract a situation into your life and then find the reaction within you, it is that reaction and that situation that lets you know beyond a shadow of a doubt, what the belief was that was imbedded and ingrained within your consciousness that allowed for the existence of that situation to begin with.

These situations are not here to show you that you are stuck with these ideas in life. No. They are there to show you that you have the belief that has attracted this situation. And now that you are aware of what this belief is, you can now alter that definition with your imagination. For once again you will begin to realize that your “physiological reality” is only – and can only be – a shadow of the soul, a reflection of the idea at any given moment that you are.

Source: Taming the Multiverse: Parallel universes are no longer a figment of our imagination

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toxoplasmosis changes behavior of host

http://c.brightcove.com/services/viewer/federated_f9?isVid=1&isUI=1

toxoplasmosis changes behavior of host

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Optogenetics Resource Center

OPTOGENETIC HARDWARE SETUP

DIY laser diode box
[ Zip folder ]

Arthur English’s group at Emory has developed a custom device that they have used for stimulating peripheral nerves optically in anesthetized mice using a standard optical fiber. The device is compact, rechargeable battery-operated, and controlled either manually or by computer using an analog input. Essentially, laser LED illumination is coupled to an optical fiber by a collimator and can be attached to a standard optical fiber patch cable with an FC/PC Connector (e.g.ThorLabs #M82L01). The device is considered a class 3B laser, so appropriate safety precautions must be taken. As described, the device outputs blue light suitable for activation of channelrhodopsin (473nM), but could be adapted to produce light of different wavelengths.

The zip file linked above includes

  • Assembly
    • Laser diode driver construction notes – detailed instructions for building the device
    • Laser diode box wiring – instructions for internal wiring of the enclosure
    • Laser diode driver V2A BOM – bill of materials (parts list)
  • Eagle PCB files
    • Board – top side – PDF view of top of board
    • Schematic – PDF of electrical schematic
    • Laser_diode_driver.sch – CadSoft Eagle schematic
    • Laser_diode_driver.brd – CadSoft Eagle board layout
  • Luminance graph
    • Laser LED power output graph – A graph of the typical power output vs. voltage input
  • Photos
    • Complete set of phots to aid in construction

Optogenetics in Neural Systems: Neuron Primer
[ PDF ]

Yizhar O, Fenno LE, Davidson TJ, Mogri M, Deisseroth K.
Neuron. 2011 July;72:9-34.

Here we provide a primer on the application of optogenetics in neuroscience, focusing on the single-component tools and highlighting important problems, challenges, and technical considerations.

Optetrode: a multichannel readout for optogenetic control in freely moving mice.
[ PDF ]

Anikeeva P, Andalman AS, Witten I, Warden M, Goshen I, Grosenick L, Gunaydin LA, Frank LM, Deisseroth K.
Nature Neuroscience. 2011 Dec 4;15(1):163-70.

We designed and validated the optetrode, a device that allows for colocalized multi-tetrode electrophysiological recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice. Optetrode manufacture employs a unique optical fiber-centric coaxial design approach that yields a lightweight (2 g), compact and robust device that is suitable for behaving mice. This low-cost device is easy to construct (2.5 h to build without specialized equipment). We found that the drive design produced stable high-quality recordings and continued to do so for at least 6 weeks following implantation.

Integrated device for combined optical neuromodulation and electrical recording for chronic in vivo applications.
[ PDF ]

Wang J, Wagner F, Borton DA, Zhang J, Ozden I, Burwell RD, Nurmikko AV, van Wagenen R, Diester I, Deisseroth K.
J Neural Eng. 2012 9:016001.

We previously demonstrated, in vitro, the dual capability (optical delivery and electrical recording) while testing a novel hybrid device (optrode-MEA), which incorporates a tapered coaxial optical electrode (optrode) and a 100 element microelectrode array (MEA). Here we report a fully chronic implant of a new version of this device in ChR2-expressing rats, and demonstrate its use in freely moving animals over periods up to 8 months.

Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue.
[ PDF ]

Zhang J, Laiwalla F, Kim JA, Urabe H, Van Wagenen R, Song YK, Connors BW, Zhang F, Deisseroth K, Nurmikko AV.
J. Neural Eng. 2009 Oct;6(5):055007.

We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (?optrode?) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array.

Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures.
[ PDF ]

Zhang F, Gradinaru V, Adamantidis AR, Durand R, Airan RD, de Lecea L, Deisseroth K.
Nat Protoc. 2010;5(3):439-56.

Interrogation of even deep neural circuits can be conducted by directly probing the necessity and sufficiency of defined circuit elements with millisecond-scale, cell type-specific optical perturbations, coupled with suitable readouts such as electrophysiology, optical circuit dynamics measures and freely moving behavior in mammals. Here we collect in detail our strategies for delivering microbial opsin genes to deep mammalian brain structures in vivo, along with protocols for integrating the resulting optical control with compatible readouts (electrophysiological, optical and behavioral).

An optical neural interface: in vivo control of rodent motor cortex with integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology.
[ PDF ]

Aravanis AM, Wang LP, Zhang F, Meltzer LA, Mogri MZ, Schneider MB, Deisseroth K.
J. Neural Eng. 2007;4:S143-S156.

We describe here a novel optical neural interface technology that will allow neuroengineers to optically address specific cell types in vivo with millisecond temporal precision. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), an algal light-activated ion channel we developed for use in mammals, can give rise to safe, light-driven stimulation of CNS neurons on a timescale of milliseconds. Because ChR2 is genetically targetable, specific populations of neurons even sparsely embedded within intact circuitry can be stimulated with high temporal precision. Here we report the first in vivo behavioral demonstration of a functional optical neural interface (ONI) in intact animals, involving integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology.

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Magic mushrooms’ psychedelic ingredient could help treat people with severe depression

Magic mushrooms’ psychedelic ingredient could help treat people with severe depression

Trials of psilocybin blocked by drugs law red tape, says Professor David Nutt of Imperial College London

psilocybin had a profound effect on making volunteers feel happier weeks after they had taken the drug

 

David Nutt
Prof David Nutt says that because magic mushrooms are rated as a class-A drug, their active chemical ingredient cannot be manufactured unless a special license is granted. Photograph: Christian Sinibaldi for the Guardian

Drugs derived from magic mushrooms could help treat people with severe depression. Scientists believe the chemical psilocybin, the psychedelic ingredient in magic mushrooms, can turn down parts of the brain that are overactive in severely depressive patients. The drug appears to stop patients dwelling on themselves and their own perceived inadequacies.

However, a bid by British scientists to carry out trials of psilocybin on patients in order to assess its full medical potential has been blocked by red tape relating to Britain’s strict drugs laws. Professor David Nutt, professor of neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College London, will tell a conference today that because magic mushrooms are rated as a class-A drug, their active chemical ingredient cannot be manufactured unless a special licence is granted.

“We haven’t started the study because finding companies that could manufacture the drug and who are prepared to go through the regulatory hoops to get the license is proving very difficult,” said Nutt. “The whole field is so bedeviled by primitive old-fashioned attitudes. Even if you have a good idea, you may never get it into the clinic, it seems.”

Research by Nutt has found that psilocybin switches off part of the brain called the anterior cingulate cortex.]

It was known that this area is overactive in individuals suffering from depression.

In his tests on healthy individuals, it was found that psilocybin had a profound effect on making these volunteers feel happier weeks after they had taken the drug, said Nutt

– who was sacked as the chairman of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs in 2009 after repeatedly clashing with government ministers about the dangers and classification of illicit drugs.

Nutt’s team also discovered that another section of the brain known as the default mode network was also influenced by psilocybin.

“People with depression have overactive default mode networks and so ruminate on themselves, on their inadequacies, on their badness, that they are worthless, that they have failed – to an extent that is sometimes delusional.

Again psilo-cybin appears to block that activity and stops this obsessive rumination.”

To determine if psilocybin could be used as a treatment to help patients, Nutt and his team were given £550,000 by the Medical Research Council to begin a three-year project to test the drug on people with depression. Patients who had failed to respond to two previous treatments would be selected. The aim was to test 30 with the drug and 30 with a placebo.

However, the group has found its path blocked by bureaucracy. So difficult has the government and the EU made it for companies to manufacture the active ingredients of Class A drugs that price tags of around £100,000 were given by chemical companies.

“We only need a relatively small amount of the drug, an order worth only a few hundred pounds,” said Nutt, who is set to describe his work with psilocybin at the UK Festival of Neuroscience conference in London today. “If we have to pay £100,000 we simply cannot afford to carry out the rest of the study. We have not given up but it is proving very difficult,” he said.

“Depression is now the largest cause of disability in Europe. There are many effective treatments but only about a third of individuals respond fully. At least 10% fail to respond to three different treatments. We badly need more types of treatment but we cannot pursue these because the government is denying scientists access to powerful tools that could help people in need. The regulations that govern researchers access to Class A drugs are totally inappropriate and harmful.”

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Researchers identify gatekeeper neurons that control pain and itch | Science | The Guardian

Researchers identify gatekeeper neurons that control pain and itch

New research provides direct evidence for an influential model of pain first proposed in 1965.

Spinal cord
Diagram of a transverse section of the spinal cord, showing primary sensory neurons entering the dorsal horn (top) and motor neurons exiting the ventral horn (bottom). Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz, 1891. Illustration: Wellcome Images.

During the 1960s, neuroscientists Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall proposed an influential new theory of pain. At the time, researchers were struggling to explain the phenomenon. Some believed that specific nerve fibers carry pain signals up into the brain, while others argued that the pain signals are transmitted by intense firing of non-specific fibres.

Neither idea was entirely satisfactory, because they could not explain why spinal surgery often fails to abolish pain, why gentle touch and other innocuous stimuli can sometimes cause excruciating pain, or why intensely painful stimuli are not always experienced as such.

Melzack and Wall’s Gate Control Theory stated that inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord control the relay of pain signals into the brain. Despite having some holes in it, the theory provided a revolutionary new framework for understanding the neural basis of pain, and ushered in the modern era of pain research. Now, almost exactly 50 years after the publication of Melzack and Wall’s theory, European researchers provide direct evidence of gatekeeper cells that control the flow of pain and itch signals from the spinal cord to the brain.

The experience that we call “pain” is an extremely complex one that often involves emotional aspects. Researchers therefore distinguish it from nociception, the process by which the nervous system detects noxious stimuli. Nociception is mediated by primary sensory neurons, whose cell bodies are clumped together in the dorsal root ganglia that run alongside the spinal cord. Each has a single fibre that splits in two not far from the cell body, sending one branch out to the skin surface and the other into the spinal cord.

Nociceptive neurons have specialised receptors that are sensitive to hot or cold temperatures, painful mechanical stimuli, chemicals that are released from damaged cells, or some combination of these. Noxious stimuli like these trigger nociceptors to fire impulses into the spinal cord. Nociceptor fibres enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where they form synaptic connections with second order sensory neurons that relay the signals to the brain’s pain centres, and with inhibitory interneurons, which form localised circuits that regulate the flow of the signals.

These interneurons constitute about one-third of all the cells in the dorsal horn, and synthesize the inhibitory neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, or both. Earlier work had shown that blocking the activity of these cells causes exaggerated pain responses in mice, making them good candidates as the gatekeepers of pain. Yet, the circuits they form in the spinal cord are complex and poorly understood, and until recently there were no appropriate tools for examining them in detail.

Edmund Foster of the University of Zurich and his colleagues exploited recent advances in molecular biology to create a strain of mice carrying specially-designed genetic constructs in their glycine-expressing dorsal horn neurons. When shuttled into the cells by modified viruses, these constructs enabled the researchers to trace the connections of the cells, switch the cells on or off, monitor their activity or kill them off altogether.

The tracing experiments showed that the cells are mostly located in the deeper layers of the dorsal horn, and that they receive most of their inputs from primary sensory neurons that have a low stimulation threshold – that is, from cells that carry signals related to non-painful touch stimuli.

Foster and his colleagues then killed the glycine-producing cells to see what effect this would have on the animals’ behaviour. One of the constructs they created contained a fragment of the diphtheria toxin, so when some of the animals were injected with a virus carrying the rest of the toxin, the cells synthesize the complete diphtheria protein, which is lethal to them.

Experiments on slices of spinal cord tissue from these animals revealed that killing the cells significantly reduced inhibitory signalling in the dorsal horn. As a result, the mice became hypersensitive to mechanical, hot and cold stimuli, and to the itching induced by the injection of histamine or chloroquine, as measured by the amount of time they spent licking and biting the affected area of skin.

Another set of experiments confirmed these findings. Temporary silencing of the same cells in another group of mice produced the same pain- and itch-associated behaviours, but their re-activation one week later alleviated their hypersensitivity.

This strongly suggests that glycine-producing interneurons are a key component of a spinal gate that controls the relay of pain and itch signals. The story is probably more complicated, though. These cells are likely involved in other functions, such as the control of gait and posture, and a study published 2013 showed that excitatory spinal interneurons also contribute to the control of pain and itch. The new genetic tools developed by Foster and his colleagues should help researchers to get a better handle on how the different types of spinal interneurons co-operate to control pain and itch, and to learn more about the other functions of these cells.

References: Melzack, P. & Wall, P. D. (1965). Pain Mechanisms: A New Theory. Science, 150: 971-979 [PDF].

Foster, E., et al. (2015). Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation Establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch. Neuron, 85: 1289-1304 [PDF].

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Bumblebee’s electric field sensor identified | Science | The Guardian

Bumblebee’s electric field sensor identified

Mechanosensory hairs covering bumblebees’ bodies detect the small electrical fields emitted by flowers

Close-up of a bumblebee showing the antennae and mechanosensory hairs covering its body. Photograph: Gregory Sutton/ Dom Clarke/ Erica Morley/ Daniel Robert
Close-up of a bumblebee showing antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Photograph: Gregory Sutton/ Dom Clarke/ Erica Morley/ Daniel Robert

“We were excited to discover that bees’ tiny hairs dance in response to electric fields, like when humans hold a balloon to their hair,” says lead author Gregory Sutton. “A lot of insects have similar body hairs, which leads to the possibility that many members the insect world may be equally sensitive to small electric fields.”

Bumblebees use the fine hairs covering their bodies to detect electrical fields produced by the flowers they feed on and pollinate, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Bristol. The findings, just published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may help to solve the mystery of how insects and other terrestrial creatures detect and respond to electric fields.

It’s well known that bumblebees use their sense of smell, as well as visual cues such as the colour, shape, and patterning of flowers, to find nectar, and in 2013, biologist Daniel Robert and his colleagues reported the surprising finding that they can also detect floral electric fields.

The ability to detect electric fields was first discovered in sharks and rays, whose electrosensory organs consist of small tubular cavities filled with a conductive jelly that stays in equilibrium with the water; electrical changes in the jelly trigger impulses in the attached sensory nerve endings. Some land animals, such as the platypus, also use electroreception, but rely on organs that have to be submerged in water in order for them to do so. Air does not conduct electricity, however, so we still know very little about how the electric sense might work in insects and other land animals.

When flitting between flowers to forage for food, bumblebees accumulate a positively charged electric field around their bodies. Flowers, on the other hand, produce weak, negatively charged electrical fields. Robert’s team showed that these floral electric fields distort the bees’ own fields as the insects approach them, and that variations in the shape and size of flowers’ electric fields enable the bees not only to tell flowers apart from one another, but also to learn which ones are the best sources of food.

Now, Robert and his colleagues believe they have identified the honeybee’s electric sensor. They knew that spiders use mechanosensory hairs covering their bodies to detect fluid flow and the speed of sound particles, and that honeybee antennae move in response to the electrical fields produced by nestmates performing a waggle dance nearby, and so reasoned that one of these structures might also be involved in the electric sense of the bumblebee.

 

Mechanosensory hairs covering the bumblebee’s body move in response to an applied electric field. From Sutton, et al. (2016).

To test this, they mounted dead bees on pins and used lasers to measure the movements of antennae and mechanosensory body hairs in response to weak electric fields comparable to those produced by flowers in the wild. They found that both the antennae and the body hairs moved in response to the applied electric fieldsthe hairs, however, being shorter and more rigid than the antennae, moved more than ten times faster, and also deflected further, when the fields were applied.

Further experiments revealed that the mechanosensory hairs were significantly more sensitive to electric fields than the antennae. In response to the applied electric fields, the tips of the hairs deflected almost half a millimetre, movements that are large enough to be visible under the microscope (see video above).

The researchers then anesthetized bumblebees, mounted them on a small clay post, and inserted micro-electrodes into the nerve cells located at the base of the hairs and antennae, to determine how they respond to the applied electric fields. This revealed that the neurons associate with the mechanosensory hairs increased their firing rate in response to the electric fields, whereas those associated with the antennae increased their firing rates only in response to puffs of air or olfactory stimuli such a lavender oil.

These findings hint at the mechanism by which bumblebees detect electric fields. As a bee approaches a flower, the floral electric field distorts the field around the bee’s body, and these distortions deflect the mechanosensory hairs, causing in them a lever-like movement which triggers the nerve cells at their base to fire off signals to the brain.

“We were excited to discover that bees’ tiny hairs dance in response to electric fields, like when humans hold a balloon to their hair,” says lead author Gregory Sutton. “A lot of insects have similar body hairs, which leads to the possibility that many members the insect world may be equally sensitive to small electric fields.”

Reference

Sutton, G. P., et al. (2016). Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields. PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1601624113

 

 

Source: Bumblebee’s electric field sensor identified | Science | The Guardian

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Presidential Commission: Directed Energy Weapons Used On American Citizens in Tests

Presidential Commission: Directed Energy Weapons Used On American Citizens in Tests

Source: The Intel Hub
Shepard Ambellas & Joe Joseph

In the dawn of 2012, many Americans, still left in the dark and unawakened to the fact that their omnipotent government and floundering leaders in Washington would have anything less than the peoples best interest at heart, will now face one of their biggest fears.

Factions within the U.S. Government’s Military Industrial Complex have been, and indeed are testing Directed Energy Weapons, along with chemical, nuclear and biological agents on the civilian populace.

In fact, U.S. law, approved by Congress, allows chemical and biological testing on the populace. (see PUBLIC LAW 105–85—NOV. 18, 1997 111 STAT. 1915)


Official White House Photo

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues is composed of 13 members and was established in November of 2009 by way of Executive Order 13521 which was issued by President Barrack H. Obama.

According to the PCSBI official government website;

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (PCSBI) advises the President on bioethical issues that may emerge from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.

The Commission works with the goal of identifying and promoting policies and practices that ensure scientific research, health care delivery, and technological innovation are conducted in an ethically responsible manner.”

The documentation provided on the PCBSI website concludes that the commission has engaged in various studies over time, one of which was the Dec 15, 2011 study entitled — Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research.

The opening statement in Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research reads like a mad scientists diary stating;

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues today issued its report concerning federally-sponsored research involving human volunteers, concluding that current rules and regulations provide adequate safeguards to mitigate risk.

In its report, “Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research,” the Commission also recommended 14 changes to current practices to better protect research subjects, and called on the federal government to improve its tracking of research programs supported with taxpayer dollars.

The statement goes on to openly admit that the U.S. Government spread bio-agents (STD’s) to Guatemalans in the mid 40′s stating;

President Obama requested that the Commission undertake an assessment of research standards following the October 2010 revelation that the U.S. Public Health Service supported unethical research in Guatemala from 1946 to 1948 that involved intentionally exposing thousands of Guatemalans to sexually transmitted diseases without their consent.

The President gave the Bioethics Commission two assignments: to oversee a thorough fact-finding investigation into the specifics of the studies (released September 13, 2011); and to assure that current rules for research participants protect people from harm or unethical treatment, domestically as well as internationally.

The statement goes on to highlight the Key Findings:

In the report’s central finding, the Commission found that the “U.S. system provides substantial protections for the health, rights, and welfare of research subjects.” 

Evidence has now been brought to light that over 55,000 human testing projects (with numerous people per project) took place during the year 2010;

In assessing the current regulations that protect human subjects, the Commission learned that there is no central source with information about the overall size, scope, and cost of the government’s research involving human subjects.

The Commission requested information from 18 individual agencies that conduct most federal human subjects research, but discovered that many federal offices could not provide basic data about the research they support.

The Pentagon, for example, required more than seven months to prepare information on specific studies supported by the Department of Defense.

In its report, the Commission found that the federal government supported more than 55,000 projects involving human subjects around the globe in Fiscal Year 2010, mostly in health-related research, but also in other fields such as education, engineering and social science.

The PCSBI sounds great to the average person nearly skimming the surface pages of the government website.

However, a closer look reveals that the commission has possibly been put in place to aid in a massive cover-up of what is really taking place right in front of our  eyes on a daily basis, congress has approved it, and apparently it’s legal.

The Best in uncensored news, information, and analysis

Source: Presidential Commission: Directed Energy Weapons Used On American Citizens in Tests

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A Note on Timothy Trespas, Gang Stalking and the Gospel, by Bridget Howe.   From:FaithWriters.com-Christian Encouragement –

Authors note: This touched my heart clearly just what I needed to hear. Thank you Bridget Howe for your clear insight and expression of these truths. This is a compelling, touching message, I want to share with others.

As always, I find myself quietly amazed when our Lord GOD answers even me! Calling me to continue seeking God’s truth and love.)

Source: FaithWriters.com-Christian Encouragement – A Note on Timothy Trespass, Gang Stalking and the Gospel

A Note on Timothy Trespass, Gang Stalking and the Gospel
by Bridget Howe
05/09/14
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A Note on Timothy Trespas, Gang-stalking and the Gospel

“I have sinned terribly against God.”  Timothy Trespas

To some who were confident of their own righteousness and looked down on everyone else, Jesus told this parable:

Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. The Pharisee stood by himself and prayed: ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other people—robbers, evildoers, adulterers—or even like this tax collector. I fast twice a week and give a tenth of all I get.’ “But the tax collector stood at a distance. He would not even look up to heaven, but beat his breast and said, ‘God, have mercy on me, a sinner.’ “I tell you that this man, rather than the other, went home justified before God. For all those who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted.Luke 18:9-14

There is nothing pleasant or positive about being a “targeted individual”.  When you first learn that you are being targeted and you understand the implications, it is like being diagnosed with a terminal disease.  You process through all the stages of grief coming to terms with the criminal act being perpetrated against you. In addition to that you have to cope with the fact there there is no one who is willing to listen or do any thing to help, because the reality and  the horror of gang-stalking is hidden from the minds of non targeted individuals.  Most Americans feel way too safe here and most of the time are completely unaware of the danger looming over our heads.  Stuff like gang-stalking isn’t supposed to happen here.

In fact it isn’t supposed to happen at all.

  • Human beings are supposed to be civil.
  •  They are supposed to respect other people’s rights.
  •  Lawyers are supposed to defend victims.  
  • Law Enforcement is supposed to protect us from criminals.
  • Judges are supposed to be fair.  
  • Doctors have a sworn oath to ” do no harm”.  
  • Preachers are supposed to preach the truth and not deny it, and
  • the church is supposed to take a stand against corruption.  

We have a constitution, the Bill of Rights and the law.

There is something inside of all if us that cries for justice.

We have an inborn sense that there is something called “right” and it’s opposite “wrong”.

The “inalienable rights” spoken of in our Constitution alludes to the idea that there is an unwritten moral code that pre- existed any written code and in fact supersedes any written code.  Those “inalienable  rights” are based on the unchanging character of our very Holy God.  When you become a gang-stalking victim you know that something has gone terribly wrong.

When I became aware that I was being targeted, I was researching. I wanted to understand and I did a lot of reading.  I was shocked and appalled by what I learned.  I am a Christian and there was a whole load of ramifications to this because of my faith.  I was at first shocked, angry, terrified and confused.  I of course asked myself and God what on earth I could have done that could be so terrible as to deserve such abuse.  I never saw myself as a perfect shining example of  Christianity.  I did however give it everything I had.  The entire focus of my life was on being truly Christian.  I was charitable, concerned about and prayed constantly for others.  I was consistently involved in my church.  There were in fact sins I needed to overcome.  There was no excusing myself when I sinned.  I consistently sought God’s forgiveness and I was repentant.  There was nothing I was hiding from God, and there was no sin in my life that I was ignoring.  There was however a war going on inside me that I could never understand.  I hungered for God.  I longed to be a part of his ministry.  However, I always felt like I was on the outside looking in.  I felt shunned, ignored and excluded most of the time.  Though I participated, volunteered and gave a tithe and offerings, it never changed. It wasn’t until I learned that I was being targeted that I began to understand why.

In researching my problem I learned that the power structure in this nation is absolutely corrupted, and the church is a part of that power structure and also a part of the corruption.

It goes deep, very deep, and it encompasses the political structure of your home town all the way to the office of the President of the United States.

The church is snared in the web because of two things; a) The Christian faith emphasizes a godly respect for authority, and b) corrupted authority has capitalized on that and deliberately deceived the church.  Ergo it has become possible for the church to become ensnared in cooperating with an ugly crime.

The crime begins with isolating the victim, and targets in the church can very quickly become isolated and alone and even ostracized. One woman I spoke to was ostracized from her church because gang-stalkers told members of her congregation that she was lesbian.  It wasn’t true, but it served to isolate her from anyone who might have, and should have, provided support.  In fact I have spoken with very many targeted individuals and only one has ever said they found support and encouragement in the church.

So here I am with God.

And I am standing here wondering if God is judging me for something.  I know the scripture.

I have been a believer since I was 15 years old, and I am 55.

Of course I quickly became aware that my stalkers were full of malice and one of their goals was to destroy my faith.  To that end they disrupted my relationship with my church and targeted my mind and emotions with directed energy weapons. Their attack was designed to make me believe that God had abandoned me and I was not his child anymore.

They don’t believe that God exists.  Problem is, he does and he is not silent.  They lie.  He speaks the truth.  He says, “My love is not quenched.”  They can’t contend with the Holy Spirit living inside of me.  They can’t deceive him nor manipulate him into cooperating with their destructive game.

Well the questions arise, “If I am a child of God why am I suffering like this?  Why am I being raped with microwave weapons?  Why are my finances being attacked? Why is my workplace a battleground?  Why did my family and friends not understand when I told them what was happening?  Why does the church fail to respond?  Is God disciplining me for something?

Does God hate me or love me?

In the first place, when we sign up with God we are signing up for the cross.  

Our redeemer was crucified.  All of his disciples bar one fled the cross when this happened.

Jesus said to his disciples, “If any man would come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.Matt. 16:24, NIV.

In the Hebrew, the word for cross is literally translated torture stake.  Torture is one of the greatest evils of fallen, sinful human beings.  It turns the human personality upside down.  It is the ultimate violation of the image of God stamped into our very being.

However, Jesus does not call us to resist the cross, but to embrace it.   The writer of Hebrews says,  “For the joy set before him he endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. Consider him who endured such opposition from sinners, so that you will not grow weary and lose heart.” –Hebrews 12:2 NIV.

Indeed, consider him.

And what does it mean, “scorning its shame”?

People were crucified because they had allegedly committed a crime.  However, as can be clearly seen in the scripture, the process of convicting the criminal was in fact corrupted.  Jesus was probably not the only man convicted on trumped up charges.  Nevertheless the convicted hung on the cross for all the world to see, having been like Jesus beaten and scourged.

But here is the irony of the thing.  Jesus was in fact sinless.

Those that accused him, lied.

Those who beat him were senselessly cruel and in fact were guilty of murder.

Pilate knew Jesus was innocent but for political reasons allowed an innocent man to die.  But, even when those being crucified are in fact guilty of some crime, they are all of them sentenced, beaten, and crucified by people who all deserve death ( Romans 3:23…for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.; Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord, NIV).

They are not any less guilty then those who are hanging on the cross.  Jesus knows this.

Perhaps that is what he despises.  They who pass judgment on the crucified, are all worthy of death.  The punisher is no less guilty then the punished.  The punished endures the shame, while the punisher gets off scott free.

Another likely reason Jesus scorned the “shame” of the cross was that it was a symbol of brutal tyranny.

The Jews of Judea lived in the shadow of the cross.  They traveled on foot or by donkey and as they passed the roads the crosses of the crucified bodies of the convicted lined the roadway and adorned the tops of the hills.  The gruesome macabre sight of the tortured bodies, some of them still alive and writhing in excruciating pain, were reminders to passers bye of the consequences of resisting Roman rule or breaking Roman law.  The intent was to intimidate.  It worked. In addition, the religious leaders of the day, instead of defending their people against the tyrannical abuse of the Roman government, curried the favor of the political elite by engaging in tyrannical rule of their own people.  They had thus become corrupt. This was likely the reason Jesus denounced them publicly (Matt 23:13-38).

Jesus went to the cross to say, “Look, you want to crucify someone, take me.  Go ahead drive the spikes into my hands and the spear into my side.  I will take the blame for all of you, and overcome it.”  And he did.  Indeed, consider him.

Several years ago, before I began my research quest, I had a dream.  In my dream there was a war going on.  I was grabbing people and dragging them into the church thinking we would find shelter there.  I had them go down to the floor between wooden pews in defensive posture with their hands covering their heads.  I was saying, ” It’s okay, we will be safe in here.”  No sooner had those words left my mouth, then the entire side wall in the sanctuary was blown out.  On the other side of that wall were Roman Soldiers on horseback, and they were dragging people out of the church and conscripting then into labor.  I remembered the dream because it was so vivid, but I really did not understand the meaning of the dream.

It wasn’t until years later when I learned that I was being targeted and I began digging for information that I understood the dream.  For one of the things I learned was that the occult has heavily infiltrated the church.  Former Grand Druid, John Todd, from the Illuminati Collins family, testified before a church congregation that the Illuminati, the inner core of the Freemason cult, spend billions of dollar yearly training their people to act like evangelical Christians so they can infiltrate and manipulate the church (John Todd, The Illuminati and Witchcraft, 1978 http://www.kt70.com.).  Another Illuminati defector, Svali Walthrop whose interview with Greg Szymanski can be heard at a WordPress web page (http://svalispeaks@wordpress.com), also testified that she grew up in the church but her family was occult.  She was one of their top mind control programmers. When she finally realized everything she had been taught was a lie, and she left the cult.  However, as a cult member, she taught at a Christian school.

In addition there are a load of pastors out there who are Freemasons.  That doesn’t necessarily mean they are not Christian, but Freemasonry is designed to systematically destroy the faith of a believer.

Many Christians who are members of the Freemason cult do not realize that the cult is Luciferian, not Christian.

Both John Todd and Svali Walthrop converted to Christianity, and they have blown the whistle on cult activity in the church.

Cathy O’Brien, who travels with her husband Mark Phillips speaking out against the occult infiltration of the US Government, also reveals that in her catholic School, a CIA occult operative disguised as a priest forced her to perform oral sex on him while she was in the confessional (Cathy O’Brien, Mark Phillips; Trance Formation of America (Frankston, Texas;Reality Marketing Inc., 1995, p 300). The priest/CIA operative was in charge of the now infamous MONARCH mind control operation.  I recommend reading Cathy’s book with great caution.  It is the true life story of a woman who grew up in a 3rd generation occult family.  It is full of sexually explicit material.  I only read the book in patches. There was material in that book I was not willing to read because it was so graphic and contaminating.

What many in America don’t realize, especially in the church, is that we are seeing the prophesied resurgence of Roman tyranny on the political scene worldwide. This is evidenced in America by the blatant violation of human rights and complete disregard of the Constitution or of the rule of “we the people”.  Thus we have American people gang-stalking their fellow Americans and torturing them with directed energy weapons while the US Government, the Department of Justice, local governments, the American BAR association, the American Medical and Psychiatric Associations and Law Enforcement turn a blind eye.

While the cries of 3,000,000 Americans go unheard, and millions more worldwide, stalkers, with the consent of the US Government and governments worldwide are free to tag anyone they wish, torture them covertly with directed energy weapons causing them to hear voices, endure terrible even suicidal depressions, migraine headaches, painful muscle cramps, even ritual rape, loss of sleep, vomiting and diarrhea etc.  Targeted individuals also endure terrible isolation because stalkers trained in cover assault tactics have persuaded family, friends and other associates to cooperate with their scheme through deception, bribery or even blackmail leaving the targeted person without anyone to talk to, defend them or provide emotional support.   They have literally been forsaken at the cross.

God sent his own son to the cross to bear our shame and endure death on our behalf so he could rescue us from an eternity in Hell. Though God disciplines the son or daughter he loves, he does not rape, torture or otherwise abuse them.

However, we are living in a broken and corrupted world.  God asks us sometimes to endure patiently for the sake of others who are also suffering as a witness to the cross.

Suffering is also ordained by God to bring about change in us.  I would be the first to say that I need to change.  I want to be more like Jesus.  God wants to being that about for me.   I want a heart that is pure, free of malice, resentment or spiritual pride.  I want no sexual impurity in me at all.  I want no worldly desires to get in the way of my obedience to Christ.

That does not mean to say that God approves of those who are torturing me or my fellow targeted individuals.  He certainly does not. But God has something to say to them too.  In suffering we are humbled and, before God, we wait patiently for deliverance.

While those who torture us go on torturing with impunity, we are  bearing witness of the truth of the Gospel. I am dismayed by those who insist that if we had been obedient to God, these things wouldn’t have happened to us. I was upset because some woman said something like that to my targeted brother, Timothy Trespass ( https://timothytrespas.wordpress.com/2014/04/01/881-timothytrespas-thank-the-lord-lost-and-suffering-honestly-struggling/).  The implication is that if we targeted individuals were more like her, then we would not be suffering so.

In fact we do stumble and we do experience the consequences of our own actions.  In my own confusion, I wondered if I had done something terrible enough for God to give up on me.  As I was pondering over this, God brought to my mind King David.  God called him a man after his own heart.  King David we know was guilty of murder and adultery.  He was  severely disciplined by God, but God did not forsake him, and King David humbled himself under the Lord’s hand and endured patiently.  He put his faith in God’s unfailing love and refused to budge.

Sometimes our suffering makes no sense at all.

Job was robbed by a gang of ruthless criminals, and Job’s friends were convinced he must have done something terrible.  Job probably struggled with the same “why?” questions that gang-stalking victims struggle with.  Job wrestled because he believed in the goodness of God and could not imagine God being willing to devastate his life in such a way for anything he had done.  He hadn’t in fact done anything worthy of such punishment.  God himself finally had to step in to settle the question.

Honestly, God’s answer to Job never made any sense to me.  What did make sense to me was Job’s resolution, “I know that my redeemer lives, and that in the end he will stand on the earth. And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God; I myself will see him with my own eyes—I, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!”  (Job 19:25-27 NIV).

Whether or not you think you have done something horrible for which God would discipline you, putting your faith in God’s unfailing love and refusing to budge will keep you from destructive despair which is where your stalkers will drive you if they can.

The truth is that the methodology and philosophy behind gang-stalking is amoral.  The gang-stalking community operates with a worldview that does not allow for an understanding of a moral or ethical code.  Though many gang-stalkers believe that they are executing some kind of justice, they that lead them have no sense of right or wrong.  The leaders of these gangs are pretty expert at manipulating people to do their bidding.  They are likely connected to the intelligence community and they have an agenda with no regard for the Constitution, Bill of a Rights or common decency.    Deception is the name of their game. The stalkers have a strong sense of justice which is manipulated by their leaders to persuade them to do the things they do.

Though gang-stalkers come from all walks of life, some seem to me to be people who have been underprivileged and have learned to resent people who have more.   The operators who lead them capitalize on this and exploit it.  I have heard a gang-stalker say, “I just think everybody should have the same amount.”  One day I came home and found a book cover from a children’s book that had been obviously and deliberately dropped inside my fenced in patio.  The book cover was new, not worn or torn.    It was clean with not a speck of dirt on it.  It hadn’t been blown there by wind.  The title and the caption of the book was about a woman who was basically a rich snob.  I wondered if the stalkers were told that’s what I was in order to gain their cooperation in targeting me.  The leaders of these groups seem to  have cultivated a socialist/communist mindset in their members.    It is also a concern among targeted individuals that gang stalkers work as reducing the target’s economic viability.  Most targeted individuals become either unemployed or under employed.   This echo’s historically the Bolshevik revolution. Gang-stalking is also used as a revenge service and frequently used to silence whistleblowers.  Large cooperations  hire them to get rid of someone they don’t want to pay the cost of firing.

Gang-stalking victims are also possibly being punished for believing in a moral  code and believing in God. It is possible that the stalker and/or their cult leaders believe that people who adhere to an ethical code are actually mentally unhealthy.  Members of the occult refer to people who believe in a right or wrong as “moralists”.

Satanists and Luciferians do not  believe in love and they work at destroying a person’s ability to form and maintain loving relationships and this is a common element with satanic ritual abuse, trauma based mind control and gang-stalking. Therefore a targets relationships are also targeted.  There is indication that the Freemason cult is at the root at the gang-stalkers mission.

A stalker who confessed explained that the Supreme Council is the power behind gang-stalking.  The Supreme council is the 33rd level of the Freemason cult (http://gangstalkingsurfers.wordpress.com/confessions-of-a-gang-stalker-aka-life-in-the-syndicate/).

Another targeted individual links secret courts run by Freemasons to gang-stalking (If you Discover You Are a  Victim’ ; Hearing Voices is Voice to Skull: Implant Victims, Gang-stalking Wiki<http://www.hearingvoices-is-voicetoskull.com/WhatNext.htm.) The US intelligence community for years has funded research into trauma based mind control.  This was the subject of the Senate investigations in the 70s (United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress Hearings Before the Senate Select Committee to a Study Governmental Operations With Respect to  Intelligence Activities [online] // – AARC Public Digital Library, 1976. – August 16, 2009.  http://www.aarclibrary.org).  Cults including the Freemason cult, Satanists and the like are employing the fruits of that research to force believers to recant their faith, though it is all done covertly in secret and deceptively using directed energy technology, electronic surveillance and satellites. They are also using deception to encourage family members, friends  etc to participate in the game of isolating the victim.  Those that participate may actually believe they are doing something good, when in fact they are participating in the murder of a soul.

If you are a target then I encourage you to put your faith in God’s unfailing love and hang on.  They can’t deceive God and they can’t manipulate him. As the scripture admonishes “Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; ( for he is faithful that promised;) Hebrews; 10:23 KJV).”

Timothy Trespass has a very humble and repentant spirit.  He was weeping over the remark the woman made to him.  He is truly broken hearted over his own sin, and he is the perfect example of the repentant sinner in the parable Jesus told in Luke 18 which I have quoted above.  I share his grief.  I too have sinned terribly against God.  God be merciful to me, a sinner.

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SURVIVAL, EVASION, RESISTANCE AND ESCAPE MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES

SURVIVAL, EVASION, RESISTANCE AND ESCAPE MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES

https://www.eseeknives.com/SERE.Manual.pdf

Fleet Aviation Specialized Operational Training Group, Atlantic Fleet, Naval Air-Station, Brunswick, Brunswick ME 04011-5000

STUDENT HANDBOOK D/E-2D-0039

I TABLE OF CONTENTS

SURVIVOR CHECKLIST………………………………………………….1

CHAPTER I…………………..CODE OF CONDUCT…………………….3

CHAPTER II…………………GENEVA CONVENTION…………………7

CHAPTER III……………….WATER PROCUREMENT…………………21

CHAPTER IV

…………………FOOD PROCUREMENT………..

………..26

CHAPTER V

………………..PERSONAL PROTECTION

……………….35

CHAPTER VI

……………….RECOVERY OPERATIONS..

…………….44

CHAPTER VII…

.RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING…..47

CHAPTER VIII

…….

………………NAVIGATION……..

………………51

CHAPTER IX

………………………..EVASION……..

………………….65

CHAPTER X

…………………………MEDICAL…….. ..

……………….72

CHAPTER XI

………………INDUCED CONDITIONS …………………84

THE WILL TO SURVIVE

…………………………………………………90

PERSONAL SURVIVAL KIT AND RECOMMENDED READING

…….91

Note:

This UNCLASSIFIED handbook is designed to provide SERE students with information to review during the basic SERE course and as an aid for retention. SERE graduates are encouraged to periodical review this information and continue your SERE education from the recommended reading list

I 1SURVIVAL, EVASION, RESISTANCE AND ESCAPE

QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST

DECIDE TO SURVIVE!

S – Size up the situation.

Physical condition

Adequate water intake

Injuries, Illness

Food

Surroundings

Equipment

U – Use all your senses, slow down and think.

R – Remember where you are.

V – Vanquish fear and panic.

I – Improvise and improve.

V – Value living.

A – Act like the natives.

L – Live by your training and experience

1.IMMEDIATE ACTIONS

a.Assess immediate situation…

THINK BEFORE YOU ACT!

b.Take action to protect yourself from Nuclear, Biological or Chemical hazards. (See Chapter XI)

c.Seek concealment.

d.Assess medical condition; treat as necessary. (See Chapter X)

e.Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information.

f.Sanitize area, hide equipment you are leaving.

g.Apply camouflage.

h.Move away from initial site; zigzag pattern recommended.

i.Use terrain to advantage; communication and concealment.

j.Find hold-up site.

2.HOLD-UP SITE (See ChapterIX)

a.Reassess, treat injuries, inventory equipment.

b.Review plan of action; establish priorities (See Chapter VI)

c.Determine your current location.

d.Improve camouflage.

e.Execute plan of action…

f. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand.

2STAY FLEXIBLE!

 

3.CONCEALMENT (See Chapter IX)

a.Select a place of cover and concealment providing:

(1)Adequate cover; ground and air.

(2)Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communication.(LOCs)

(3)Listening and observation point.

(4)Multiple avenues of escape.

(5)Protection from the environment.

(6)Possible communication/signaling opportunities.

b.Stay alert, maintain security.

c.Drink water.

4.MOVEMENT (See Chapter IX)

a.Travel slowly and deliberately.

b.Do not leave evidence of travel, use noise and light discipline.

c.Stay away from LOC’s.

d.Stop, Look, Listen, and Smell; take appropriate action.

e.Move from one concealed area to another.

f.Use evasion movement techniques

5.COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALING (See Chapter VII)

a.Communicate per theater communication procedures, particularly when considering transmitting in the “blind”.

b.Be prepared to use devices on short notice.

c.Communication/signaling devices may compromise position.

6.RECOVERY OPERATIONS (See Chapter VI)

a.Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans.

b.Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear.

c.Select best area for communications and signaling devices.

d.Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOCs.

e.Follow recovery force instructions.

3 CHAPTER I  CODE OF CONDUCT

The Code of Conduct represents a formal expression of the standards of military conduct understood and accepted by most countries for centuries. It serves as a guideline to be followed by all members of the armed forces, particularly when in a captured or detained status. It is professional and inspirational rather than a penal code. Failure to live up to the full extent of its obligations is not a criminal offense.

Adequate authority exists under the Uniform Code of Military Justice for that malfeasance’s which can be properlytermed criminal acts. Should a service member engage in actions punishable under the UCMJ, they maybe prosecuted under that statute, but not under the Code of Conduct.

It is recognized that inhuman treatment and the application of psychological techniques have succeeded in individual cases in forcing involuntary departures from the standards set forth by the Code and can be expected to do so in the future. Notwithstanding these past and possible future departures, it would be unwise to officially advocate voluntary departures for any reason. The individual must be expected to adhere to both the spirit and the intent of the Code of Conduct to the full extent of their physical, mental, and moral resources. The wisdom of the Code of Conduct has been confirmed by former captives who found it a source of strength in situations of severe duress.

ARTICLE I

I am an American, fighting in the forces which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.

Article I of the Code of Conduct apply to all service members at all times.

A member of the armed forces has a duty to support the interests and oppose the enemies of the United States regardless of the circumstances, whether in active participation in combat or captivity.

Past experience of captured Americans reveal that honorable survival of captivity requires that a member possess a high degree of dedication and motivation. Maintaining these qualities requires knowledge of and a strong belief in its institutions and concepts. Possessing the dedication and motivation fostered by such beliefs and trust will enable prisoners to survive long, stressful periods of captivity and return to country and family honorably and with their self-esteem intact.

ARTICLE II

I will never surrender of my on free will.

If in command I will never surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist

.

Members of the Armed Forces may never voluntarily surrender. Even when isolated and no longer able to inflict casualties on the enemy or otherwise defend themselves, it is their duty to evade capture and rejoin the nearest friendly force. When cut off, shot down or otherwise isolated in enemy controlled territory, they must make every effort to avoid capture. The courses of action available include concealment until recovered by friendly rescue forces, evasive travel to a friendly or neutral territory, and evasive travel to other pre-briefed areas.

4 The responsibility and authority of a commander never exceeds to the surrender of command, even if isolated, cut off or surrounded, while the unit still has the power to resist, break out, or evade to join friendly forces. Only when evasion by members is impossible and further fighting would lead only to their death with no significant loss to the enemy, might the means to resist or evade be considered exhausted.

Capture does not constitute a dishonorable act if all reasonable means of avoiding it have been exhausted and the only alternative is certain death.

ARTICLE III

If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.

The duty of a member of the Armed Forces to continue resistance to enemy exploitation by all means available is not lessened by the misfortune of capture. Contrary to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, enemies which U.S. forces have engaged since 1949 have regarded the PW compound as an extension of the battlefield. The Prisoner of War (PW) must be prepared for this fact.

In disregarding provisions of the Geneva Conventions, the enemy has used a variety of tactics to exploit PW’s for propaganda purposes or to obtain military information. Resistance to captor exploitation efforts is required by the Code of Conduct.

Physical and mental harassment, general mistreatment and torture, medical neglect and political indoctrination have all been used against PW’s in the past.

Under the guidance and supervision of the senior military person and PW organization, PWs must be prepared to take advantage of escape opportunities whenever they arise. In communal detention, the welfare of the PWs who will remain behind must be considered. A PW must “think escape,” must try to escape if able to do so and must assist others to escape. The enemy has tried to tempt PWs to accept special favors or privileges not given to other PWs in return for statements or information desired by the enemy or for a pledge by the PW not to try to escape. A PW must not seek special privileges or accept special favors at the expense of his fellow PWs.  Parole agreements and promises given the captor by a prisoner of war to fulfill stated conditions, such as not to bear arms or not to escape, in consideration of special privileges, such as release from captivity or lessened restraint. The United States does not authorize any service member to sign or enter into any such parole agreement

ARTICLE IV

If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information

or take or take part in any action which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will

take command. If not, I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them

up in every way.

Officers and non-commissioned officers will continue to carry out their responsibilities and to exercise

their authority in captivity. Informing or any other action detrimental to a fellow PW, is despicable and is

expressly forbidden. Prisoners of war must especially avoid helping the enemy to identify fellow PWs

who may have knowledge of value to the enemy and who may therefore, be made to suffer coercive

interrogation.

Wherever located,

PWs, for their own benefit, should organize in a military manner under the senior

person eligible for command. The senior person (whether officer or enlisted) within the PW camp or with

6
Experience has shown that even when coerced beyond name, rank, service number, date of birth and
claims of inabilities, it is possible to thwart an interrogator’s efforts to obtain useful information by the
use of certain additional ruses and stratagems, provided there is a will to resist.
If a PW finds that, under intense coercion, unauthorized information was unwillingly or accidentally
disclosed, then the member should attempt to recover and resist with a fresh line of mental defense.
ARTICLE VI
I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions and
dedicated to the principles which make my country free. I will trust in my God and in the United
States of America.
A member of the Armed Forces remains responsible for personal actions at all times. This Article is
designed to assist members of the Armed Forces to fulfill their responsibilities and to survive captivity
with honor. The Code of Conduct does not conflict with the UCMJ and the latter continues to apply to
each military service member during captivity (or in other hostile detention). A member of the Armed
Forces who is captured has a continuing obligation to resist all attempts to indoctrination and to remain
loyal to country, service and unit. Every member of the Armed Forces of the United States should
understand that members can be held legally accountable for personal actions while detained.
Upon repatriation, PW’s can expect their actions to be subject to review, both as to circumstances of
capture and as to conduct during detention. The purpose of each interview is to recognize misconduct.
The reviews will be conducted with due regard for the rights of the individual and consideration for the
conditions of captivity.
Every member of the Armed Forces of the United States should understand the importance of ensuring
that their personal affairs and family matters (pay, powers of attorney, will, car payments and children’s
schooling) are kept current through discussion, counseling or filing of documents prior to being exposed
to risk of capture. That failure to accomplish these has resulted in an almost overwhelming sense of guilt
on the part of the
PWs, and has placed unnecessary hardship on family members.
The national policy expressed by the President of the United States in promulgating the Code of
Conduct:
“No American prisoner of war will be forgotten by the United States. Every available means will
be employed by our government to establish contact with, to support and to obtain the release of
all our prisoners of war. Furthermore, the laws of the United States provide for the support and
care of dependents of the Armed Forces including those who become prisoners of war. I assure
dependents of such prisoners that these laws will continue to provide their welfare.”
7
CHAPTER II
GENEVA CONVENTIONS
RELATIVE TO THE TREATMENT
OF PRISONERS OF WAR
1949
EXTRACT OF PERTINENT ARTICLES
NOTE:
The complete Article is quoted, unless otherwise stated.
LEGAL STATUS
ARTICLE 1.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present
Convention in all circumstances.
STUDENT NOTE:
Your knowledge of these Articles is what makes the Geneva Conventions
work. Your persistence in demanding your rights under these Articles coupled with the very
powerful influence of world opinion could very well force captors who are signatories, and not
adhering to Article 1, to comply. If your persistence fails, the information gathered upon
repatriation, could be damaging to that country in the form of legal sanctions. Any one of you
could be duty bound by the Code of Conduct to represent others in obtaining the legal rights
listed herein.
ARTICLE 2
In addition to the
provisions which shall be implemented in peacetime, the present
Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed
conflict which may arise
between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by
one of them.
The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the
territory of the
High Contracting
Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.
Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers
who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall futhermore be
bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions
thereof.
ARTICLE 4
.
A. Prisoners of war, in the sense of the present Convention, are persons belonging to one of the
following categories, who have fallen into the power of the enemy:
(1) Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as well as members of militias or
volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces.
(2) Members of other mili
tias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of
organized resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or outside their
own territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including
such organized resistance movements, fulfills the following conditions:
8
(a)
that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;
(b)
that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;
(c)
that of carrying arms openly;
(d)
that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.
(3) Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not
recognized by the Detaining Power.
(4) Persons
who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as
civilian members of military aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors,
members of labor units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces,
provided that they have received authorization from the armed forces which they
accompany, who shall provide them for that purpose with an identity card similar to the
annexed model.
(5) Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the
merchant marine and the
crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favorable
treatment under any other provisions of international law.
(6) Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the approach of the enemy
spontaneously
take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into
regular armed units provided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of
war.
B.
The following shall likewise be treated as prisoners of war under the present convention:
(1) Persons belonging, or having belonged to the armed forces of the occupied country, if the
occupying Power considers it necessary by reason of such allegiance to intern them, even
though it has originally liberated them while hostilities were going on outside the territory it
occupies, in particular where such persons have made an unsuccessful attempt to rejoin the
armed forces to which they belong and which are engaged in combat, or where they fail to
comply with a summons made to them with a view to internment.
(2) The persons belonging to one of the categories enumerated in the present Article, who
have
been received by neutral or non-belligerent Powers on their territory and whom these
Powers are required to intern international law, without prejudice to any more favorable
treatment which these Powers may choose to give and with the exception of Articles 8, 10,
15, 30, fifth paragraph 58-67, 92, 126 and, where diplomatic relations exist between the
Parties to the conflict and the neutral or non-belligerent Power concerned, those Articles
concerning the Protecting Power. Where such diplomatic relations exist, the Parties to a
conflict on whom these persons depend shall be allowed to perform towards them the
functions of a Protecting Power as provided in the present Convention, without prejudice to
the functions which these Parties normally exercise in conformity with diplomatic and
consular usage and treaties.
C. This Article shall in no way affect the status of medical personnel and chaplains as provided for in
Article 33 of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 7.
Prisoners of war may under no circumstances renounce in
part or in entirety the rights
secured to them by the present Convention and by the special agreements referred to in the
foregoing Article, if such there were.
9
ARTICLE 12
. Prisoners of war are in the hands of the enemy Power, but not of the individuals or
military units who have captured them. Irrespective of the individual responsibilities that may exist,
the Detaining Power is responsible for the treatment given them. Prisoners of war may only be transferred
by the Detaining Power to a Power which is a party to the Convention and after the Detaining Power has
satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to apply the Convention. When
prisoners of war are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the
Convention rests on the Power accepting them while they are in its custody. Nevertheless, if that Power
fails to carry out the provisions of the Convention in any important respect, the Power by whom the
prisoners of war were transferred shall, upon being notified by
the Protecting Power, take effective
measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the prisoners of war. Such requests must
be complied with.
ARTICLE 13
. Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated. Any unlawful act or omission
by the Detaining Power causing death or seriously endangering the health of a prisoner in its
custody is prohibited and will be regarded as a serious breach of the present Convention. In
particular, no prisoner may be subjected to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific
experiments of any kind which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the
prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest. Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be
protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public
curiosity. Measures of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited.
INTERROGATION
ARTICLE 17
. Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is bound to give only his
surname, first name and rank, date of birth and army, regimental, personal or serial number or
failing this, equivalent information. If he willfully infringes this rule, he may render himself liable to a
restriction of privileges accorded to his rank or status. Each Party to a conflict is required to furnish the
persons under its jurisdiction who are liable to become prisoners of war with an identity card showing the
owner’s surname, first names, rank, army, regimental, personal or serial number or equivalent information
and date of birth. The identity card may bear as well, any other information the party to the conflict may
wish to add concerning persons belonging to its armed forces. As far as possible the card shall measure
6.5 x 10 cm. and shall be issued in duplicate. The identity card shall be shown by the prisoner of war upon
demand, but may in no case be taken from him. No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of
coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever.
Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted or exposed to unpleasant or
disadvantageous treatment of any kind to prisoners of war who, owing to their physical or mental
condition, are unable to state their identity, shall be handed over to the medical service. The identity of
such prisoners shall be established by all possible means, subject to the provisions of the preceding
paragraph. The questioning of prisoners of war shall be carried out in a language which they understand.
10
ARTICLE 25 (Extract).
Prisoners of war shall be quartered under conditions as favorable as those
for the forces of the Detaining Power who are billeted in the same area. The said conditions shall
make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no case be prejudicial to
their health. The foregoing provisions shall apply in particular to the dormitories of prisoners of war in
regards
to both total surface and minimum cubic space and the general installations, bedding and
blankets. The premises provided for the use of prisoners of war individually or collectively, shall be
entirely protected from dampness and adequately heated and lighted, in particular, between dusk and
lights out. All precautions must be taken against danger of fire.
FOOD
ARTICLE 26
. The basic daily rations shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep prisoners
of war in good health and to prevent loss of weight or the development of nutritional deficiencies.
Account shall also be taken of the habitual diet of the prisoners. The Detaining Power shall supply
prisoners of war
who work with such additional rations as may be necessary for the labor on which they
are employed. Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to prisoners of war. The use of tobacco shall be
permitted. Prisoners of war shall, so far as possible, be associated with the preparation of their meals;
they may be employed for that purpose in the kitchens. Furthermore, they shall be given the means of
preparing, themselves, the additional food in their possession. Adequate premises shall be provided for
messing. Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited.
CLOTHING
ARTICLE 27 (Extract).
Clothing, underwear and footwear shall be supplied to prisoners of war in
sufficient quantities by the Detaining Power, which shall make allowance for the climate of the region
where prisoners are detained.
MEDICAL
ARTICLE 29.
The Detaining Power shall be bound to take all sanitary measures necessary to ensure
the cleanliness and healthfulness of camps and to prevent epidemics.
Prisoners of war shall have for their
use, day and night, conveniences, which conform to the rules of hygiene and are maintained in a constant
state of cleanliness. In any camps in which women
prisoners of war are accommodated, separate
conveniences shall be provided for them. Also, apart from the baths and showers with which the camps
shall be furnished, prisoners of war shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their personal
toilet and for washing their personal laundry; the necessary installations, facilities and time shall be
granted them for that purpose.
11
ARTICLE 30
. Every camp shall have an adequate infirmary where prisoners of war may have the
attention they require, as well as appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall, if necessary, be set aside for cases
of contagious or mental disease. Prisoners of war suffering from serious disease or whose condition
necessitates special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital
care, must be admitted to any military or
civilian medical unit where such treatment can be given, even if their repatriation is contemplated in the
near future. Special facilities shall be afforded for the care to be given to the disabled, in particular to the
blind and for their rehabilitation, pending repatriation. Prisoners of war shall have the attention, preferably
of medical personnel of the Power on which they depend and, if possible, of their nationality. Prisoners of
war may not be prevented from presenting themselves to medical authorities for examination.
ARTICLE
31
. Medical inspections of prisoners of war shall be held at least once a month. They shall
include the checking and the recording of the weight of each prisoner of war. Their purpose shall be, in
particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of prisoners and to detect
contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria and venereal disease. For this purpose the most
efficient methods available shall be employed, e.g., periodic mass miniature radiography for the early
detection of tuberculosis.
ARTICLE 32
. Prisoners of war who, though not attached to the medical service of their armed
forces, are physicians, surgeons, dentists, nurses or medical orderlies, may be required by the
Detaining Power to exercise their medical function in the interests of prisoners of war dependent of
the same Power. In that case they shall continue to be prisoners of war, but shall receive the same
treatment as corresponding medicinal personnel retained by the Detaining Power. They shall be
exempted from any other work under Article 49.
RELIGION
ARTICLE 33
. Members of the medical personnel and chaplains while retained by the detaining power
with a view to assisting prisoners of war shall not be considered prisoners of war. They shall, however,
receive as a minimum the benefits and protection of the present convention.
ARTICLE 34.
Prisoners of war shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties,
including attendance at the service of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary
routine prescribed by the military authorities. Adequate premises shall be provided where religious
services may be held.
12
EDUCATION
ARTICLE 38
. While respecting the individual preferences of every prisoner, the Detaining Power
shall encourage the practice of intellectual, educational and recreational pursuits, sports and games
amongst prisoners and shall take the measures necessary to ensure the exercise thereof by providing them
with adequate premises and necessary equipment.
MILITARY COURTESY
ARTICLE 39
. Every prisoner of war shall be put under the immediate authority of a responsible
commissioned officer belonging to the regular armed forces of the Detaining Power. Such officer
shall have in his possession a copy of the present Convention; he shall ensure that its provisions are
known to the camp staff and the guards shall be responsible, under the direction of his government,
for its application. Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute and show to all
officers of the Detaining Power the external marks of respect provided for by the regulations
applying to their own forces officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers of a higher rank of
the Detaining Power; they must, however, salute the camp commander regardless of his rank.
ARTICLE 40
. The wearing of badges of rank and nationality, as well as of decorations, shall be
permitted.
ARTICLES POSTED
ARTICLE 41.
In every camp, the text of the present Convention and its Annexes and the contents of
any special agreement provided for in Article 6 shall be posted, in the prisoners’ own language, in
places where all may read them. Copies shall be supplied, on request, to the prisoners who cannot
have access to the copy which has been posted. Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every
kind relating to the conduct of prisoners of war shall be issued to them in a
language which they
understand. Such regulations, orders and publications shall be posted in the manner described above and
copies shall be handed to the prisoners’ representative. Every order and command addressed to prisoners
of war individually must likewise be given in a
language which they understand.
LABOR
ARTICLE 49
. The Detaining Power may utilize the labor of prisoners of war
who are physically fit,
taking into account their age, sex, rank and physical aptitude and with a view particularly to
maintaining them in a good state of physical and mental health. Noncommissioned officers who are
prisoners of war shall only be required to do supervisory work. Those not so required may ask for
other suitable work which shall, so far as possible, be found for them. If officers or persons of equivalent
status ask for suitable work, it shall be found for them, so far as possible, but they may under no
circumstances be compelled to work.
13
ARTICLE 50
. Besides work connected with camp administration, installation or maintenance,
prisoners of war may be compelled to do only, such work as is included in the following classes:
(a)
agriculture;
(b)
industries connected with the production or the extraction of raw material and manufacturing
industries, with the exception of metallurgical, machinery and chemical industries; public works and
building operations which have no military character or purpose;
(c)
transport and handling of stores which are not military in character or purpose;
(d
)commercial business, and arts and crafts;
(e
)domestic service;
(f
)public utility services having no military character or purpose.
Should the above provisions be infringed, prisoners of war shall be allowed to exercise their right of
complaint, in conformity with Article 78.
DANGEROUS WORK
ARTICLE 52
. Unless he
be a volunteer, no prisoner of war may be employed on labor which is of an
unhealthy or dangerous nature. No prisoners of war shall be assigned to labor, which would be
looked upon as humiliating for a member of the Detaining Power’s own forces.
The removal of mines or similar devices shall be considered as dangerous labor.
CAPTURE CARDS
ARTICLE 70
. Immediately upon capture, or not more than one week after arrival at a camp, even if
it is a transit camp, likewise in case of sickness or transfer to hospital or to another camp, every
prisoners of war shall be enabled to write direct to his family, on the one hand and to the Central
Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, on the other hand, a card similar, if possible,
to the model annexed to the present Convention, informing his relatives of his capture, address and
state of health. The said cards shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible and may not be delayed in
any manner.
MAIL
ARTICLE 71 (Extract).
Prisoners of war shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards. If
the Detaining Power deems it necessary to limit the number of letters and cards sent by each
prisoner of war, the said number shall not be less than two letters and four cards monthly, exclusive
of capture cards provided for in Article 70 and conforming as closely as possible to the models
annexed to the present Convention. Further limitations may be imposed only if the Protecting Power
is satisfied that it would be in the interests of the prisoners of war concerned to do so owing to
difficulties of translation caused by the Detaining Power’s inability to find sufficient qualified
linguists to carry out the necessary censorship. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence
addressed to prisoners of war, they may be ordered only by the Power on which the prisoner
depends, possibly at the request of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed by
the most rapid method at the disposal of the Detaining Power; they may not be delayed or retained
for disciplinary reasons.
PACKAGES
ARTICLE 72
(Extract).
Prisoners of war shall be allowed to receive by post or by any other means
individual parcels or collective shipments containing, in particular, food-stuffs, clothing, medical
supplies and articles of religious, educational or recreational character which may meet their needs,
including books, devotional articles, scientific equipment, examination papers, musical instruments,
sports outfits and material allowing prisoners of war to pursue their studies or their cultural
activities.
ARTICLE 76
. The censoring of correspondence addressed to prisoners of war or dispatched by them
shall be done as quickly as possible. Mail shall be censored only by the dispatching State and the
receiving State, and once only by each. The examination of consignments intended for prisoners of war
shall not be carried out under conditions that will expose the goods printed or matter, it shall be done in
the presence of
the addressee, or of a fellow-prisoner duly delegated by him. The delivery to prisoners of
individual or collective consignments shall not be delayed under the pretext of difficulties of censorship
,
Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by Parties to the conflict, either for military or political
reason, shall be only temporary and its duration shall be as short as possible.
PRISONER REPRESENTATIVES
ARTICLE
78
. Prisoners of war shall have the right to make known to the military authorities in
whose power they are, their requests regarding the conditions of captivity to which they are
subjected. They shall also have the unrestricted right to apply to the representatives of the Protecting
Powers either through their prisoners representative or, if they consider it necessary, direct, in order to
draw their attention to any points on which they may have complaints to make regarding their conditions
of captivity. These requests and complaints shall not be limited nor considered to be a part of the
correspondence quota referred to in Article 71. They must be transmitted immediately. Even if they are
recognized to be unfounded, they may not give rise to any punishment.
Prisoners’ representatives may send periodic reports on the situation in the camps and the needs of
the prisoners of war to the representatives of the Protecting Powers.
ARTICLE 79
. In all places where there are prisoners of war, except in those where there are officers the
prisoners shall freely elect by secret ballot, every six months and also in cases of vacancies, prisoners
represented entrusted with representing them before the military authorities, the protecting powers the
international committee of the red cross and any other organization which may assist them. The
prisoner’s representative shall be eligible for reelection. (
NOTE
: this conflicts with the Article IV of
Code of Conduct, which states the senior soldier will take charge)
In camps for officers and persons of equivalent status or in mixed camps, the senior officer among the
prisoners of war shall be recognized as the camp prisoner representative. In camps for officers one shall
15
assist him or more advisors chosen by the officers
; in mixed camps, his assistants shall be chosen from
among those prisoners of war who are not officers. Every representative must be approved by the
detaining power before he has the right to commence his duties. Where the detaining power refuses to
approve a prisoner of war elected by his fellow prisoners of war, it must inform the protecting power of
the reason for refusal. In all cases the prisoner representative must have the same nationality, and
language and customs as the prisoners of war for which he represents. Thus prisoners of war distributed
in different sections of the camp according to their nationality language and customs shall have for their
section their own prisoner representative, in accordance with the fore going paragraphs.
ARTICLE 81
. Prisoners’ representatives shall not be required to perform any other work, if the
accomplishment of their duties is thereby made more difficult. Prisoners’ representatives may appoint
from amongst the prisoners such assistants as they may require. All material facilities shall be granted
them, particularly a certain freedom of movement necessary for the accomplishment of their duties
(inspection of labor detachments, receipt
of supplies, etc.) Prisoner representatives shall be permitted to
visit premises where prisoners of war are detained, and every prisoner of war shall have the right to
consult freely his prisoners’ representative.
All facilities shall likewise be accorded to the prisoners’
representatives for communication by post and telegraph with the detaining authorities, the Protecting
Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and their delegates, the Mixed Medical
Commissions and representatives of labor detachments shall enjoy the same facilities for communication
with the prisoners’ representatives of the principal camp. Such communications shall not be restricted, nor
considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 71. Prisoners’ representatives who are
transferred shall be allowed a reasonable time to acquaint their successors with current affairs. In case of
dismissal, the reasons therefore shall be communicated to the Protecting Power.
LAWS OF DETAINING POWER
ARTICLE 82
.
A prisoner of war shall be subject to the laws, regulations and orders in force in the
armed forces of the Detaining Power; the Detaining Power shall be justified in taking judicial or
disciplinary measures in respect of any offense committed by a prisoner of war against such laws,
regulations or orders. However, no proceedings or punishments contrary to the provisions of this
Chapter shall be allowed. If any law, regulation or order of the Detaining Power shall declare acts
committed by a prisoner of war to be punishable, whereas the same acts would not be punishable if
committed by a member of the forces of the Detaining Power, such acts shall entail disciplinary
punishment only.
ARTICLE 85
. Prisoners of war prosecuted under the laws of the Detaining Power for acts committed
prior to capture shall retain,
EVEN IF CONVICTED
, the benefits of the present Convention.
NOTE:
Certain nations have important reservations of this article. These countries insist any prisoner
of war convicted of an
ALLEGED
war crime under the laws of the restraining power loses the
16
protection afforded of the G C. This means
ANY
admission by a PW is subject to interpretation by a
capturing power. If it suits the purpose, the country making the reservation can interpret the normal
combat duties of a soldier as war crimes. Even if the charged PW is given a trial, the results and sentence
are predetermined, as
THE
ONLY EVIDENCE CONSIDERED IS THE PRISONER’S ADMISSION
.
DISCIPLINARY SANCTIONS
ARTICLE 89
. The disciplinary punishments applicable to prisoners of war are the following:
(1) A fine which shall not exceed 50 percent of the advances of pay and working pay which the
prisoner of war would otherwise receive under the provisions of Article 60 and 62 during a
period of not more than 30 days.
(2) Discontinuance of privileges
granted over and above treatment provided for by the present
Convention.
(3) Fatigue duties not exceeding two hours daily.
(4) Confinement The punishment referred to under (3) shall not be applied to officers.
In no case shall disciplinary punishments be inhuman, brutal or dangerous to the health of
prisoners of war.
ARTICLE 90
. The duration of any single (disciplinary) punishment shall in no case exceed 30 days.
Any period of confinement awaiting the hearing of a disciplinary offense or the award of
disciplinary punishment shall be deducted from an award pronounced against a prisoner of war.
The maximum of 30 days provided above may not be exceeded, even if the prisoner of war is
answerable for several acts at the same time when he is awarded punishment, whether such acts are
related or not. The period between the pronouncing of an award of disciplinary punishment and its
execution shall not exceed one month. When a prisoner of war is awarded a further disciplinary
punishment, a period of at least three days shall elapse-between the execution of any two of the
punishments, if the duration of one
of these are ten days or more.
ESCAPE
ARTICLE 91
. The escape of a prisoner of war shall be deemed to have succeeded when:
(1) He has joined the armed forces of the Power on which he depends or those of an ally of the said
Power.
(2) He has left the territory under the control of the Detaining Power on which he depends or those
of an ally of said Power.
(3)He has joined a ship flying the flag of the Power on which he depends or of an allied Power, in the
territorial waters of the Detaining Power, the said ship not being under the control of the last named
Power. Prisoners of war who have made attempts to escape in the sense of this Article and who are
recaptured, shall not be liable to any punishment in respect of their previous escape.
17
ARTICLE 92
.
A prisoner of war who attempts to escape and is recaptured before having made good
his escape in the sense of Article 91 shall be liable only to a disciplinary punishment in respect of this act,
even if it is a repeated offense. A prisoner of war
who is recaptured shall be handed over without delay to
the competent military authority. Article 88
, fourth paragraph, notwithstanding, prisoners of war
punished as a result of an unsuccessful escape shall be subjected to special surveillance. Such surveillance
shall not affect the state of their health, must be undergone in a prisoner of war camp and must not entail
the suppression of any of the safeguards granted them by the present Convention.
NOTE
: Offenses committed by PWs with the sole intention of facilitating their escape and which do not
entail any violence against life or limb, such as offenses against public property, theft without intention of
self-enrichment, the drawing up of false papers or the wearing of civilian clothing shall occasion
disciplinary punishment only. The use of weapons against PWs, especially those attempting to escape,
shall constitute an extreme by warnings. Killing during an escape can be punished by death.
If an escape is successful and the successful escapee is later recaptured, he may be subject to judicial
action for those offenses entailing violence to life or limb or not otherwise within Article 93, GPW.
It should be noted that a soldier successfully effecting an escape is again a combatant (his legal status)
and subject to the law of war. Killing of civilians or other breaches of the Conventions, to effect his
escape subject him to prosecution under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. (Articles 42, 91, 93 GPW)
ARTICLE 93
. Escape or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated offense, shall not be deemed an
aggravating circumstance if the prisoner of war is subjected to trial by judicial proceedings in respect of
an offense committed during his escape or attempt to escape.
In conformity with the principle stated in
Article 83, offenses committed by prisoners of war with the sole intention of facilitating their escape and
which do not entail any violence against life or limb, such as offenses against public property, theft
without intention of self-enrichment, the drawing up of false papers or the wearing of civilian clothing,
shall occasion disciplinary punishment only.
ARTICLE 97
. Prisoners of war shall not in any case be transferred to penitentiary establishments
(
prisons, penitentiaries, convict prisons, etc.)
to undergo disciplinary punishment therein. All premises in
which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall conform to the sanitary requirements set forth in
Article 25. A prisoner of war undergoing punishment shall be enabled to keep himself in a state of
cleanliness, in conformity with Article 29. Officers and persons of equivalent status shall not be lodged in
the same quarters as non- commissioned officers or men. Women prisoners of war undergoing
disciplinary punishment shall be confined in separate quarters from male prisoners of war and shall be
under the immediate supervision of women.
ARTICLE 126
. Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go to
all places where prisoners of war may be, particularly to places of interment, imprisonment and
labor, and shall have access to all premises occupied by prisoners of war; they shall also be allowed
to go to the places of departure, passage and arrival of prisoners who are being transferred. They
shall be able to interview the prisoners, and in particular the prisoners’ representatives, without
18
witnesses, either personally or through an interpreter. Representatives and delegates of the Protecting
Powers shall have full liberty to select the places they wish to visit. The duration and frequency of these
visits shall not be restricted. Visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military
necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure. The Detaining Power and the Power
on which the said prisoners of war depend may agree, if necessary, that compatriots of these prisoners of
war be permitted to participate in the visits. The delegates of the International Committee of the Red
Cross shall enjoy the same prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the
approval of the Power detaining the prisoners of war to be visited.
TABLE OF UCMJ PUNITIVE ARTICLES
OF SPECIFIC APPLICABILITY TO
CODE OF CONDUCT TYPE SITUATIONS
ARTICLE NO.
DESCRIPTION
Article 85
Desertion by any member of the Armed Forces.
Article88
Use of contemptuous words by an officer against the President, Vice-President
or other government official specifically identified.
Article 89
Disrespect by any member of the Armed Forces of his superior commissioned
officer.
Article 90
Disobedience by any member of the Armed Forces of his superior commissioned
officer.
Article 91
Insubordinate conduct by any warrant officer or enlisted member of the Armed
Forces toward a warrant officer, non-commissioned officer or petty off
icer while
that officer is in the execution of their office.
Article 92
(a) Failure of any member of the Armed Forces to obey a lawful General Order or
other lawful order which does not qualify as a General Order.
(b) Dereliction of duty by
any member of the Armed Forces.
Article 94
Mutiny or sedition by any member of the Armed Forces.
Article 99
Misbehavior before the enemy by any member of the Armed Forces. (This article
includes such acts of misbehavior as shamefully surrendering
a command, casting
away arms or ammunition and willful failure to do one’s utmost to engage the
enemy.)
Article 100
Compelling the surrender of command, without proper authority, by any member
19
of the Armed Forces. (This article includes c
ommunicating or holding any
intercourse with the enemy without proper authority to do so.)
Article 104
Aiding the enemy by any member of the Armed Forces. (This article includes
communicating or holding any intercourse with the enemy without pr
oper
authority to do so.)
Article 105
Misconduct by any member of the Armed Forces while held as a prisoner of war.
(This article includes engaging in any act as a POW for the purpose of securing
more favorable treatment from the enemy, if
that act is also detrimental to fellow
POW’s.)
Article 133
The general article concerning conduct unbecoming an officer.
Article 134
The general article applicable to all members of the Armed Forces which concerns
conduct prejudicial to the
good order and discipline in the Armed Forces and
conduct of a nature likely to bring discredit upon the Armed Forces of the United
States
20
Chapter III
Water
1.
Water Requirements
a.
Drink as much water as possible (min 2 quarts per day) to maintain fluid level.
b.
Exertion, heat, injury or illnesses requires a greater need for water intake.
Note:
Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration.
2.
Water Procurement
a.
Water sources:
(1)
Surface water (streams, lakes and springs).
(2)
Precipitation (rain, snow, dew, sleet) (see FigureVII-1)
22
c.
Open seas:
(1)
Precipitation:
(a)
Drink as much as possible.
(b)
Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers.
(c)
Collect dew off raft.
(2)
Use issued sources.
(3)
Old sea ice or iceberg (See Figure VII-4).
(4)
Do not drink:
(a)
Urine.
(b)
Fish juices.
(c)
Blood.
(d)
Sea water.
(e)
Alcohol.
d.
Tropical areas:
(1)
All open sources previously mentioned.
(2)
Vegetation:
(a)
Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture.
(b)
Leaning tree. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (see Figure
VII-5).
Figure VII-5. Leaning Tree
(c)
Banana plants.
(d)
Water trees (avoid milky sap):
Tap before dark. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime.
Produce most water at night.
For evasion situations, bore into the roots and collect water.
(e)
Vines (see Figure VII-6A):
Cut bark – do not use
milky sap.
If juice is clear and water like, cut as large a piece of vine as possible, cutting the top
first.
Pour into hand to check smell, color, and taste to determine if drinkable.
Do not touch vine to lips.
When water flow stops, cut off 6 inches of opposite end, water will flow again.
23
(f)
Old bamboo:
Shake and listen for water.
Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain the water.
Cut out entire section to carry with you.
Filter and purify.
(g)
Green bamboo (see Figure VII-6B).
Figure VII-6 A & B. Water Vines and Green Bamboo
(h)
Along the coast, obtain water by:
Digging a beach well (see Figure VII-7).
Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea).
Figure VII-7. Beach Well
e.
Dry areas:
(1)
Solar still (see Figure VII-8).
(2)
Foliage bag (see Figure VII-9).
Note:
Do not use poisonous/toxic plants in any still or bag
24
Figure VII-8. Solar Still
Figure VII-9. Vegetation Bag
(3)
Transpiration bag (see Figure VII-10):
(a)
Water bag must be clear.
(b)
Water will taste like the plant smells.
Figure VII-10. Transpiration Bag
25
3.
Water Preparation and Storage
a.
Filtration:
(1)
Seepage basin (see Figure VII-11).
(2)
Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal).
Figure VII-11. Seepage Basin
b.
Purification:
(1)
Water from live plants requires no further treatment.
(2)
Purify all other water:
(a)
Boil at least one minute.
(b)
To improve taste, pour from one container to another to aerate.
(c)
Water purification tablets. Follow instructions.
c.
Potable Water:
(1)
If water cannot be purified, obtain water from a clear, cold, clean, and fast running source (if
possible).
(2)
Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria.
d.
Storage. To prevent contamination, use a clean, covered or sealed container:
(1)
Trash bag.
(2)
Prophylactic.
(3)
Section of bamboo.
(4)
Flotation gear.
26
Chapter IV
FOOD
1.
Food Procurement
a.
Locating:
(1)
Mammals:
(a)
Trails lead to watering, feeding, and bedding areas.
(b)
Look for fresh droppings or tracks.
(2)
Birds:
(a)
Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon may lead to
feeding, watering, and roosting areas.
(b)
The noise of birds may indicate nesting areas.
(3)
Fish and other marine life:
(a)
Streams and rivers (see Figure VIII-1).
(b)
Lakes, ponds and oceans.
(c)
Along shores.
Figure VIII-1. Fishing Locations
(4)
Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide.
(5)
Insects may be found:
(a)
In dead logs and stumps.
(b)
Ant and termite mounds.
(c)
On ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams.
b.
Procurement techniques:
(1)
Snares:
(a)
Work while unattended.
(b)
Location of snares:
Trails leading to water, feeding, and bedding areas.
The mouth of
dens (see Figure VIII-2).
27
Figure VIII-2. Snare Placement
(c)
Construction of simple loop snare:
Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal.
Use a figure eight (locking loop) if wire is used, (see Figure VIII-3).
Figure VIII-3. Locking Loop
Once tightened, the wire locks in place, preventing reopening, and the animal’s escape.
To construct a squirrel pole (see Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares.
Figure VIII-4. Squirrel Pole
Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal’s head, three-finger width for
squirrels, fist-sized for rabbits.
(d)
Placement of snares:
28
Avoid disturbing the area.
Use funneling (natural or improvised) (see Figure VIII-5).
Set as many snares as possible.
(2)
A noose stick is easier and safer to use than the hands.
Figure VIII-5. Funneling
(3)
Twist stick (see Figure VIII-6):
(a)
Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is met.
(b)
Twist the stick, binding the animal’s hide in the fork.
(c)
Remove the animal from the den.
(d)
Be ready to kill the animal, it may be dangerous.
Figure VIII-6. Procurement Devices
(4)
Hunting and fishing devices:
(a)
Club or rock.
(b)
Spear.
(c)
Slingshot.
(d)
Pole, line, and hook.
(e)
Net.
(f)
Trap.
(5)
Fishing traps and devices (see Figure VIII-7).
29
Figure VIII-7. Procurement Methods
(6)
Precautions:
(a)
Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water.
(b)
Avoid reaching into dark holes.
(c)
Animals in distress may attract the enemy.
(d)
Kill animals prior to handling.
(e)
Do not secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft.
(f)
Kill fish before bringing them into the raft.
(g)
Do not eat fish with:
Spines.
Unpleasant odor.
Pale, slimy gills.
Sunken eyes.
Flabby skin.
Flesh that remains dented when pressed.
(h)
Do not eat fish eggs or liver (entrails).
(i)
Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark.
(j)
Avoid cone-shaped shells. (See figure VIII-8)
30
Figure VIII-8. Cone-shaped shells
(k)
Avoid hairy insects, the hairs could cause irritation or infection.
(l)
Avoid poisonous insects, for example:
Centipedes.
Scorpions.
Poisonous spiders.
(m)
Avoid disease carrying insects, such as:
Flies.
Mosquitoes.
Ticks.
c.
Plant Foods (Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants):
Note
: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and must use an unknown plant, these guidelines
may help you determine edibility.
(1)
Selection Criteria:
(a)
Before testing for edibility, ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time
and effort. Each part of a plant (roots, leaves, stems, bark, etc.) requires more than 24
hours to test. Do not waste time testing a plant that is not abundant.
(b)
Test only one part of one plant at a time.
(c)
Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause
diarrhea, nausea, or cramps. Two good examples of this are such familiar foods as green
apples and wild onions. Even after testing food and finding it safe, eat in moderation.
31
(2)
Avoid plants with the following characteristics:
Note:
Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants; however,
these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants.
(a)
Milky sap (Dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable).
(b)
Spines, fine hairs and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis), (Prickly pear and thistles are
exceptions. Bracken fern
fiddleheads also violate this guideline).
(c)
Mushrooms and fungus.
(d)
Umbrella shaped flowers (Hemlock is eliminated).
(e)
Bulbs (Onions are the only thing that smell like onions).
(f)
Grain heads with pink, purplish or black spurs.
(g)
Beans bulbs or seeds inside pods.
(h)
Old or wilted leaves.
(i)
Plants with shiny leaves.
(j)
White and yellow berries (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always
edible, test all others before eating).
(k)
Almond scent in woody parts and leaves.
d.
Test Procedures:
Note:
Test all parts of the plant for edibility. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. Never
assume a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw, test the part raw before eating. The same
part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals.
(1)
Test only one part of a plant at a time.
(2)
Separate the plant into its basic components (Stems roots buds and flowers).
(3)
Smell the food for strong acid odors. Remember smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible
or inedible.
(4)
Do not eat 8 hours prior to the test and drink only purified water.
(5)
During the 8 hours you abstain from eating test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the
plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. The sap or juice should contact the skin. Usually
15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction.
(6)
During testing take nothing by mouth except purified water and the plant you are testing.
(7)
Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it.
(8)
Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth, touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer
surface of you lip to test for burning or itching.
(9)
If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip, place the plant on your tongue, and hold it
for 15 minutes.
(10)
If there is no reaction, thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes.
DO NOT SWALLOW
. If any ill effects occur rinse out your mouth with water.
(11)
If nothing abnormal occurs swallow the food and wait 8 hours. If any ill effects occur during
32
this period, induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture.
(12)
If no ill effects occur, eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. Wait another 8
hours. If no ill effects occur, the plant part as prepared is safe for eating.
Notes:
1.
Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. If the fruit is soft, color does not always indicate
ripeness. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin.
2.
Cook underground portions if possible to reduce possible bacterial contamination and ease digestion
of their generally high starch content.
3.
During evasion you may not be able to cook. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants, ripe
fruits and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation.
2.
Food Preparation
a.
Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound.
b.
Butchering and skinning:
(1)
Mammals:
(a)
Remove the skin and use for improvising.
(b)
Glove skinning.
(c)
One cut skinning of small game (see Figure VIII-9):
Figure VIII-9. Small Game Skinning
Open the abdominal cavity,
Avoid rupturing the intestines.
Remove the intestines.
Save inner organs (heart, liver, and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull, brain, tongue
and eyes.
(d)
Wash when ready to use.
(e)
If preserving the meat, remove it from the bones.
(2)
Frogs and snakes:
(a)
Skin.
(b)
Discard skin, head w/2 inches of body, and internal organs.
(3)
Fish:
(a)
Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after procur
34
(b)
Frozen food will not decompose.
(c)
Freeze in meal-size portions.
(2)
Short term:
(a)
Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer
months.
(b)
Earth below the surface, particularly in shady areas or along streams, is cooler than the
surface.
(c)
Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re- wet as the water evaporates.
c.
Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food:
(1)
Use salt, to improve flavor and promote drying.
(2)
Cut or pound meat into thin strips.
(3)
Remove fat.
(4)
Do not use pitch woods such as fir or pine, they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable
taste.
d.
Protecting meat from animals and insects:
(1)
Wrap food:
(a)
Use clean material.
(b)
Wrap pieces individually.
(c)
Assure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof.
(2)
Hanging meat:
(a)
Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects.
(b)
Hang meat in the shade.
(3)
Packing meat on the trail:
(a)
Wrap before flies appear in the morning.
(b)
Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation.
(c)
Place meat inside the pack for carrying. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the
meat cool.
(d)
Carry shellfish, crabs, and shrimp in wet seaweed.
e.
Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss.
f.
Do not store food in the shelter, it attracts unwanted animals.
35
Chapter V
PERSONAL PROTECTION
1.
Priorities
a.
Evaluate available resources and situation; accomplish individual tasks accordingly.
b.
First 24 hours in order of situational needs:
(1)
Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria.
(2)
Procure water.
(3)
Establish multiple survival signals.
(4)
Fire.
c.
Second 24 hours:
(1)
Construct necessary tools and weapons.
(2)
Procure food.
2.
Care and Use of Clothing
a.
Never discard clothing.
b.
Wear loose and layered clothing:
(1)
Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature.
(2)
Layers create more dead air space.
(3)
In hot areas keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration
.
c.
Avoid overheating:
(1)
Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities.
(2)
When fully clothed, the majority of
body heat escapes through the head and neck areas.
(3)
Use a hat to regulate body heat.
(4)
In hot environments, wear a hat when in direct sunlight.
d.
On the ocean in hot weather, dampen clothing:
(1)
Use salt water, not drinking water.
(2)
Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia.
e.
Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities, dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire.
f.
If you fall into the water in the winter:
(1)
Build fire.
(2)
Remove wet clothing and
rewarm by fire.
(3)
Finish drying clothing by fire.
g.
If no fire is available:
(1)
Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available).
(2)
Allow wet clothes to freeze.
(3)
Break ice out of clothing.
h.
Keep clothing clean, dirt reduces its insulation qualities:
(1)
Do not sit or lie directly on the ground.
(2)
Wash clothing whenever possible.
i.
Examine clothing frequently for damage, and repair when necessary using:
(1)
Needle and thread.
(2)
Safety pins.
(3)
Tape.
j.
Improvised foot protection (see Figure VI-1):
36
Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear
(1)
Cut two to four layers of cloth into a 30-inch square.
(2)
Fold into a triangle.
(3)
Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner.
(4)
Fold front over the toes.
(5)
Fold side corners, one at a time, over the instep.
(6)
Secure by rope, vines, tape etc, or tuck into other layers of material.
2. Other Protective Equipment
k.
Sleeping bag:
(1)
Fluff before use especially at foot of bag.
(2)
Air and dry daily to remove body moisture.
(3)
May be improvised with available material, dry grass, leaves, dry moss, etc.
l.
Sun and snow goggles (see Figure VI-2):
Figure VI-2. Sun and Snow Goggles
(1)
Wear in bright sun or snow conditions.
(2)
Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing
or bark, or similar materials.
m.
Gaiters
(see Figure VI-3):
37
Figure VI-3. Gaiters
(1)
Used to protect from sand,
snow, insects, and scratches.
(2)
Wrap material around lower leg and top of boots.
3.
Shelters
a.
Evasion considerations apply.
b.
Site selection:
(1)
Near signal and recovery site.
(2)
Food and water available.
(3)
Avoid natural hazards:
(a)
Dead standing trees.
(b)
Drainage and
dry river beds except in combat areas.
(c)
Avalanche areas.
(4)
Location large and level enough to lie down in.
c.
Types of shelters:
(1)
Find shelter requiring minimal improvements (see Figure VI-4).
Figure VI-4. Immediate Shelters
38
(a) In temperate climates, protection from wind and rain is sufficient.
(2)
Cold climates (see Figures VI-5, 6, & 7):
Figure VI-5. Thermal A Frame
Figure VI-6. Snow Trench
39
Figure VI-7. Snow Cave
(a)
An enclosed, insulated shelter may be required.
(b)
Snow is the most abundant insulating material.
(c)
An air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame
inside enclosed shelters.
(d)
As a general rule, unless you can see your breath – your snow shelter is too warm and
should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping.
(3)
Hot climates (see Figure VI-8):
(a)
A shade shelter is required to protect from UV rays.
(b)
The shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches) to reduce the
surface temperature.
(c)
For thermal protection, a minimum of two layers of material suspended 12-18 inches
above the head is required.
(d)
White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material).
Figure VI-8. Poncho / Parachute Shade Shelter
(4)
Tropical/wet climate (see Figure VI-9 & 10). An enclosed, elevated shelter is needed for
protection from dampness and. insects.
d.
Shelter construction:
(1)
Entrance 45-90
0
from prevailing wind.
(2)
Cover with available material.
(3)
If natural materials are used, arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer
overlapping the previous one.
(4)
If using porous material, like a, parachute, blankets, etc.:
(a)
Stretch as tight as possible.
(b)
Use a 40
0
–60
0
slope.
(c)
Use additional layers in heavy rains.
e.
Shelter construction materials:
(1)
Raft and raft parts.
(2)
Vehicle or aircraft parts.
(3)
Blankets, poncho, or parachute material.
(4)
Sheet of plastic or plastic bag.
(5)
Bark peeled off dead trees.
(6)
Boughs and broad leaves.
(7)
Grass and sod.
40
(8)
Snow.
(9)
Sand and rocks.
f.
Construct a bed to protect from cold, damp ground using:
(1)
Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats.
(2)
Boughs, leaves, or dry moss.
Figure VI-9. Raised Platform Shelter
Figure VI-10. Shingle Method
4.
Fire
Note
: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire.
a.
Evasion considerations:
(1)
Use trees or other source to dissipate smoke.
(2)
Use fires at dusk, dawn or during inclement weather.
(3)
Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking.
b.
Fire building:
(1)
The three essential elements for starting a fire are heat, fuel, and oxygen:
(2)
Some heat sources to start fire are:
(a)
Matches or lighter.
41
(b)
Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced).
(c)
Sparks from batteries.
(d)
Concentrated sunlight, use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors.
(e)
Pyrotechnics, such as flares (last resort), etc.
(f)
Friction method (see Figure VI-11).
Figure VI-11. Friction Method
Note
: If possible, carry a
fire starting device with you.
c.
Fuel is divided into three stages; tinder, kindling, and fuel:
(1)
Gather large amounts of each stage before igniting the fire.
(2)
Examples of tinder, the first stage, include:
(a)
Cotton.
(b)
Candle (shred the wick, not the wax).
(c)
Plastic
spoon, fork, or knife.
(d)
Foam rubber.
(e)
Dry bark.
(f)
Dry grasses.
(g)
Gun powder.
(h)
Pitch.
(i)
Petroleum products.
(3)
Tinder must be very finely shaved, or shredded, to provide a low combustion point and fluffed
to allow oxygen to flow through. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer, saturate
ith
Vaseline,
Chapstick, insect repellant, aircraft fuel, etc.)
(4)
Kindling, the second stage, must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder.
Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn.
(5)
Examples of fuel, the third stage, include:
(a)
Dry hardwood—removing bark reduces smoke.
(b)
Bamboo—open chambers to prevent explosion
45
(7)
Use a thumbs up, vigorous cable shake, or radio call to
signal you are ready.
(8)
Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation.
(9)
Do not assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue
vehicle. Follow crewmember instructions.
e.
For non-hoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment):
(1)
Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits
(See Figure IV-3).
(2)
Follow the procedures in “d” above.
Figure IV–1. Rescue Strap
46
Figure IV-2. Forest Penetrator
Figure IV–3. Fixed Loop
47
Chapter VII
RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING
Note:
Inventory and review the operating instructions of all communications and signaling equipment.
1.
Radio communications (voice and data)
a.
If you have a locator beacon, find it and turn it off – take it with you to supplement radio
communications.
b.
Make initial contact ASAP or IAW theater communications plan (TCP).
c.
If no immediate contact, then follow TCP.
d.
Locate spare radio and batteries–keep warm and dry.
e.
Transmissions:
(1)
Use concealment sites that optimize line of sight.
(2)
Face recovery asset.
(3)
Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (see Figure III-1).
(4)
Do not ground antenna (i.e. finger on antenna or attaching bolt, space blanket, vegetation etc).
(5)
Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). Use data burst if available.
(6)
Move after each transmission if possible.
(7)
If transmitting in the blind, ensure a clear line of sight towards the equator.
f.
Listening—use published reception times in the TCP, or as directed by recovery forces.
2.
Signaling
a.
Pyrotechnic signals:
(1)
Prepare early (weather permitting).
(2)
Use IAW TCP or as directed by recovery forces.
(3)
Extend over raft’s edge prior to activating.
b.
Signal mirror (see Figure III-2):
(1)
Use as directed by recovery forces.
(2)
If no radio, use only with confirmed friendly forces.
(3)
Cover when not in use.
Note:
Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass.
48
Figure III-1. Radio Transmission Characteristics
c.
Strobe light:
(1)
Prepare filters and shield early.
(2)
Use IAW TCP or as directed by recovery forces.
(3)
Conserve battery life.
Note:
Produces one residual flash when turned off.
49
Figure III-2. Sighting Techniques
d.
Pattern signals–use published TCP signals:
(1)
Materials:
(a)
Manmade (space blanket, signal paulin, parachute).
(b)
Natural. Use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area. (rocks,
brush, branches, stomped grass).Location
:
(c)
Maximize visibility from above.
(d)
Site should offer concealment from ground observation.
(2)
Size (large as possible) and ratio (see Figure III-3).
(3)
Shape—maintain straight lines and sharp corners.
(4)
Contrast—use color and shadows.
(5)
Pattern signals (see Figure III-4).
e.
Sea dye marker:
(1)
Do not waste in rough seas or fast moving water.
(2)
Conserve unused dye by re-wrapping.
(3)
May be used to color snow.
f.
Non-tactical considerations:
(1)
Use a fire at night.
(2)
Use smoke for day, (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light
smoke, see Figure III- 5).
(3)
Use signal mirror to sweep horizon.
(4)
Audio signals (i.e., voice, whistle, and weapons fire).
Note:
Any of the above signals used in a series of three, evenly spaced, is recognized as
an international distress symbol
Figure III-3. Size and ratio
50
Figure III-4. Signal Key
Figure III-5. Smoke Generator
51
Chapter VIII
NAVIGATION
Note:
Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles.
1.
Stay or Move
a.
Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a permissive environment.
b.
Leave only when:
(1)
Dictated by the threat.
(2)
Certain of location, have a known destination, and the ability to get there.
(3)
Water, food, shelter, and (or) help can be reached.
(4)
Convinced rescue is not coming.
c.
If you decide to travel, consider the following:
(1)
Follow briefed evasion plan.
(2)
Which direction to travel and why.
(3)
What equipment to take, cache, or destroy.
d.
Leave information at your start point (only in permissive environment):
(1)
Destination.
(2)
Route of travel.
(3)
Personal condition.
(4)
Supplies available.
e.
Evasion considerations:
(1)
Do not write on the map.
(2)
Do not soil the map by touching the destination.
(3)
Do not fold in a manner providing travel information.
2.
Navigation and Position Determination
a.
Determine your general location:
(1)
Develop a working knowledge of operational area:
(a)
Natural geographic checkpoints.
(b)
Manmade checkpoints.
(c)
Use the “Rate x Time = Distance” formula.
(2)
Use previous knowledge of operational area.
(3)
Use information provided in the map legend.
(4)
Use prominent landmarks.
(5)
Visualize map to determine position.
b.
Determine cardinal directions (north, south, east, and west):
(1)
Use compass.
Note:
Margin of error increases the closer you are to the Equator for the following methods.
(2)
Stick and shadow method determines a true north-south line (see Figure II-1).
52
Figure II-1. Stick and Shadow Method
(3)
Sunrise/moonrise in the east, sun/moonset in the west.
(4)
Use a wristwatch to determine cardinal direction (see Figure II-2): (Use this method for
general direction only.)
(a)
Digital watches may be used, visualize a clock face on the watch.
(b)
Northern Hemisphere, Point hour hand at the sun. South is half way between the hour hand
and 12 o’clock position.
(c)
Southern Hemisphere, Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. North is
half way between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand.
(5)
Pocket Navigator (see Figure II-3):
(a)
Gather necessary materials:
Paper or other flat writing material (e.g. MRE box).
1-2” shadow tip device (e.g. twig, nail, match).
Pen or pencil.
54
Figure II-3 Pocket Navigator
Figure II-4. Stars
c.
Orient the map:
(1)
Orienting a map using a true north-south line (see Figure II- 5):
(a)
Unfold map and place on a firm, flat, level non-metallic surface.
(b)
Align the compass on a true north-south line.
(c)
Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation
indicated in marginal information:
Easterly, subtract variation from 360
0
.
Westerly, add variation to 360
0
.
55
Figure II-5. Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line
(2)
Orienting map with a compass rose (see Figure II-6):
(a)
Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to
your location.
(b)
Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360
o
.
56
Figure II-6. Map Orientation with Compass Rose
(3)
No compass; orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method, or
the celestial aids (stars) method.
d.
Determine specific location:
(1)
Global Positioning System (GPS):
(a)
Do not use GPS for primary navigation.
(b)
Use GPS only to confirm your position.
(c)
Select area providing maximum satellite reception.
(d)
Conserve GPS battery life.
(2)
Triangulation (resection) with a compass (see Figure II-7):
57
Figure II-7. Triangulation
(a)
Try to use three or more azimuths.
(b)
Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP) (see figure
II-7a).
(c)
Each time compass is used, check map orientation.
(d)
Plot the LOP using a thin stick, blade of grass or pencil (non-tactical).
(e)
Repeat steps b through d for other LOPs.
e.
Use the compass for night navigation:
(1)
Set up compass for night navigation (see Figure II-8).
(2)
Align north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass.
(3)
Use point to point navigation.
f.
Route selection techniques:
(1)
Circumnavigation:
(a)
Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle.
(b)
Contour around obstacle to landmark.
(c)
Resume your route of travel.
58
Figure II-8. Compass Night Navigation Setup
(2)
Dogleg and 90 degree offset. (See Figure II-9).
(3)
Straight-line heading:
(a)
Maintain heading until reaching destination.
(b)
Open terrain, 1200 paces per mile (average) or 600 per kilometer (60 per 100 meters).
(c)
Rough terrain, 1800 paces per mile (average) or 900 per kilometer (90 per 100 meters).
(d)
One pace is every time the same foot touches ground.
59
Figure II-9. Dogleg and 90 degree offset
(4)
Deliberate offset:
(a)
Used when finding a point on a linear feature (i.e. road or river).
(b)
Intentionally navigate to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear
feature.
(5)
Point-to-point:
(a)
Same as straight line.
(b)
Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point.
(c)
On reaching a point, establish another landmark and continue.
3.
Travel
a.
Pick the easiest and safest route (unless evading).
b.
Maintain a realistic pace. Take rest stops when needed.
c.
Avoid overdressing and overheating.
d.
Consider food and water requirements.
e.
Take special care of feet.
f.
Pack equipment to prevent loss, damage, pack imbalance, and personal safety.
g.
Go around obstacles, not over or through them.
h.
Travel on trails whenever possible (non-tactical).
i.
Travel in forested areas if possible.
j.
Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in case of heavy rains.
k.
Swamps, lakes and unfordable rivers:
(1)
Swamps, lakes, and bogs may have to be circumnavigated.
(2)
Travel downstream to find people and slower water.
60
(3)
Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water.
4.
River Travel
a.
River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. May be a primary
mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment, use with caution if evading.
b.
In shallow water, use a pole to move the raft.
c.
In deep water, use an oar.
d.
Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less).
e.
Keep near shore.
f.
Watch for
dangers
:
(1)
Snags.
(2)
Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees).
(3)
Rapids.
(4)
Waterfalls.
g.
Do not attempt to shoot the rapids.
h.
When crossing a river or large/deep stream, use a raft.
i.
Consider water depth before crossing without a flotation device.
5.
Ice and Snow
a.
Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards.
b.
Do not travel in:
(1)
Blizzards.
(2)
Bitterly cold winds.
(3)
Poor visibility.
c.
Obstacles to winter travel:
(1)
Be aware of reduced daylight hours.
(2)
Deep soft snow; if movement is necessary, make snowshoes (see Figure II-10).
Figure II-10. Improvised Snowshoes
61
(3)
Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted.
(4)
Avoid avalanche prone areas:
(a)
Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater.
(b)
Trees devoid of uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches).
(c)
Heavy snow loading on ridge tops.
(5)
If caught in an avalanche:
(a)
Backstroke to decrease burial depth.
(b)
As snow slows down move hands around face to create air pocket.
(6)
Frozen water crossings:
(a)
Weak ice should be expected where:
Rivers are straight.
Objects protrude through ice.
Snow banks extend over the ice.
Rivers or streams come together.
Rising water vapor indicates open or warm areas.
(b)
Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume.
d.
When crossing, distribute your weight by laying flat, belly crawling, or using snowshoes.
e.
Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided.
6.
Mountainous Hazards
a.
Avoid ridge tops during storms (lightning hazard).
b.
Rock avalanches and mudslides.
c.
Avoid low areas (flash flood hazard).
7.
Summer Harzards
(1)
Dense brush:
(a)
Travel on trails when possible (non-tactical).
(b)
Travel in forested areas if possible.
(c)
Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in case of heavy rains.
(2)
Swamps, lakes and unfordable rivers:
(a)
Swamps, lakes, and bogs may have to be circumnavigated.
(b)
Travel downstream to find people and slower water.
(c)
Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water.
8.
Dry Climates
a.
Do not travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available.
b.
When the days are hot, travel at dawn or dusk.
c.
Follow the easiest trail possible (non-tactical), avoiding:
(1)
Deep sandy dune areas.
(2)
Rough terrain.
d.
If a sandstorm occurs:
(1)
Mark your direction of travel.
(2)
Sit or lie down in direction of travel.
(3)
Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter
63
(3)
Sit up in raft so body catches the wind.
(4)
Construct a shade cover/sail (see Figure II-12).
(5)
Sail aids in making landfall.
c.
Making landfall:
(1)
Indications of land:
(a)
Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving.
(b)
In the tropics, a greenish tint in the sky.
(c)
In the arctic, a lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray
reflections).
(d)
Lighter colored water indicates shallow water.
(e)
Land may be detected by odors and sounds:
Odors from swamps and smoke.
Roar of surf / bird cries coming from one direction.
(f)
Directions from which birds fly at dawn and to which they fly at dusk.
Figure II-12. Shade/ Sail Construction
d.
Swimming ashore:
(1)
Consider physical condition.
(2)
Use a flotation aid.
(3)
Secure all gear to body before beginning landfall.
(4)
Remain in raft as long as possible.
(5)
Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7,
from smallest to largest).
(6)
Wear footgear and at least one layer of clothing.
(7)
If thrown from raft, the sidestroke or breaststroke conserves strength.
(8)
Moderate surf:
(a)
Swim forward on the back of a wave.
64
(b)
Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride.
(9)
High surf:
(a)
Swim shoreward in the trough between waves.
(b)
When the seaward wave approaches, face it and submerge.
(c)
After it passes, work shoreward in the next trough.
(10)
If caught in the undertow of a large wave:
(a)
Remain calm and swim to the surface.
(b)
Lie as close to the surface as possible.
(c)
Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore.
e.
Selecting a landing point:
(1)
Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks.
(2)
If you land on rocky shores, find a place where waves rush up onto the rocks.
f.
After selecting a landing site:
(1)
Face shoreward.
(2)
Assume a sitting position with feet two or three feet lower than head to absorb the shock of
hitting submerged objects.
g.
Rafting ashore:
(1)
Select landing point carefully.
(2)
Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility.
(3)
If possible, land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land.
(4)
Head for gaps in the surf line.
(5)
When going through surf:
(a)
Take down most shade/sails.
(b)
Use paddles to maintain control.
(c)
Deploy a sea anchor for stability.
Caution:
Do not deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral.
h.
Make sea ice landings on large stable ice flows.
i.
Icebergs, small flows, and disintegrating flows are dangerous:
(1)
Ice can cut a raft.
(2)
Use paddles to avoid sharp edges.
(3)
Store raft away from the ice edge.
65
Chapter IX
EVASION
1.
Planning
a.
Review/Perform Quick Reference Checklist on inside cover.
b.
Evasion is a duty of all Service members. Guidelines for successful evasion include:
(1)
A positive attitude.
(2)
Use established procedures.
(3)
Follow your evasion plan of action.
(4)
Be patient and flexible. Flexibility is one of the most important keys to successful evasion. The
evader is primarily interested in avoiding detection. Remember that people catch people. If the
evader avoids detection, success is almost assured.
(5)
Drink water. Do not eat food without water.
(6)
Conserve strength for critical periods.
(7)
Rest and sleep as much as possible.
(8)
Stay out of sight.
c.
The following odors stand out and may give an evader away:
(1)
Scented soaps and shampoos.
(2)
Shaving cream, after-shave lotion, or other cosmetics.
(3)
Insect repellent — camouflage stick is least scented.
(4)
Gum and candy — have strong or sweet smell.
(5)
Tobacco—the odor is unmistakable.
d.
Where to go? Initiate evasion plan of action:
(1)
Near a suitable area for recovery.
(2)
Selected area for evasion (SAFE).
(3)
To a neutral or friendly country or area.
(4)
Designated area for recovery (DAR).
2.
Camouflage
a.
Basic principles:
(1)
Disturb the area as little as possible.
(2)
Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy.
(3)
Apply personal camouflage.
b.
Use camouflage patterns (see Figure I-1):
(1)
Blotch pattern:
(a)
Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas.
(b)
Desert areas (barren).
(c)
Barren snow.
(2)
Slash pattern:
(a)
Coniferous (evergreen) areas—broad slashes.
(b)
Jungle areas—broad slashes.
(c)
Grass—narrow slashes.
(3)
May use a combination of both.
66
Figure I-1. Camouflage Patterns
c.
Camouflage application:
(1)
Face. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on the remaining exposed areas (mask,
netting, or hat help).
(2)
Ears. The insides and the backs should have two colors to break up outlines.
(3)
Head, neck (do not forget), and under chin. Use scarf, collar, vegetation, netting, or coloration
methods.
(4)
Give special attention to conceal light colored hair with a scarf or mosquito head net.
(5)
Do not overlook hands, ears, neck, and body.
(6)
Avoid unnecessary movement.
(7)
Take advantage of natural concealment:
(a)
Remember, foliage fades and wilts, change regularly.
(b)
Change camouflage depending on the surroundings.
(c)
Do not select all items from same source.
(d)
Use stains from grasses, berries, dirt, and charcoal.
(8)
Do not
over
camouflage.
(9)
Remember when using shadows, they shift with the sun.
(10)
Never expose shiny objects (i.e., watch, glasses, pens).
(11)
Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off.
(12)
Remove unit patches, name tags, rank etc.
(13)
Break up the outline of the body; “V” of crotch / armpits.
(14)
When observing an area, do it from a prone and concealed position.
67
3.
Shelters
a.
Use camouflage and concealment.
b.
Locate carefully:
(1)
Easy to remember acronym:
BLISS.
B – B
lend
L – L
ow silhouette
I – I
rregular shape
S – S
mall
S – S
ecluded location
(2)
Choose area:
(a)
Least likely to be searched (drainage’s, rough terrain, military crest, etc.) and blends with
the environment.
(b)
With escape routes.
(c)
With observable approaches – do not corner yourself.
(3)
Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons.
(4)
Concealment with minimal to no preparation.
(5)
Select natural concealment area.
(6)
Consider direction finding (DF) when transmitting from shelter.
(7)
Locate entrances / exits in brush and along ridges, ditches, and rocks to keep from forming
paths to site.
(8)
Ensure overhead concealment.
4.
Movement
a.
A moving object is easy to spot. If travel is necessary:
(1)
Mask with natural cover (see Figure I-2).
(2)
Use the military crest.
(3)
Restrict to periods of low light, bad weather, wind, or reduced enemy activity.
68
Figure I-2. Ground Movement
(4)
Avoid silhouetting (see Figure I-3).
(5)
Sporadic—every five to ten paces:
(a)
STOP
at a point of concealment.
(b)
LOOK
for signs of human or animal activity; (smoke, tracks, roads, troops, vehicles,
aircraft, wire, buildings, etc). Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving
evidence of travel. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night
and twilight.
69
Figure I-3. Avoid Silhouetting
(c)
LISTEN
for vehicles, troops, aircraft, weapons, animals, etc.
(d)
SMELL
for vehicles, troops, animals, etc.
(6)
Employ noise discipline, consider clothing and equipment.
b.
An important factor is breaking up the human shape or lines that are recognizable at a distance.
c.
Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route / zigzag) to
camouflage evidence of travel.
d.
Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel are:
(1)
Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level.
(2)
Do not break branches, leaves, or grass.
(3)
Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position.
(4)
Do not grab small trees or brush. This may scuff the bark, and create movement that is easily
spotted. In snow country, this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route.
(5)
Pick firm footing, carefully place the foot lightly, but squarely on the surface avoiding:
(a)
Overturning ground cover, rocks, and sticks.
(b)
Scuffing bark on logs and sticks.
(c)
Making noise by breaking sticks (cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this).
(d)
Slipping.
(e)
Mangling of low grass and bushes that would normally spring back.
(6)
When tracks are unavoidable in soft footing, mask by:
(a)
Placing track in the shadows of vegetation, downed logs, and snowdrifts.
(b)
Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in.
(c)
Traveling during windy periods.
(d)
Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs, rocks, etc.) leaving less evidence of travel.
(e)
Brushing or patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old.
70

73
(i)
With open airway, give mouth to mouth breathing:
One breathe every 5 seconds.
Check for chest rise each time.
(4)
If victim is unconscious, but breathing:
(a)
Keep head and neck aligned with body.
(b)
Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway).
CAUTION:
Do not remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. You may cause more
tissue damage and increase bleeding. For travel, you may shorten and secure the object.
b.
Control bleeding:
(1)
Apply a pressure dressing (see Figure V-2).
(2)
If still bleeding:
(a)
Use direct pressure over the wound.
(b)
Elevate the wounded area above the heart.
(3)
If
still
bleeding:
(a)
Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (see Figure V-3).
(b)
Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.
(4)
If a limb wound is STILL bleeding:
CAUTION:
Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use only when severe, uncontrolled
bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb.
(a)
Apply tourniquet just above bleeding site on limb (see Figure V-4).
(b)
A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) wide is best.
(c)
Wrap band twice around the limb.
(d)
Tighten with a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long.
(e)
Tighten only enough to stop bleeding.
(f)
Note the time of application.
(g)
Do not cover the tourniquet.
(h)
Mark a “TK” on the forehead.
NOTE:
The following directions apply
ONLY
in survival situations where rescue is unlikely and no
medical aid is available.
(i)
If no rescue or medical aid is likely for over 2 hours, an attempt to
SLOWLY
loosen the
tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after it is applied:
Ensure pressure dressing is in place.
Ensure bleeding has stopped
Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation.
Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes.
c.
Treat chest injuries:
(1)
Sucking chest wound:
(a)
Occurs when chest wall is penetrated.
74
(b)
May cause victim to gasp for breath.
(c)
May cause sucking sounds.
(d)
May create bloody froth as air escapes the chest.
(2)
Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material.
(3)
Tape airtight material (if available) over wound on three sides only:
(a)
This dressing should create a one-way valve and allow air to escape from the wound but
not to enter (see Figure V-5).
Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing
Figure V-3. Pressure Points
75
Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet
Figure V-5. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing
(b)
Monitor the dressing and
breathing
.If breathing becomes more difficult, occasionally lift the
untapped side of the dressing to allow trapped air to escape.
76
(4)
Flail Chest:
(a)
Results from blunt trauma when three or more ribs are broken in two or more places. This
section of broken ribs is referred to as a flail segment. When breathing in, the chest moves
out while the flail segment moves in. When breathing out, the chest moves in while the flail
segment moves out.
(b)
Immediately immobilize flail segment (place hand over area to prevent further motion).
(c)
Use tape (if available) to immobilize the flail segment.
(d)
Tape from breastbone to backbone on the injured side.
(e)
Do not surround the chest with tape.
(f)
If no tape, keep segment still with hand pressure or roll victim onto injured side to keep the
segment still.
(5)
Fractured ribs:
(a)
Encourage deep breathing (painful, but necessary to prevent the possible development of
pneumonia).
(b)
Do not constrict breathing with tape.
d.
Shock:
(1)
May be present with or without visible injury.
(2)
Treat the injury.
(3)
Maintain normal body temperature:
(a)
Remove wet clothing.
(b)
Give warm fluids.
(c)
Insulate from ground.
(d)
Shelter from the elements.
(4)
Elevate the legs six to eight inches unless there is a severe head or abdominal injury.
(5)
If very weak or unconscious:
(a)
Place victim on side to drain the mouth and prevent tongue from blocking airway.
(b)
Do not give oral fluids to an unconscious victim.
e.
Treat fractures, sprains and dislocations:
(1)
Remove watches, jewelry, constricting clothing.
(2)
Dress wounds over fractures that penetrate the skin:
(a)
Clean wound if possible.
(b)
Apply dressings.
(3)
Place limb in as normal a position as possible.
(4)
Improvise splint with available materials:
(a)
Sticks; straight, stiff materials from equipment.
(b)
Secure to body parts; e.g., opposite leg or arm to chest.
(5)
Splint in position found if unable to move to a normal position.
NOTE:
Fingers should be splinted in a slightly flexed position, NOT in straight position. Hand should
look like it is grasping an apple.
(6)
For limb fractures, keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both
sides of the fracture.
(7)
For joint injuries, immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint.
(8)
Apply cold during first 24 hours after injury.
77
(9)
Apply heat after the first 24 hours of injury.
(10)
Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold or heat application.
(11)
Do not use continuous cold or heat therapy.
(12)
Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury.
2.
Common Injuries and Illnesses
a.
Burns:
(1)
Cool as rapidly as possible in water.
(2)
Remove watches, jewelry, constricting clothing.
(3)
Do not remove embedded, charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed.
(4)
Cover with sterile dressings.
(5)
DO NOT use lotion or grease.
(6)
Avoid motion or rubbing of the burned part.
(7)
Drink water:
(a)
Burns increase fluid loss.
(b)
If possible, mix each quart with 1/4 teaspoon of salt.
(8)
Change dressings when soaked or dirty.
b.
Eye Injuries:
(1)
Sun/snow blindness (gritty, burning sensation and possible reduction in vision caused by sun
exposure):
(a)
Close both eyes and cover lightly with light excluding dressings for 18 hours.
(b)
Wear eye protection or improvised sunglasses.
(2)
Foreign body in eye:
(a)
Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye.
(b)
If foreign body is not removed by irrigation, improvise a small swab. Moisten and wipe
gently over the affected area.
(c)
If foreign body STILL not removed, patch eye for 24 hours, and then reattempt removal
using steps (a) and (b) above.
c.
Heat Injury:
(1)
Heat Cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen):
(a)
Rest.
(b)
Drink water. If available, add 1/4 teaspoonful of salt per quart.
(2)
Heat exhaustion (pale; sweating; moist, cool skin):
(a)
Rest in shade.
(b)
Drink water.
(c)
Protect from further heat exposure.
(3)
Heat stroke (skin hot and flushed; sweating may or may not occur; fast pulse):
CAUTION
: Handle heat stroke victim gently. Shock, seizures and cardiac arrest can occur.
(a)
Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim).
(b)
Avoid overcooling.
(c)
Maintain airway, breathing and circulation.
d.
Cold injuries:
(1)
Frostnip and frostbite:
(a)
This is a progressive injury:
78
Ears, nose, fingers and toes are affected first.
Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to . . .
Numbness which progresses to…
Waxy appearance with skin stiff and unable to glide freely over a joint.
(b)
Frostnipped areas will rewarm with body heat.
NOTE:
Areas that cannot be rewarmed by body heat within 15 to 20 minutes of continuous skin to skin
contact are classified as frostbite.
(c)
Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment.
(d)
Do not rub frozen tissue.
(e)
Do not thaw frozen tissue.
CAUTION:
In frostbite, repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the
tissue.
(2)
Hypothermia (lowering of body temperature to or below 95 degrees F or 35 degrees C):
CAUTION
: Handle hypothermia victim gently. Cardiac arrest can occur.
(a)
This is a progressive injury:
Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks goes to…
Violent shivering, difficulty speaking, sluggish thinking goes to…
Muscular rigidity with blue, puffy skin; jerky movements goes to…
Coma, respiratory and cardiac failure.
(b)
Hypothermia treatment:
Warm as rapidly as possible.
Insulate against further heat loss; cover top of head.
Pre-warm sleeping bag with two volunteers.
Place casualty between two volunteers.
Transfer body heat via skin to skin contact.
Do not give fluids if consciousness is altered.
(c)
Put on dry clothing, if available.
e.
Skin tissue damage:
(1)
Immersion injuries:
(a)
Skin becomes wrinkled as in “dishpan hands”.
(b)
Avoid walking on affected feet.
(c)
Pat dry; don’t rub. Skin tissue will be sensitive.
(d)
Dry socks and shoes. Keep feet protected.
(e)
Loosen boots, cuffs, etc. to improve circulation.
(f)
Do not apply creams or ointments.
(g)
Keep area dry, warm, and open to air.
(2)
Saltwater sores:
(a)
Change body positions frequently.
(b)
Keep sores dry.
(c)
Do not open or squeeze sores.
79
(d)
Use antiseptic, if available.
f.
Snakebites:
NOTE:
This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized
equipment are not available.
(1)
Non-poisonous snakebite. Clean and bandage wound.
(2)
Poisonous snakebite:
(a)
Remove constricting items.
(b)
Minimize activity.
(c)
Do not cut the bite site; do not use your mouth to create suction.
(d)
Clean bite with soap and water, cover with a dressing.
(e)
Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage. (See Figure V-6). The intent is to
slow capillary and venous blood flow, but not arterial flow. Check for pulse below the
overwrap.
(f)
Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion.
(g)
Treat for shock.
(h)
Position extremity below level of heart.
(i)
If necessary construct shelter; let the victim rest.
(j)
For conscious victims, force fluids.
g.
Marine life:
(1)
Stings:
(a)
Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release).
(b)
Remove jewelry/watches.
(c)
Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin.
(d)
Do not rub area with sand.
(e)
Apply a steroid cream, if available.
(f)
Treat for shock, artificial respiration may be required.
Note
: Do not use urine to flush or treat wounds.
(2)
Punctures:
(a)
Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as
victim can tolerate).
(b)
Cover with clean dressing.
(c)
Treat for shock as needed.
80
Figure V-6. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite
h.
Skin irritants:
(1)
Include poison oak, poison ivy.
(2)
Wash with large amounts of water. Use soap, if available.
(3)
Keep covered to prevent scratching.
i.
Infection:
(1)
Keep wound clean.
(2)
Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to treat/prevent infection.
(3)
Change bandages as needed.
j.
Cold, flu, etc, drink water, eat, rest, keep warm and dry.
k.
Dysentery, diarrhea:
(1)
Drink water, liquid diet.
(2)
Consuming charcoal, made into paste may aid symptoms by absorbing toxins.
l.
Constipation:
(1)
Normal.
(2)
Do not take laxatives
Posted in stories of secret torture, tracking and murder, in and by the U.S.A. intelligence community | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

TARGETING, GANGSTALKING, MORGELLONS, REMOTE-NEURAL-MONITORING,VOICE-2-SKULL, COVERT DRUGGING, ENERGY BASED WEAPONS, ATTACKS WITH FLEAS, MITES, VIRUS, BACTERIA, NEMATODE, NANOBOTS, SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY, NANOTECHNOLOGY, MICROWAVE WEAPONS, TRASHING THE VICTIM,COVERT DRUGGING, FUNGUS, MOLD, ERGOT, LSD,DMT, MIND-FUKING THE VICTIM, ETC, ETC ,

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TARGETING, GANG-STALKING, MORGELLONS, REMOTE-NEURAL-MONITORING,VOICE-2-SKULL, COVERT DRUGGING, ENERGY BASED WEAPONS, ATTACKS WITH FLEAS, MITES, VIRUS, BACTERIA, NEMATODE, NANOBOTS, SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY, NANOTECHNOLOGY, MICROWAVE WEAPONS, TRASHING THE VICTIM,COVERT DRUGGING, FUNGUS, MOLD, ERGOT, LSD,DMT, MIND-FUCING THE VICTIM, ETC, ETC… at first you notice things … Continue reading

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In sickness and in… Timothy Trespas suffers from targeting and torture.

  •  My name is timothytrespas: I am a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL…

 ‘timothytrespas: I am a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL PART-1 Government Morgellons Insect infestation safe house torture’ is a video I am creating to shed some light on the targeting/drugging/torture of myself and Petra Schiller. photos of the MORGELLONS genetically modified insects we were exposed to as well as photos of what effect this torture has had on us(look into our eyes…). we were cooked with microwave weapons, connected via remote neural connectivity to an artificial intelligence, drugged out of our minds with hypnotic trance inducing LSD like drugs every day for years. exposed to various poisons, gasses, toxins, molds, insects, creatures, radiation, smart-dust, nano-technology and an insane above top-secret program of torture and mind control.
The New World Order or whatever they wish to call it,  is Falling into place.
These statements are facts, as every other TARGET knows.
It is TIME FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC TO KNOW THE TRUTH ABOUT MIND CONTROL-
IT IS REAL and THEY ARE PERFECTING IT FOR USE ON EVERYONE as you watch this.So, if there is no false flag alien innovation (BLUE BEAM), the creek don’t rise, and there ‘ain’t no meltdown, WAKE UP WORLD because FREEDOM of THOUGHT is nothing but a fond memory (until they discover how to remove even that memory from your brain, then what?) Remote neural connectivity with an artificial intelligence used for brain mapping and mind control, covert drugging , 330 west 51st street is a government safe house and some tenants are being used for non-consensual human experimentation. Highest levels of government, military, academia, scientific, medical, law enforcement, and intelligence communities are working to END FREEDOM. YOU will be the next enemy, the next insurgent, the next TERRORIST!Authors note: It is 3 years later and I am quite sick with what may be Lyme’s disease like symptoms possible infection with spirochetes or other organisms. as well as mogellons or whatever they did to us. I suffer greatly in pain.
I understand the difficulty many have in understanding how this could be happening. I, too, had difficulty believing what was happening, even as it was happening to me. eventually, you reach a stage where it is so incredibly insane you simply can not deny the reality that there are a group of people targeting you and doing strange things and attacking you in ways that are difficult if not impossible to prove without expensive technology and experts. Then there are the cover stories, the other reasons that the people and doctors refuse top believe you.
Many statements I make are my opinion based on assumptions based on observations based on projected reality. some may be fantasy. some correct, some wrong. Those who have experienced this reality understand.
Others perhaps not. u keeping an open mind for possibility is better than a closed mind full of half truths and misconceptions.
IMHO, This would have to be a huge well funded and complicated but well planned and executed operation.
what the goal is, I can not say. there may be many. does it even matter?
I thought human beings have a god given right not to be used, enslaved, made sick, murdered, programmed, brainwashed, etc.
But who will enforce these rights?
If not our GOD, then us?
how do we reconcile reality with the matrix like fantasy built up around us.
compartmentalized so that so one on the lower end of the pyramid sees the entire plot.
Thank you for reading watching and please, pray for each other and for me and petra and all victims. everyone. Blessings and peace
Thank you.
Timothy trespas
I have turned my life over to Yeshua, the Christ, as best as I am able.
I pray not only for myself, for the other victims of these crimes, others who suffer and for the people who choose to do evil rather than follow the will and law of our creator.
This is the real crime and I pray humanity will survive log enough to awaken to its own promise of compassion and togetherness.
Together we may thrive.
If we stop believing in lies and always look for truth.
If we can trust in each other and our creator.
that would be a world I wish I could live to see.

  • Timothytrespas: Targeted Individual: SICK! After 3 days of vomiting I look closer to death

 I am a targeted individual. I am being used as a non-consensual subject in terminal human experimentation into mind control and microwave coercive technologies.
After 3 days vomiting, headache and high frequency microwave radiation, parasites, and who knows what else, I look and am closer to death,.
we have been attacked nonstop for years and this secret torture is killing us both. There may be thousand of people around the world being murdered like us. Many do not yet even realize they are being targeted yet. Mind control technology is REAL and they are testing it on us! Depopulation agenda is going as planned.

 

  • Timothytrespas: Magnet-head! MIGRAINE HEADACHE Microwave attack attempted mitigation: 2x 20lb magnets on my head!

IMHO, As I am being murdered and vomiting and migraine and pain and sickness of death and fever and everything cause by morgellons sickness, nanotechnology, lyme’s disease like infectious agents, and/or  microwave energy weapons used to torture! It feels as though some sort of  No-touch electromagnetic torture is being tested on me 24/7/365. varying degrees of death and pain. my attempt at stopping the energy based weapons by diverting or disrupting the signal with large heavy duty speaker magnets from 14″ woofers. they are so strong if the magnet together they are hard to break apart. however, although it works to mitigate attacks at LOW LEVELS at HIGH LEVELS it does little to help!
It goes away for a second or a few. Then it feels as though the magnetic field that momentarily reduced the pain and ringing is somehow compensated for and the ringing gets louder in ,y head and the pain keeps going. One day it will be my time to go meet my creator. i PRAY he may forgive me for my sins and confusion and fear and insecurity and selfishness and pride and anger and greed and hate and fear and all the rest.
Blessings and peace to those being murdered by the New world order evil technology you are in my prayers. Please pray for me, Petra,my love and friend and partner, for all the victims everywhere and all humans and animals and plants who suffer and die because of the secret takeover of humanity.
May Yeashua come back to help us all. at this point if this lovely world ended., It would not shock me at all!
 
  • Timothytrespas:Sick nausea shaking sweating freezing headache LOUD frequency attack incapacitates. Morgellons? Lyme’s? Microwaves?

     IMHO, Watch a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL (myself) suffer from sickness caused by MORGELLONS, electromagnetic mind control attacks, and “we-will-murder-you-remotely-over-time-so-you-suffer-a-lot” attack
I was sick all night and in the morning vomiting, defecating, sweating, shaking freezing, headache, pain everywhere, and the LOUDEST high frequency I have EVER heard in my Left ear.
I thought my head would explode.
I took my medicine for sleep, and some medicinal natureopathic plant medicine, and my narcotic-replacement-therapy medicine, and my anti-anxiety medicine, and suffered until I fell (mercifully, Thank you lord) asleep.
I awoke somewhat better but still weak and sickly.
I pray for everyone who is suffering from sickness, disease, and pain.
I pray for all who suffer that they may find relief from their pain.
HEALTH is an issue that many ignore until they are dying or sick.
Health is a BLESSING!
I wish to THANK EVERYONE who PRAYED for ME!
PLEASE Please pray for one another.
It does help, even if the person has no idea.
I am a victim of New World Order secret mind control program, the newest MK-ULTRA.
I am suffering from morgellons syndrome which I believe to part of the mind control agenda by building nano machine radio parts inside of us, and messing with our DNA. DEPOPULATION comes to mind.
Global mind control. Or a pandemic of infected human beings. Lyme’s? Morgelons? Nanotechnology? What are they doing to us all?
Hey, to those who have not yet suffered and do not believe the facts, WAKE UP!
this is the 21st century and lots of the stuff from past science fiction may NOW BE SCIENCE FACT!

 

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NOAA SPACE GEOMAGNETIC WEATHER Weather Scales 04-11-11

Source: Microsoft Word – NOAA Weather Scales 04-11-11.doc – NOAAscales.pdf

 

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Practical Real Time Spectrum Analyzer Applications Part 1 — Basics Of Interference Hunting And Spectrum Monitoring | Signal Hound

Bad connection?

Learn how a spectrum analyzer can hunt for interfering signals, or even perform long-term monitoring of wireless spectrum in a specific area

The capabilities of a real time spectrum analyzer create a valuable tool for “seeing” the signals in your environment and provide a starting point for a deep look into interference issues.

As you continue to spend time observing and monitoring the wireless spectrum, you’ll begin to develop a keen sense of where potential interferers lie.

Source: Practical Real Time Spectrum Analyzer Applications Part 1 — Basics Of Interference Hunting And Spectrum Monitoring | Signal Hound

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EPIC Sensor – Plessey Semiconductors

Disruptive EPIC sensor with multiple proven applications in high sensitivity electric potential sensor that can be used in either contact or non-contact mode.

  • Contact mode: measures bio-electric signals like ECG, EMG, EOG and EEG.
  • Non-contact mode: measures disruption in the electric field caused by human body movement enabling. Also Proximity sensing, Movement Sensing, and Gesture recognition.

Source: EPIC Sensor – Plessey Semiconductors

The human body, because it acts as a large container of conducting/polarizable material, causes a large perturbation in the electric field and so presents an easily detectable target for the sensor.

The ability of EPIC to resolve signals unique to various muscles or groups of muscles presents opportunities for improved man-machine interaction

 

Strong demand for products with major applications

  • Communications – smart-phones and tablets for ECG and proximity sensing
  • Consumer – remote sensing controllers for video games consoles
  • Automotive – alertness, occupancy and slow speed collision avoidance
  • Medical – ECG, tomography and “smart bed” applications

 

EPIC PCB hybrids and chips for all electric potential sensing applications

  • The integrated circuit provides a unique high impedance amplifier design
  • The PCB hybrid solution includes EPIC chip, tuning circuit and the sensor electrode

 

  • Other Applications

    Security

    Because of EPIC’s mode of operation, it can be used to detect any disturbance in the local electric field at distances of up to several tens of meters. The human body, because it acts as a large container of conducting/polarizable material, causes a large perturbation in the electric field and so presents an easily detectable target for the sensor.

    Sitting a few meters away from the sensor, one has only to raise the sole of one’s foot to create a strong signal.

    Arrays of sensors can be used to provide spatial resolution and therefore the location of a target.

    Such arrays can also distinguish between humans and quadrupeds because the time signature of the response is a direct function of cadence.

    Such a system of sensors could perhaps be used for border security in remote areas.

    Man-machine interface

    The ability of EPIC to resolve signals unique to various muscles or groups of muscles presents opportunities for improved man-machine interaction.

    For example, a quadriplegic who currently depends on either a unicorn stick or a suck/blow tube to issue commands to equipment within his or her local environment could achieve a faster and more efficient interaction using EPIC for eye tracking and detection of activity in any muscle groups still under voluntary control.

    Alternatively, because EPIC can assign a unique signature to the use of certain muscle groups, it opens up many possibilities for interfacing with and controlling prosthetic limbs.

    Microscopy

    EPIC is also a useful tool in the microscopic domain. Small sensors scanning a microchip, for example, can show areas of high or low potential, allowing the user to map the current distribution within metal tracks and other circuit elements. Faults in dielectric materials can also be detected either by passive means (by detecting piezoelectric effects) or by identifying leakage paths in an active circuit.

    Recently a ≈6 µm sensor has been used to reveal a human fingerprint left on an insulating PTFE material (Figure 6) and to characterize its decay over time [3]. The advantage to the forensic scientist of being able to date a fingerprint is obvious. The technique is nondestructive and leaves no chemical residue, which means that DNA samples can be taken at a later date.

    Figure 6

    What Is EPIC?

    EPIC is an acronym for “Electric Potential Integrated Circuit” but the term has become synonymous with the integrated circuit technology, the sensor itself, and, in a wider context, the physical principles of operation of the device within a system.

    EPIC is a noncontact electrometer, meaning that there is no direct DC path from the outside world to the sensor input, a condition that is somewhat analogous to the gate electrode of an MOS transistor. The electrode is protected by a capping layer of dielectric material to ensure that the electrode is isolated from the body being measured. The device is AC coupled with a lower corner frequency (-3dB) of a few tens of MHz and an upper corner frequency above 200 MHz. This response is adjustable and can be tailored to suit a particular application. Such an electrometer cannot be DC coupled because the Earth’s electric field close to the surface is ≈100-150 V/m.

    In single-ended mode the device can be used to read electric potential; used in differential mode it can measure the local electric field; or it can be deployed in arrays to provide spatial potential mapping (locating a conducting or dielectric material placed within free space).

    Figure 1 shows a basic block diagram of the EPIC sensor [1]. The size of the electrode is somewhat arbitrary and depends on the input capacitance required for a particular application. For bodies placed close to the electrode, the electrode’s size is important and the device operation can be understood in terms of capacitive coupling. For devices that are several meters away, the coupling capacitance is defined only by the self-capacitance of the electrode and the device’s response is largely a function of the input impedance as it interacts with the field. This is rather counterintuitive but is a function of the very small amount of energy that EPIC takes from the field in active mode.

    Figure 1

    Figure 1

    The input resistance to the device can be boosted by using bootstrapping techniques while the input capacitance can be reduced using guarding techniques. The input capacitance can be driven as low as 10-17F with the input resistance being boosted to values up to around 1015Ω, thus keeping the interaction with the target field to an absolute minimum and ensuring that all currents are small displacement currents only.

    A better understanding of the feedback mechanisms can be obtained by considering the input buffer of the amplifier and its associated impedances as shown in Figure 2. The resistors RG1 and RG2 are used to set the gain of the first stage, which is nominally unity. Cin and Rin represent the input capacitance and resistance native to the amplifier, respectively, and include any parasitic components due to layout or substrate issues. The capacitor Cext models the capacitive coupling to the measurement target.

    Figure 2

    Figure 2

    For close coupling (Cext >> Cin) this is usually defined as

    where:
    a = the equivalent shared electrode/target area
    d = the distance between target and sensor
    ε0 = the permittivity of free space
    εr = the relative permittivity of the dielectric in which the sensor is operating

    For loose coupling (Cext << Cin) we have the limiting case (self-capacitance) shown as

    Where r is the diameter of the sensor plate.

    Analysis of the circuit shows us that we have a classic single-pole transfer function shown as

    The Bode plot for this is shown in Figure 3.

    Figure 3. Bode plot for the transfer function of Equation 3

    The corner frequency (Fc1) can be expressed as

    By applying the bootstrapping techniques mentioned earlier, we can control the values for Cin and Rin to give effective values, allowing us to control both the gain plateau and the corner frequency (Fc1 moves to Fc2). The response of the sensor can be further controlled by the design of subsequent stages and positive feedback loops. Thus we have a sensor that can be tailored to suit the particular application at hand.

    Figure 4 shows a pair of Plessey EPIC sensors and the associated control box. The control box is an amplifier/filter combination and is used for demonstration purposes only. The electrodes shown here have been tailored for contact ECG measurement but can also be used for remote sensing and other applications.

    Figure 4

    Medical Applications

    A great amount of interest has been generated within the medical community where the primary focus is on using EPIC for surface body electrode physiology applications such as electrocardiograph (ECG), electromyograph (EMG), electroencephalograph (EEG), and electrooculargraph (EOG).

    The EPIC sensor can be used, for example, as a replacement technology for traditional wet-electrode ECG pads, because it requires neither gels nor other contact-enhancing substances. When the EPIC sensor is placed on (or in close proximity to) the patient, an ECG signal can be recovered. The sensor is capable of both simple ‘monitoring’ ECG as well as making more exacting clinical diagnostic measurements. In the latter application it can be used as a replacement for the traditional twelve-lead ECG, in which electrodes are placed on the limbs and torso (each pair of electrodes is called a lead and each lead measures the electrical activity of the heart from a slightly different perspective) to achieve a clearer picture of how the patient’s heart is working. An array of EPIC sensors placed on the chest can be used to recreate the lead required with resolution as good as or better than that achieved using traditional systems. Figure 5 shows a comparison between the results using EPIC and using traditional wet electrodes for leads II and aVL [2]. These two leads are important in the diagnosis of conditions such as coronary artery occlusion.

    Figure 5. ECG readouts showing the results using EPIC (top) vs. traditional wet electrode ECG (bottom)

    The sensor can also be used for recovering other physiological signals such as those caused by the electrical activity of the eye muscles as one looks left, right, up, or down. These signals have unique signatures; an EOG can be used to track the position of the eyes and therefore produce targeting information for military and gaming applications, for example. Perhaps the most exciting application in the medical field is that of electroencephalography (EEG) where the electrical activity of the brain is recorded. Application of the EPIC sensor to this field is still in its infancy but the potential ability to record identifiable signals against known thought patterns opens up possibilities that currently only exist in science fiction.

     

    What is the gain of the EPIC sensor?

    Currently the sensor is available with mid-range (flat-band) voltage gains of x10 or x50. This corresponds to around 20dB and 34dB.

    What supply voltage do I need?

    The PS252xx and PS254xx family (square compact) require a bipolar supply of between ±2.5V and ±4.5V.
    The PS25012x family of application boards generate the bipolar supply from a single supply, and so require only a unipolar supply of between +4 and +8V.
    The PS251xx family of sensors require only a unipolar supply between +4.75 to +8.0V.

    PLESSEY SEMICONDUCTORS | TAMERTON ROAD | ROBOROUGH | PLYMOUTH | DEVON | UK | PL6 7BQ

    © Pl

    PLESSEY SEMICONDUCTORS | TAMERTON ROAD | ROBOROUGH | PLYMOUTH | DEVON | UK | PL6 7BQ

    © Pl

    PLESSEY SEMICONDUCTORS | TAMERTON ROAD | ROBOROUGH | PLYMOUTH | DEVON | UK | PL6 7BQ

    © Pl

 

 

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Some peculiarities of auditory sensations evoked by pulsed microwave fields – Tyazhelov – 1979 – Radio Science – Wiley Online Library

Abstract

Rectangularly pulsed, 800-MHz microwaves were coupled via waveguide from a 500-W source to the parietal area of the head of normal human observers (Os).

Pulse widths from 5 to 150 μS and pulse-repetition rates (PRRs) from 50 to 20,000 pulses per second (pps) were employed.

Sine-wave audio-frequency (AF) signals could be presented alternately to or concurrently with microwave pulses (RF signal) under conditions in which O could adjust the amplitude, frequency and phase of the AF signal.

By matching timbre and loudness of the perceived RF and AF signals during a succession of psychophysical measures—some while O’s head was being immersed in water—the Os yielded the following results:

  • (1) Both loudness and perceptual thresholds of the RF signal were biphasic functions of pulse width and of PRR;
  • (2) When pulse widths increased toward 100 μs, some subjects perceived a different sound that was lower in pitch and was referred externally to the head;
  • (3) By appropriate phasing of AF and RF signals after matching for pitch and timbre, loudness of the RF signal could be reduced below the threshold of perception; and
  • (4) Extent of immersion of the head in water was correlated with reduced loudness of the RF signal. Some of the data are interpreted as posing explanatory difficulties for an exclusively ther-moelastic mechanism of RF hearing.

 

Source: Some peculiarities of auditory sensations evoked by pulsed microwave fields – Tyazhelov – 1979 – Radio Science – Wiley Online Library

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SHIELDING? Get SHUNGITE mineral -STONE OF HEALTH! Neutralize high-frequency electromagnetic radiation & they reflect all possible magnetic fields


SHUNGITE- STONE OF HEALTH

“Shungite’s absorption ability in redox reactions and catalytic properties are very active chemically and also biologically, have bactericidal effects and neutralize the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation; they also reflect all possible magnetic fields…”

 

Cordial thanks for authors whose materials are used: J. LIPOVSKY, B. BOKROVSKY, A. ORLOV, F. GORDEJEV, M. POLEVAYA, O. RYSKOV, G. KUBARDIN


Shungite

Shungite physical properties

  • Density – 2.25 to 2.40 g / сm3;
  • Porosity – 0.5 – 5%;
  • Uni-axial compressive strength of 100 to 150 МPa;
  • Elasticity (Е) – 0.31 * 10 5 МPа;
  • Conductivity – (1 – 3) х 10 3 S / m;
  • Thermal conductivity – 3.8 W / mK
  • Average temperature coefficient of thermal expansion from 20… 600°С – 12х10 – 6 1/deg.

 

Shungite chemical properties

Shungite represents a certain way organized Geological age of shungite reaches more than 2 billion years (some estimates 3.5 billion years), but its origin is still unknown.

By one hypothesis shungite deposits are the remnants of the planet Phaeton that once existed in our solar system; the other is the based of the theory of hyper-old solidified oil from spores.

Shungite is mined in only one place on earth, in Zazhoginskoje deposit in Karelia.

It consists of 30% shungite carbon and 68% silicates.

Inventory amount of shungite is 35 million tons with annual production of 200 000 tons of ore which is mainly used in metallurgy and water purification needs.Ton of shungite replaces 1.3 tons of coke; in water purification shungite ensures efficient elimination of petroleum products and heavy metals.

In shungite carbon minerals are located in “globules” with a diameter of about 10 nm.

Those carbon Carbon is an integral part of life to exist.

In nature carbon werehistorically known to exist in two forms: diamond and graphite.

The recently discovered new, previously unknown carbon structure, which give high hopes for medics: hollow spherical molecules – fullerenes *[1].

The first fullerene to be discovered, and the family’s namesake, was buckminster-fullerene C60, made in 1985 by Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley. The name was homage to Richard Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic domes it resembles.

Such structures of carbon with its absorption ability in redox reactions and catalytic properties are very active chemically and also biologically, have bactericidal effects and neutralize the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation; they also reflect all possible magnetic fields.

Among the natural minerals, fullerenes are found only in shungite and that explains the effects of the treatment of various diseases, preserving youth, their beauty and freshness of human bodies and organs.

 


 

In mineral fullerite the thickness of the surface of a spherical molecule is 0.1 nm and molecular radius of C of graphite (2.3 g / сm 3) or diamond (3.5 g / сm3).

Fullerenes molecular structure with different carbon atom numbers in it.

 


Use of shungite to improve the living environment

 

From water-soluble part of Shungite ore fullerenes form 1% (solubility in water is 1.3×10 -11 mg/mL). They are unique and long-life antioxidants, which effectiveness exceeds many times other natural “rivals” (vitamins C, E). Fullerenes bind free radicals to their surface, where they lose their harmful effects by recombination. Fullerenes themselves will remain in living organism for a very long period of time while the “rivals” perish together to form harmless compounds with free radicals. Biologists and pharmacologist use fullerenes “ball” to deliver a wide variety of substances (molecules inside the molecule!) to the surface of cell membranes and into the cells: antibiotics, vitamins, hormones, and even the fragments of the genetic code for the creation of transgenic animals and plants.

Fullerenes have also antitoxic ability to accelerate the neutralization of a wide variety of poisons while maintaining their inertia. Fullerenes-catalysts accumulate in the body in the most critical points: the liver, kidney, pancreas, thyroid, lung, small intestine and rectum. Of particular importance is their accumulation into the liver, which protects liver against toxic substances and accelerates the neutralization of the latter.

Fullerenes normalize cellular metabolism, enhance the activity of ferments and increase the stability of the cell, including the genetic mechanism of resistance to external influences from overheating to viral infections. Tissues regenerating capability will increase. In critical situation fullerenes normalize the exchange of neurotransmitters in the nervous system chemistry and thereby enhance resistance to stress. Fullerenes have clearly pronounced anti-inflammatory and antihistamine effects – analgesic, anti-allergenic and immunity rising.

 

 

Preparation of shungite water

 

Shungite removes free radicals from water 30 times effectively than activated coal. Shungite as powerful reducer absorbs oxygen from the water: a co -operational chemical process forms atomic oxygen, which is the strongest oxidant and releases shungite surface for new absorptions. Shungite cleans water from practically all organic substances, including oil and pesticides, metals and many non-metals, bacteria and microorganisms, removes an unpleasant odor and flavor from the water. Production of shungite filters for water purification began in 1991. By using such treated water for drinking and cooking, improvements in patients with chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, biliary and pancreatic diseases, colecistite, high blood pressure, kidney stones, heart, ischemic, parodontose, different forms of allergy, even eczema had followed – and all those effects just from the using shungite filter purified water. People with diabetes have received effective assistance; shungite is also an ideal material for oncological prophylaxis. There is no form of the disease that can’t be healed by the treatment with fullerenes. Fullerene’s contact with water causes water restructuration: each fullerene molecule ball forms multilayer cover of orientated water molecules around him (about 10 layers) that excess fullerene molecule weight by 1000 times. Restructured water does not freeze at 0 degrees, but at -2.8. In this way fullerenes stabilize and protect the surrounding biomolecules, thereby helping us to activate our DNA segments. Astonishing is how fullerenes control microelement balance in water “by eliminating” unnecessary and adding the missing!

The simplest yet sufficient way is to dump 30-60 kg crushed shungite (macadam) into well. Longer filter life and better purification quality can be achieved by following technologies: the aggregate thickness of 5.0-15.0 mm, which is dumped into the pre-cleaned (also from gravel) well to form 20-50 cm thick layer (about 200-500 kg).

For treating water in apartment pour 3 liters of filtered (also brought to boiling point) water over 200-300 g shungite leaving the container open. After 30 minutes the water has already acquired the above-mentioned bactericidal activity. Complete mineralization occurs after 2-3 days. Then pour the treated water into separate container and consume it during 3 days. For finer gravel it is advisable to replace shungite after half of the year treatment. Filter life may be prolonged up to one year if after every couple of months wash gravel with saltwater or bicarbonate of soda dilution. Using coarse aggregate or larger pieces can significantly increase filter’s useful life if after using for a couple of months clean stone surfaces (e.g. with sandpaper). Shungite water is recommended to drink on an empty stomach 1-2 glasses at a time (small draughts) and to use for cooking.

Water, which has been treated with shungite filter, has strengthening and rejuvenating impact on the body: it cleanses the facial skin, reducing wrinkles, rashes, skin becomes more elastic and springing. Such water will strengthen the hair roots, reduce the formation of flakes, gives hair a healthy shine. Shungite water heals kidney-, liver- and gallbladder diseases, relieves heartburn. It is also effective in case of gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and the vegetative nervous system disorders; reduces allergic reactions and improves the body’s overall tone.

Shungite bath, spilling with shungite water and just his normal usage instead of the untreated water affects positively virtually to all body organs and systems. For bath just add to ca 36-degree C° water a pouch of comminuted shungite (~ 500 g for bath). The duration of procedure is 10-15 minutes not often than every other day. Such bath calms, reduces stress, strengthens the body and normalizes sleep. Small cracks and wounds on the skin will improve. Regular shungite bathing will cause heal post-operation wounds faster; furfuration, eczema, fungal diseases and allergic rashes will disappear.

 

Shungite pyramid – water activator

 

In water shungite pyramid toroid field activates the structure of water in unique way. One can use Shungite pyramid together with shungite gravel (3-15mm). Place shungite pyramid in bottom of the 3-liter glass jar and fill it with filtered water. Put a jar with water for two nights and days to the light and the water is ready for use. Do not keep it in the refrigerator!

The doctor and bioenergy therapist M.V. Glazkov, who tested water quality, wrote: “… tests have shown that in 48-72 hours shungite pyramid improved quality of water” and “…during this period maximum water structure and mineralization takes place. Upon further storage of water activity will decrease accordingly keeping time. For therapy purposes it is recommended to consume pyramid water 100-150 g three times a day regardless of meals.

 

Energetic treatment with shungite stones

 

The human body has quite a number of different energy systems. One of the easiest ways to describe them is the system of the seven energy centers, which consists of three inner and four outer power centers.

Interior ones: I one is located 3.5…5 cm below belly- responsible for the physical body (controls cortex), II is located in the middle of the sternum – the responsible for the emotional energy body (controls the limbic system of the brain), III is located between the eyebrows (third eye) and is responsible for aspects of human mental aspects (controls digestion, breathing and blood circulation, affecting all three centers and linking them to one). Exterior ones are situated on the palms and soles of the feet – place one of these stones there and you will increase your body’s capabilities. Blockages of energy centers are ever-threatening medical emergency you must deal with. By placing shungite stone (may also be a warm-wet), just above the body inner energy centers improves your brain performance. In case of insomnia put the stone under the pillow, for knee pain fasten stones to them during the night, for pains in lumbar vertebrae for daytime. However one can achieve relief by stand-step on shungite macadam during the 3-5 min – very effective for athletes and older people before falling asleep. Arterial blood pressure normalizes. Works well in case of polyarthritis and osteochondrosis etc. If you’re going to meet someone “uncomfortable”, hang shungite over your solar plexus and you will be pleasantly surprised. And you will wear this magic stone with joy everywhere you’re going! Try to recognize that shungite helps you every possible way- miracles will take place. You lose a snatch of harmful habits. Research has shown that the shungite fullerenes balancing the nervous system processes and have positive impact for the exchange of neurotransmitters those increasing operational ability and resistance to stress. Shungite is a rock with higher “Intellect”: it works with you; just feel your individual differences and you’ll find the most effective way it cooperates with your body.

 


 

Shungite pyramid – Your health counsel

 

Pyramid is a word of Greek origin and is etymologically related to the word “PIR”, which means “fire, energy, internal heat,” referring to symbolist imagination of a single divine flame, existing force of life in all the creatures.

The usual defensive shungite pyramid is not just a souvenir or a geometric form, but solid and effective shield against geopathogenetic radiation. Shungite pyramid absorbs negative energy and “wipe” away any bad “impression.” A good therapeutic effect of pyramid can be explained by the characteristics of pyramid energy both inside and around it. Pyramid reflects back and absorbs geopathogenetic “beams”. Being close to the pyramids or in direct contact with him human immunity improves and the negative impacts on him from its surroundings decrease. Thanks to its unique shape and properties of shungite pyramid creates around itself a torsion field reflecting an neutralizing geopathogenetic influence. Pyramids have healing effects on the body: they decrease nervous tension, headaches and insomnia; improve human energy and the overall tone. Shungite pyramid on car dashboard reduces the number of critical situations and keeps driver awake while driving. The verification revealed a surprise – it saves the fuel!

 


 

General Terms of Use

Protection is optimal when the pyramid is well-oriented in accordance with cardinal points.

Shungite pyramid have infinite possibilities of use: offices, industrial plants, schools, institutions, sanatorium, sanatoriums, homes, transport, etc.

You should locate yourself north to the pyramid. Place the pyramid on where you spend the most hours during the day. Place the pyramid on your side (on the distance of not more than 50 cm) and lower than you.

Place the pyramid between yourself and the source of radiation (computer, TV, instrumentation); on the bedside, not below; on a desk, job, car, recreational zones. Don’t point top of the pyramid to a patient or yourself unless you are qualified healer!

More than three thousand years man has used colored stones and crystals in particular to treat and stabilize his body. During enormous medicinal drug development it is time for mankind to return to and recover the usage of natural resources including minerals.

As shungite, especially the pyramids, has become very popular, there are fakes. Shungite is, unlike the other minerals conducting electricity and with the battery, two wires and bulb it is easy to detect forgery.

This enigmatic rock got his name from the town Shunga on the shores of Oneega Lake in Karelia. In 1887, a black rock called shungite was found there, while wondrous properties of the local waters welling up from rock layers were known much earlier.

In recent history, information on shungite healing properties goes back to more than 3 centuries.The first officialannouncement is from the beginning of the 17thcenturyand is related to czarevna (czar’s wife) Marfa Ivanovna (Baroness Ksenja Romanov).After being sent to exile in the village Tolvuya on the northern shore of Oneega a Russian gentry’s woman was close to death with her illness.Local habitants guided the baroness to the miraculous source where from thelayersof black stone the magical healing water welled up.This water of lifehealed the baroness who had lost seven newborns before the exile, and gave birth to a son – Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov – founder of the Russian czar’s 300-year dynasty. Local habitants named this miracle spring Czarevna, but it was soon forgotten with time. In the meantime, while the popularity to broader public of this healing water was lost, local peasants remained loyal to the magical spring.

It was not until a hundred years later the interest in the miracle water was renewed. In 1714, Peter the Great founded there a copper-smelting industry.There is a legend how one employee, suffering from a serious disease, discovered in Revboloty, where ore was sourced for the industry, a spring of water which regained his full health in three days. These rumors came to the ears of Czar Peter, who gave the order to carry out investigations.Water that sprang from shungite deposits proved to be a powerful instrument for healing from anemia, hydropsy, liver disease and many other diseases.Ordinary people began to be treated in all sorts of diseases.Relief was foundusually during 2…3 weeks of treatment.

Peter, whose health was not strong, tried the water and gave the order to build a spa close to the source.It became the first medical institution Russia’s history called “Martsialniye Vody “- in honor of the god of war particularly since Peter’s sick and wounded soldiers got there effective treatment.A variety of diseases were treated there but mainly hypochondria, bile tract disease, gastrointestinal dysfunction, vomiting, constipation, kidney stones (with sand or small stones), epilepsy, and water was also used to drive out intestinal worms.Peter the Great told all his soldiers to carry a piece of shungite (also known at that time as aspidian stone) in their backpacks.By placing a shungite piece in water-filled vessels soldiers got fresh and clean water.There are many historical records which indicate that the Emperor has issued a special order (ukazs) with such prescriptions.Historical sources also tell us about the battle of Poltaava in the hot summer of 1709 when the Russians, who drank their shungite water, were victorious, but the Swedish army suffered from an epidemic of dysentery, including the king himself.

Between 1717-1719 two medics, R.Areskin and L.Blumentrost studied the composition of spring waters, and confirmed its therapeutic qualities.Order (czar’s ukazs) was issued to build the resort along with instructions for use of the magical water.Also an article appeared regarding the waters of healing effect, in which 9 disease cases and their treatment with magical water were briefly described.

In the twenties of the XVIII century Peter the Great healed himself in the spa.Palaces were built for Czar and his family there, but they emptied quickly after Peter’s death and the spa “Martsialnyie Vody” ceased to exist.

Ten years later, in the middle of the XVIII century, Jelizaveta Petrovna tried to revive Russia’s first resort, but sent to region of Olonetsi czarevna’s private doctor Bugajev concluded that local spring had no therapeutic effect.Historians affirm that this research was so-called “ordered” by merchants, who then imported expensive mineral water.Activities in the resort stopped for more than one and a half century. Most of the buildings and palaces collapsed. It was not until the 1910when forthe celebration of the 300-year anniversary of Romanov’s house, a wooden Czarevich spring facility was built.

The official closing of the spa did not misled local habitants, who continued to use the water from the healing spring.Time by time, magical waters there were also of interest to researchers.In one of the works the water was compared to the world-renowned Spa and Marienbad health spas.

The resort began a new life in the thirties in the XX century, thanks to actions of Dr. Med. S.A. Vishnevski. He organized an expedition to study of the waters and restored the reputation of local healing waters.

fullerenes (c60)

 

Shungite is a medicine of 21st century

 

Shungite (shungit) is the unique in the world the natural mineral containing fullerenes (opened in 1985) – special type of the molecular form of carbon. About importance of opening of fullerenes, speaks that 9 October 1996 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Professor Robert F. Curl, Jr., Professor Sir Harold W. Kroto and Professor Richard E.Smalley for their discovery of fullerenes.

 

Chemical compound of shungit is:

Carbon – 20 – 95 %,

Silicon – 5 – 60,

Aluminium – up to 4 %,

Iron of-3,5 %,

Magnesium – up to 3,5 %,

Kaliy – up to 12 %,

Sulfur – up to 1,2 %,

Calcium up to 0,58 %, 4

Phosphorus – up to 0,34 %, and many other macroelements and microelements.

 

The scientists that have investigated Shungit rock have declared unanimously, that it is a miracle mineral! This stone eliminates and absorbs all that imposes a hazard on people, and living beings, but concentrates and restores all that are healthy for a human being. Shungit pyramid is a revolutionary shielding device for harmful electromagnetic radiation from computers, microwave ovens, TV sets, mobile phones and other creations of modern civilization.

 

Peter I has based the well-known first Russian resort named Marsial waters. Resort water gets curative properties, passing through thickness of Shungite crust layers .The Shungit water helps to struggle with various illnesses: the general condition improves, nervous pressure is removed, and the inflow of energy is sensed. It is easier to obtain a steady remission of some chronic diseases of gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys, and metabolic processes. With the help of the Shungit water skin diseases are cured much more easily and water sprinkling of the head decreases falling out of the hair. Hair is resilient and healthy looking. Face skin rejuvenates, wrinkles smooth down and skin elasticity restores.

 

But the most important thing for us, people, living under constant stress, strain and unfavorable ecological conditions is regeneration characteristics of the Shungit, which restore vitality in the human. They relieve headaches, backaches, rheumatism, remove neuralgic states, normalize sleep, stabilize blood pressure, clear respiratory tract, increase activity, including the sexual one.

 

Numerous investigations of the unique properties of Shungit allow it to be rightfully named as a medicine of 21st century.

Source: Shungite! Shungit rock! Wholesale and retail sales!

Excerpt

 

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Everyday benefits of Shield

Authors note:

I can only honestly say that: “Although frequently these products are more HYPE than SCIENCE, the idea behind them is quite sound. It appears that to arrive at the proper application of these principles with each individual, a ‘tuning’ of  bio-waveforms with material crystal-matrix resonance for each human (or other being), and earths ‘Schumann’ resonances, would be required, in order to obtain all theoretical benefits, in actuality.

The price is so far beyond my grasp that it would hardly be possible, through only my means, even in fantasy, to ever experience or determine any possible benefits, or to determine, from experience, the actuality, if any, of their claims.

But I would LOVE to find out that it actually worked…”

Timothy Trespas

—————————————————————————–

EMF shielding provides many health benefits, reduces stress. Since 1990, the BioElectric Shield has provided daily benefits for thousands.

Source: Everyday benefits of Shield

EMF Shielding and Other Daily Benefits of Wearing a Bio-Electric Shield

On a daily basis, what does this EMF Pendant do for you?McCantless Beth 2 17 15

  1. LOWERS YOUR STRESS: Boosts your immune system by providing shielding from EMF and other unhealthy energies (people, places, things)
  2. IMPROVES YOUR MOOD: Tired people are not happy people! The Shield lets you use your energy for YOU instead of for protection from EMF
  3. BALANCES ENERGY. IMPROVES FOCUS. You’re more productive – and that feels great. Organizes your energy to the level of your DNA.

CLICK HERE for Shield Buyers Guide

How does the Shield enhance and strengthen your energy?

  1. INCREASES YOUR LIFE FORCE/CHI/PRANA: The crystal matrix generates a harmonious bio-field that adds it’s energy to your own. This strengthens your life force, also known as your chi or prana.
  2. BALANCES YOUR ENERGY:PHYSICAL, MENTAL, EMOTIONAL, SPIRITUAL: The Shield energy balances your physical, mental, emotional and spiritual energy. People calm down, or feel energized – it all depends on where you need more balance.

  3. ORGANIZES/PROTECTS YOUR DNA: It organizes and protects your energy at the level of your DNA. EMF’s travel through skin, bones and tissue straight into DNA. (BioInitive Report 2012). The Shield helps the DNA maintain it’s correct blueprints even when attacked by EMF’s.

How does the Shield work with your energy field – see it in pictures!

  • THE COCOON: Each Shield contains a matrix of crystals that already vibrate at an Earth Resonant frequency, or Schumann Resonance. When you first put on a Shield, this harmonious earth energy places an energy “cocoon” around you, instantly soothing and balancing your energy field.(Figure A)
  • THE PROTECTION: The Shield goes into resonance with your unique energy vibration within 24 hours. It adds balanced, healing energy to reinforce and strengthen your energy vitality. This makes you much less susceptible to any draining energies, lowers stress, and improves focus and mood.
  • THE BALANCING AND STRENGTHENING: As it vibrates WITH your energy, it also begins to gradually BALANCE and STRENGTHEN your entire energy field, which is composed of 4 layers. (physical – mental – emotional – spiritual)
  • THE VORTEX: After you wear your Shield for 24 hours, a spinning vortex of energy is created at the edge of this protective cocoon. (Figure B). You could even say you’re wearing a Faraday Cage, but it’s living, interactive energy, unlike the Faraday cage.
  • This vortex functions as a “gatekeeper”. It lets in the good energy, but deflects any energy that is incompatible with you. This includes negative energy from other people, equipment (cell phones, computers, fluorescent lights, etc.) or places (geopathic stress).

The Bioelectric Shield wraps you in a cocoon of protective energy

  • THE PHYSICS: Physicists have shown that energy has to take the path of least resistance. Simply imagine water flowing AROUND a boulder in a stream, and this will give you an idea of how the negative energy is deflected so it goes around you. Many Shield wearers say life is easier, less tiring, and more relaxed. They don’t get sick often. Can you see how this could benefit you?
  • THE DNA BENEFIT: We have also been told by several gifted individuals who see energy fields that the Shield organizes your energy field all the way to your DNA. Perhaps this is another reason why people feel whole and balanced wearing their BioElectric Shield.

What is it like to wear the Shield?

  • Users report INCREASED FOCUS, RENEWED ENERGY, MORE BALANCE
  • YOUR ENERGY IMPROVES OVER TIME: Over time, you will find that your own energy, while staying uniquely “you”, becomes calmer, more focused, more relaxed. The longer you wear a Shield, the greater the benefits.

CLICK HERE to READ TESTIMONIALS

Balancing and Strengthening Effect as Shown by Kirlian Photography

Aura photo before wearing a BioElectric ShieldBefore
1 hour after the 1st photographAfter one hour
3aura.jpg After six months

YOUNG MOTHER BENEFITS FROM SHIELD – SAYS SHE HAS MORE ENERGY AND CREATIVITY

These photos show the changes that typically occur wearing a Shield. We met this woman at a trade show. A kirlian photograph had been taken just before she came to our booth. She agreed to wear the Shield for an hour and then see if it changed her energy.

It did, and she bought a Shield. When we returned the next spring to her area, she came by the booth and another photo was taken. She had not changed her diet or lifestyle in any significant way. She attributed her increased energy, creativity and sense of well-being to the Shield to wearing the BioElectric Shield.

CLICK HERE for Shield Buyers Guide

Learn How to Block EMF with BioElectric Shield:

  • ENERGY PROTECTION: Deflects and neutralizes the impact of EMF radiation from cell phones, WiFi, computer radiation
  • ENERGY REGULATION: Reduces the impact of unhealthy energies from people, places and devices
  • ENERGY AMPLIFICATION: Resonates, amplifies and strengthens your energy

CLICK HERE for Shield Buyers Guide

How does this EMF blocker work?

Based on Nobel Prize winning physics, inside each Shield is a precision cut matrix of quartz and other crystals. This matrix creates an energy field that vibrates at the same frequency/vibration as the earth. We call it an Earth Resonance Technology.If you have walked by the ocean or deep in an old forest, you have already felt this frequency.

The frequency created by the crystal matrix: protects, regulates, and reinforces your natural energy field making you LESS susceptible to the energies around you. This includes electromagnetic radiation of all forms, other people’s negativity, or geopathic stress.

It promotes perfect balance in all 4 of your energy aspects: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual. We have been told by individuals who see energy to the cellular level, that it balances your energy to the level of your D.N.A.

Users report Increased Focus, Renewed Energy, Feeling more emotionally balanced & stable

CLICK HERE to Read Testimonials

Why are there 4 Levels of Protection?

The Shield comes in 4 levels of strength. The protective, balancing energy field created by the crystal matric inside the Shield is amplified by the metal that surrounds it.

  • Level 1: Brass is a good conductor – best used as a room, pet, or auto Shield.
  • Level 2: Silver is a stronger conductor than brass – suitable for anyone in today’s WiFi world.
  • Level 3: Combines silver with gold accents and provides stronger protection which is especially helpful, if you are sensitive or use a computer for 6+ hours a day.
  • Level 4: Gold is the most powerful amplifier of our Earth Resonance Frequency.

http://www.bioelectricshield.com/images/pdf/research/11_hrv%20altmed%20binder.pdf

#1: Law of Protection: Bragg’s Law of Diffraction

maxvon laue 125
In 1914, Max Von Laue won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. William Bragg won the Nobel Prize in 1915 for establishing “Bragg’s Law”, which determines the specific crystal spacing needed to reflect and redirect any type of electromagnetic energy.

Using these principles, the BioShield crystal matrix reflects and redirects electromagnetic frequencies away from your body.


#2: Law of Regulation: Quartz is an Energy Pacemaker

watch emf protection

The BioShield uses a fundamental property of quartz – regularity of oscillation (like a metronome) to maintain your core frequency. Quartz has been used in Swiss watches to keep perfect time because of this property. The average human frequency is about 7.8 hertz. Your cell phone is 60 hertz; your computer screen is 540 hertz. Increased cell metabolism is the mechanism for cancer, aging and many other symptoms.The quartz in all BioShields act as an energy pacemaker, reminding your energy field to maintain its core vibration when bombarded with higher, more intense and sometimes unhealthy frequencies.


#3: Law of Amplification: Applied Quantum Physics: Amplification through Resonance

The Shield goes into perfect resonance with your exact vibration within 24 hours of your wearing it. It then reinforces, stabilizes and amplifies your unique energy vibration, redirecting any energy which is not compatible with your exact vibration. Not only does it refract EMF, it deflects negative emotional energy. Thus, you can be around other people or situations without picking up their energy, particularly when it’s negative.

Does the Shield ever fix or freeze your energy vibration? Because all crystals are alive, this means they can interact with your energy field constantly. Although the Shield crystal matrix strengthens and stabilizes your energy, it also supports your healthiest vibrational level. As you change, the vibration the Shield supports and stabilizes is your new, higher, healthier vibration.

 

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The Herxheimer Reaction

Section 10: The Herxheimer Reaction

In a field in which clinical findings can be vague and imprecise, and where helpful monitoring laboratory tests are lacking, the Herxheimer reaction is an indispensable clinical tool in the treatment of persistent LD, or neuroborreliosis. In theory, Herxheimer reactions occur when an administered antimicrobial agent has successfully led to lyses of certain organisms (107). By definition this phenomenon is not unique to Bb. Fortunately, however, the Herxheimer reaction appears to provide a highly reliable barometer of therapy in Bb, so much so that a treatment course which lacks the Herxheimer response places the diagnosis of persistent Bb in serious doubt.

The reaction was first described in 1895 by an Austrian dermatologist Jarisch Adolf Herxheimer, who was practicing in Vienna, and later confirmed by his brother Karl Herxheimer, who was also a dermatologist, practicing in Frankfort (108,109). During these times, both physicians were responsible for treating syphilitic lesions and employed various preparations of mercury, arsenic and bismuth in these therapies. The key observation noted by both physicians was that, shortly after treatment of syphilitic skin lesions had been administered, many of their patients developed fever accompanied by rigors, drenching sweats, and nausea and vomiting. In addition, they found that the syphilitic skin lesions flared and became larger before healing; results were best in the patients that experienced this reaction, which typically lasted for 2 to 3 days.

The debate about the cause and nature of this predictable reaction has raged on for decades. Various theories have ranged from a vascular reflex mediated by the autonomic nervous system (110) to a direct toxic effect of the antimicrobial on tissues (111). In 1943 Mahoney described the first Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in syphilitic patients treated with the relatively new antibiotic penicillin (112 ). Classically, the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurred when treating the secondary stage of syphilis, at a time when a widespread rash may occur and the spirochetal burden is high. Even today, medical students are taught that a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurs as a result of treatment of secondary syphilis. Most physicians are not aware that the Herxheimer reaction occurs in Bb infections and has been described in a variety of other diseases, many of them caused by spirochetal organisms such as Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and Bb in LD. A short list of treated spirochetal infections noted to manifest Herxheimer reactions includes Relapsing Fever (Borrelia recurrentis), Yaws (a subspecies of Treponema pallidum), Rat Bite Fever (spirullum minus), and perhaps Vincent’s Angina (spirochetal mouth forms) (113). Non-spirochetal infections manifesting the Herxheimer event after treatment include Brucellosis, Glanders, Anthrax, and even Leprosy (mycobacterium leprae) (113).

In 1972 Gudjonsson reported on a summary of experiments that entailed almost a decade of work (114). He concluded that the Herxheimer effect was not allergic in nature and was likely caused by a leukocyte pyrogen released at the time of phagocytosis. Most now believe that the pyrogens in question are exogenous pyrogens, or endotoxins, derived from components of the bacterial cell wall. In the case of Bb, the pyrogen is most likely the lipoprotein moiety which comprises the outer coat of the organism. These lipoproteins, specifically OspA and Osp B, have been shown to have potent B cell mitogenic and cytokine-stimulatory properties (78).

It is widely recognized that antibiotic therapy may promote endotoxin release by virtue of its microbicidal effect which leads to the disintegration of the bacterial organism and exposure, or presentation, of endotoxin. On recognition of the endotoxin, polypeptides such as IL-1, interferons, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF), otherwise referred to as endogenous pyrogen (EP) or pyrogenic cytokines, are released by the monocyte/macrophage system (115). It should be pointed out that only minute quantities of EP are needed in order to generate fever and other systemic symptoms. In the extreme case, such as gram negative bacterial sepsis, high and persistent levels of endotoxin are present and lead to sepsis syndrome with capillary leak syndrome and vascular collapse. In the Bb model, with a relatively low number of organisms present and with limited and inconsistent die-off with each round of antibiotic therapy, one could conceive a model in which constitutional complaints, mediated by pyrogenic cytokines, are manifested in an ongoing and rather unpredictable manner. This then would represent the defining principle for the Herxheimer reaction in Bb infection. In predicting a pattern of response based on our knowledge of Bb infection, we would expect these symptoms to be worse initially, depending on die-off rates, and to not be life threatening, but likely to be life altering. Our clinical experience supports these precepts.

Published reviews have suggested a periodicity exists for Bb activity or replication, specifically that symptoms of fever and malaise, etc. occur at 4 week intervals (116). Others have created so called mathematical models to support this hypothesis. While we respect this author’s opinion, we find it difficult to understand how there could be synchronicity in any given polymorphic Bb population (often consisting of multiple strains) in any given host. The matter merits further study and validation. In females, increased symptoms and increased urinary shedding of Bb has been documented in the perimenstrual period, suggesting a hormonal influence (personal communication Dr. Nick Harris), and so it would seem possible that periodicity may exist in menstruating females (although our more seriously ill female LD patients routinely develop menstrual irregularity).

In our clinic, prior to starting any antimicrobial therapy, especially if our patient is naïve to treatment, we emphasize to the patient that they may notice certain significant clinical events while on therapy. In the occasional patient in whom we have no firm diagnosis but where we are suspicious enough to offer short-term empiric oral therapy, we are intentionally a bit vague about providing information to the patient about the Herxheimer effect, as we do not wish to influence a response by suggestion. We have found the Herxheimer response in LD to be as myriad as the course of persistent LD itself. It is naïve for one to expect to witness simply a flu-like syndrome, although this certainly happens. Instead, generally one sees an intensification of pre-existing symptoms, e.g. increased brain fog or muscle/joint pain, where these symptoms were reported prior to therapy. On the other hand, it is equally common to take reports of new symptoms, e.g. headache in a patient who previously reported symptoms other than headache. In general, the Herxheimer reaction is worse in our most seriously ill patients and most violent at the onset of therapy. The Herxheimer response typically occurs within 3 to 5 days, but may take up to 2 weeks to appear. These symptoms may persist for days or weeks and often become a major management concern as our patient may suffer considerably in the process of treatment. Eventually, as therapy progresses, we tend to witness a dampening of the intensity of the Herxheimer response, as well as some reports of positive clinical gains. Introduction of new therapy, as we cycle antibiotics through our treatment schedule (see treatment program to follow), invariably leads to intensification or new symptoms, all of which are unpleasant. In fact, if we do not observe a new response when therapy is added or substituted, we question the efficacy of our program. Later in this report, we refer to dermal or neurologic Herxheimer phenomena, which we feel reflect local manifestations of pyrogenic cytokines in response to treatment.

Regrettably, but not unexpectedly, we have treated a number of individuals whose Herxheimer experience is so intense and prolonged that continued treatment is virtually impossible. After exhausting all customary supportive and treatment measures, which incidentally never includes the use of systemic steroids, we have learned the art of using a balanced program of anti-oxidants, copius fluid administration, and appropriate wash out therapeutic periods during a treatment protocol. Much more of these concepts will be discussed in our next website edition of 2007.

The escalating headache symptoms experienced by some patients on intensive antibiotic treatment is a Herxheimer effect that merits special attention. This “Lyme” headache is thought to be linked to cerebral edema brought about by Bb die-off and the ensuing creation of inflammatory microfoci in the leptomeninges. In our experience, severe CNS symptoms, such as incapacitating headache, are more likely to occur when the patient has had prominent CNS symptoms or findings pre-therapy, e.g. encephalopathy, aseptic meningitis, optic neuritis, and so on. In 2-3% of our treated cases, we have had to resort to one or more therapeutic lumbar punctures to provide relief by lowering intracranial pressure.

Given the miserable experience which we may exact on our patients during therapy, we would perhaps be better off if we followed the advice of Russell McMillan, DDS, DPH, who wrote the Arthritis Trust of America in 1994 with his personal remedy for the Herxheimer reaction. “I take a saltz bath which consists of adding 1 cup salt, 1 cup soda, 1 cup Epsom salts, 1 cup aloe vera, to a hot bath which I remain in and keep hot for about 11/2 hours all the while consuming about 2 quarts of warm water. Evidently the perspiration and osmotic pressure removes the causative toxins. I find it quite helpful” (117). Hey, sounds ok to us.

 

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MAX, our FRIEND & CAT has DIED…. R.I.P. MAX – YouTube

rest in peace my little friend!

I am so sorry i could not save you, max. please forgive me.

you were killed by the same people with the same weaponized biology that is killing me.

i pray we will meet in heaven

love, timothy

 

IMG_4145 Picture 063 Picture 079 Picture 080 Picture 139 Picture 162 Picture 050 Picture 049 Picture 048 IMAG0232-1 IMAG0229 Picture max137 Picture 139 Picture 078

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Nanotechnology and forensics: nano-powders that have been engineered to be used in conjunction with SALDI-TOF2-MS.(Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF)/reflectron (RTOF) mass spectrometry)

Nanotechnology and forensics

| Mike Pitkethly

ROAR Particles have looked at extending the use of fingerprints beyond purely improving the definition of the fingerprints.

They have been developing nano-powders that have been engineered to enable them to be used in conjunction with SALDI-TOF2-MS.(Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF)/reflectron (RTOF) mass spectrometry)

This means that when a fingerprint is developed using these powders, the chemicals, both the residues from contact with other materials and excreted, that form part of the fingerprint, can be analyzed and identified.

For example, if the donor of the print has been handling explosives or illegal drugs, then the contact residues will appear in the fingerprint and can be identified.

This is only possible with these nano-engineered powders.

Since the sweat and other secretions are also a means of removing waste chemicals from the body, the analysis can be taken a stage further and the excreted metabolites can also be identified.

So for example the drug users can be differentiated from those who have only handled the drugs.

from; http://www.materialstoday.com/nanomaterials/articles/s1369702109701671/

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One paradigm is worth a thousand rules: How can we teach computers compassion (and stop humans from using them to hurt and kill!) ? Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, and theories of mind.

One paradigm is worth a thousand rules: How can we teach computers compassion (and stop humans from using them to hurt and kill!) ? Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, and theories of mind.

( from:http://www.epmg.kz/upload/content/File/MIT%20Press%20-%20Mind%20Design%20II%20%281997%29.pdf)

Many experiments (with Artificial Intelligence)  have shown that categories appear to be coded in the mind neither by means of lists of each individual member of the category, nor by means of a list of formal criteria necessary and sufficient for category membership, but, rather, in terms of a prototype of a typical category member.

The most cognitively economical code for a category is, in fact, a concrete image of an average category member. (1977, p. 30)

One paradigm, it seems, is worth a thousand rules.

Reading the above text it appears the simplest way for artificial (or synthetic) intelligence to classify things is to stereotype them.

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DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia:- what the professional psychiatrists use to diagnose you as schizophrenic

DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia:- what the ‘professional’ psychiatrists, and other clinicians, use to diagnose you as schizophrenic

DSM-IV-TR:

Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia:

  • A. Characteristic (active-phase) symptoms:

Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated):

  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
  • Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
  • Negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia (poverty of speech), or avolition (lack of motivation)

Note: Only one Criterion A symptom is required if:

delusions are bizarre or

hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person’s behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other.

B. Social/occupational dysfunction:

For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning (such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care) are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence, failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational achievement).

C. Duration:

Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months.

This 6-month period must include:

  1. at least 1 month of symptoms (or less if successfully treated) that meet Criterion A (i.e., active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal (symptomatic of the onset) or residual symptoms.
  2. During these prodromal or residual periods, the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences).

D. Schizoaffective and Mood Disorder exclusion:

Schizoaffective Disorder and Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features have been ruled out because either

(1) no Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, or Mixed Episode have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms; or

(2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the active and residual periods.

E. Substance/general medical condition exclusion:

The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

F. Relationship to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder:

If there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least a month (or less if successfully treated).

Subtypes
Schizophrenia Subtypes:

The subtypes of schizophrenia are defined by the predominant symptomatology at the time of evaluation.

Because of the limited value of the schizophrenia subtypes in clinical and research settings (e.g. prediction of course, treatment response, correlates of illness), alternative subtypes are being actively investigates.

Subtypes include
1. Paranoid Type

2. Disorganized Type

3. Catatonic Type

4. Undifferentiated Type

5. Residual Type

Schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder are closely related to schizophrenia and their symptoms are also listed below.

In addition, symptoms are listed for the following related disorders:
  • brief psychotic disorder,
  • shared psychotic disorder,
  • psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition,
  • substance-induced psychotic disorder, and
  • psychotic disorder not otherwise specified.

1. Paranoid Type: A type of Schizophrenia in which the following criteria are met:

A. Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations.
B. None of the following is prominent: disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or flat or inappropriate affect.

2. Disorganized Type: A type of Schizophrenia in which the following criteria are met:

A. All of the following are prominent:

(1) disorganized speech

(2) disorganized behavior

(3) flat or inappropriate affect

B. The criteria are not met for Catatonic Type.

3. Catatonic Type: A type of Schizophrenia in which the clinical picture is dominated by at least two of the following:

(1) motoric immobility as evidenced by catalepsy (including waxy flexibility) or stupor

(2) excessive motor activity (that is apparently purposeless and not influenced by external stimuli)

(3) extreme negativism (an apparently motiveless resistance to all instructions or maintenance of a rigid posture against attempts to be moved) or mutism

(4) peculiarities of voluntary movement as evidenced by posturing (voluntary assumption of inappropriate or bizarre postures)

(5) stereotyped movements, prominent mannerisms, or prominent grimacing

(6) echolalia (word repetition) or echopraxia (repetitive imitation)

4. Undifferentiated Type: A type of Schizophrenia in which symptoms that meet Criterion A are present, but the criteria are not met for the Paranoid, Disorganized, or Catatonic Type.
5. Residual Type: A type of Schizophrenia in which the following criteria are met:

A. Absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior.

B. There is continuing evidence of the disturbance, as indicated by the presence of negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A for Schizophrenia, present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences).

Diagnostic criteria for Schizophreniform Disorder:

A. Criteria A, D, and E of Schizophrenia are met.

B. An episode of the disorder (including prodromal, active, and residual phases) lasts at least 1 month but less than 6 months. (When the diagnosis must be made without waiting for recovery, it should be qualified as “Provisional.”)

Specify if: Without Good Prognostic Features or With Good Prognostic Features: as evidenced by two (or more) of the following:

(1) onset of prominent psychotic symptoms within 4 weeks of the first noticeable change in usual behavior or functioning

(2) confusion or perplexity at the height of the psychotic episode

(3) good premorbid social and occupational functioning

(4) absence of blunted or flat affect

Diagnostic criteria for Schizoaffective Disorder:

A. An uninterrupted period of illness during which, at some time, there is either a Major Depressive Episode, a Manic Episode, or a Mixed Episode concurrent with symptoms that meet Criterion A for Schizophrenia.

Note: The Major Depressive Episode must include Criterion A1: depressed mood.

B. During the same period of illness, there have been delusions or hallucinations for at least 2 weeks in the absence of prominent mood symptoms.

C. Symptoms that meet criteria for a mood episode are present for a substantial portion of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness.

D. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

Specify type: Bipolar Type: if the disturbance includes a Manic or a Mixed Episode (or a Manic or a Mixed Episode and Major Depressive Episodes)

Depressive Type: if the disturbance only includes Major Depressive Episodes

Diagnostic criteria for Delusional Disorder:

A. Non-bizarre delusions (i.e., involving situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, poisoned, infected, loved at a distance, or deceived by spouse or lover, or having a disease) of at least 1 month’s duration.
B. Criterion A for Schizophrenia has never been met.

Note: Tactile and olfactory hallucinations may be present in Delusional Disorder if they are related to the delusional theme.

C. Apart from the impact of the delusion(s) or its ramifications, functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre.
D. If mood episodes have occurred concurrently with delusions, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the delusional periods.
E. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition. Specify type (the following types are assigned based on the predominant delusional theme): Erotomanic Type: delusions that another person, usually of higher status, is in love with the individual Grandiose Type: delusions of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person
Jealous Type: delusions that the individual’s sexual partner is unfaithful
Persecutory Type: delusions that the person (or someone to whom the person is close) is being malevolently treated in some way
Somatic Type: delusions that the person has some physical defect or general medical condition Mixed Type: delusions characteristic of more than one of the above types but no one theme predominates
Unspecified Type Diagnostic criteria for Brief Psychotic Disorder:
A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms: (1) delusions (2) hallucinations (3) disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence) (4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Note: Do not include a symptom if it is a culturally sanctioned response pattern.
B. Duration of an episode of the disturbance is at least 1 day but less than 1 month, with eventual full return to premorbid level of functioning.
C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, Schizoaffective Disorder, or Schizophrenia and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition. Specify if: With Marked Stressor(s) (brief reactive psychosis): if symptoms occur shortly after and apparently in response to events that, singly or together, would be markedly stressful to almost anyone in similar circumstances in the person’s culture Without Marked Stressor(s): if psychotic symptoms do not occur shortly after, or are not apparently in response to events that, singly or together, would be markedly stressful to almost anyone in similar circumstances in the person’s culture With Postpartum Onset: if onset within 4 weeks postpartum
Diagnostic criteria for Shared Psychotic Disorder (Folie à Deux):
A. A delusion develops in an individual in the context of a close relationship with another person(s), who has an already-established delusion.
B. The delusion is similar in content to that of the person who already has the established delusion.
C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another Psychotic Disorder (e.g., Schizophrenia) or a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.
Diagnostic criteria for Psychotic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition:
A. Prominent hallucinations or delusions.
B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is the direct physiological consequence of a general medical condition.
C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.
D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a Delirium. Code based on predominant symptom: – With Delusions: if delusions are the predominant symptom – With Hallucinations: if hallucinations are the predominant symptom
Diagnostic criteria for Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder:
A. Prominent hallucinations or delusions. Note: Do not include hallucinations if the person has insight that they are substance induced.
B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of either (1) or (2): (1) the symptoms in Criterion A developed during, or within a month of, Substance Intoxication or Withdrawal (2) medication use is etiologically related to the disturbance
C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not substance induced. Evidence that the symptoms are better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not substance induced might include the following: the symptoms precede the onset of the substance use (or medication use); the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time (e.g., about a month) after the cessation of acute withdrawal or severe intoxication, or are substantially in excess of what would be expected given the type or amount of the substance used or the duration of use; or there is other evidence that suggests the existence of an independent non-substance-induced Psychotic Disorder (e.g., a history of recurrent non-substance-related episodes).
D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium. Note: This diagnosis should be made instead of a diagnosis of Substance Intoxication or Substance Withdrawal only when the symptoms are in excess of those usually associated with the intoxication or withdrawal syndrome and when the symptoms are sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention.
Diagnostic Criteria for Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: This category includes psychotic symptomatology (i.e., delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior) about which there is inadequate information to make a specific diagnosis or about which there is contradictory information, or disorders with psychotic symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any specific Psychotic Disorder. Examples include:
1. Postpartum psychosis that does not meet criteria for Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, Brief Psychotic Disorder, Psychotic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition, or Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder
2. Psychotic symptoms that have lasted for less than 1 month but that have not yet remitted, so that the criteria for Brief Psychotic Disorder are not met
3. Persistent auditory hallucinations in the absence of any other features
4. Persistent nonbizarre delusions with periods of overlapping mood episodes that have been present for a substantial portion of the delusional disturbance
5. Situations in which the clinician has concluded that some type of psychotic disorder may be present, but is unable to determine whether it is primary, due to a general medical condition, or substance induced

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amazing Nanotechnology – Images -materials science. Images can often convey information in a way that tables of data or equations cannot match

Introduction to Nanotechnology – Images

Visualization methods provide an important tool in materials science for the analysis and presentation of scientific work.

Images can often convey information in a way that tables of data or equations cannot match.

Occasionally, scientific images transcend their role as a medium for transmitting information, and contain the aesthetic qualities that transform them into objects of beauty and art.

golden pyramid - tip of an atomic force microscope
Developing new instruments to be able to “see” at the nanoscale is a research field in itself. Shown here is the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM), one of the foremost tools for imaging, measuring and manipulating matter at the nanoscale. Here, a platinum electrode measuring one hundredth of a nanometer has been deposited on the tip of this pyramid shaped AFM tip via focused ion beam (FIB) deposition. (Image: C. Menozzi, G.C. Gazzadi, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)
Nano-Explosions
Nano-Explosions – Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph of an overflowed electrodeposited magnetic nanowire array (CoFeB), where the template has been subsequently completely etched. It’s a reminder that nanoscale research can have unpredicted consequences at a high level. (Image: Fanny Beron, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada)
Climatic change on carbon nanotubes
Climatic change on carbon nanotubes – Carbon nanotubes have many characteristics that promise to revolutionize the world of structural materials. There are different ways to grow carbon nanotubes, especially the CVD technique, which allows obtaining SWCNT’s on a silicon surface. These SWCNT can be carried from the silicon surface to another surface, as HOPG, without suffering changes on their properties. That means nanomanipulation of carbon nanotubes. (Mr Miguel Ângel Fernández Vindel, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid/Spain)
single crystalline diamond grain that is anisotropically etched by hot spheres of molten nickel
The imaged object is a single crystalline diamond grain that is anisotropically etched by hot spheres of molten nickel (red). Self-organized nickel particles are obtained by sintering a thin Ni film (100 nm) that is evaporated on a polished diamond substrate. Self-organisation and etching are conducted by the following annealing procedure: 1000°C in 500 mbar H2, 24 h. (Image: Waldemar Smirnov, Fraunhofer Institut Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Germany)
Nano PacMan made of copper oxide

Nano PacMan made of copper oxide. Scanning electron microscope image of a copper oxide cluster, 3.5 microns in diameter, prepared by evaporation and condensation over an alumina substrate. The smiley nose and eye are present in the original SEM image, which has only been color-enhanced. (Image: Elisabetta Comini, University of Brescia, Italy)

Nano orchard and other amazing nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) Here is another installment of our collection of amazing images from nanotechnology labs from all over the world. You can find other nanotechnology images here.
As a special feature of recent MRS Meetings, the MRS has offered the popular Science as Art competitions, with entry open to all registered meeting attendees. The images below represent the winners of the 2014 MRS Spring Meeting Science as Art competition.
You can see all galleries here on the MRS website: Science as Art
nano orchard
NanoOrchard – Electrochemically overgrown CuNi nanopillars. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Josep Nogues, Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Spain, and A. Varea, E. Pellicer, S. Suriñach, M.D. Baro, J. Sort, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona)
LadyNanoBug
LadyNanoBug – This image is a scanning electron micrograph of ZnO nanorods epitaxially grown on a CuGaO2 nanoplate in aqueous solution. The high preferential nucleation and growth of ZnO on CuGaO2 is evident in this image since there is no growth on the surrounding silicon substrate. This object resembles a lady bug and has been false colored to emphasize this unique morphology. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Audrey S. Forticaux, University of Wisconsin-Madison)
ErMnO3 domains
Piezoresponse force microscopy image of the ferroelectric domain structure of hexagonal ErMnO3. Dark and bright areas correspond to opposite out-of-plane directions of the polarization. Note the vortex-like meeting points of six domains. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Manfred Fiebig, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
At the crystal frontier
At the Crystal Frontier False color SEM image of warring CaCO3 polymorphs showing the transformation of vaterite (left) to the more stable calcite (right) on the surface of a hierarchical mineral tube grown from a gel-liquid interface. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Casper Ibsen, Aarhus University, Denmark)
Nano teeth
Horrific Hidden Teeth – FIB section of a silicon nanowires carpet. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition andEmanuele Enrico, INRiM, Italy)

Alien monsters and other amazing nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) Here is another installment of our collection of amazing images from nanotechnology labs from all over the world. You can find other nanotechnology images here.
Visualization methods provide an important tool in materials science for the analysis and presentation of scientific work. Images can often convey information in a way that tables of data or equations cannot match. Occasionally, scientific images transcend their role as a medium for transmitting information, and contain the aesthetic qualities that transform them into objects of beauty and art.
As a special feature of recent MRS Meetings, the MRS has offered the popular Science as Art competitions, with entry open to all registered meeting attendees. The images below represent the winners of the 2013 MRS Fall Meeting Science as Art competition.
You can see all galleries here on the MRS website: Science as Art
nano alien
Alien – A piece of debris on a sample covered with MBE-grown InAs nanowires. Seen with the electron microscope. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Marcel Mueller, IMS TU Dortmund)
crystal rose
Crystal rose – Scanning electron microscopy image of a 50 micrometer high self-assembled micro-flower made from barium carbonate and silica. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Wim Noorduin, Harvard University)
Down the Rabbit Hole: Adventures in Nanoscience
Down the rabbit hole: Adventures in nanoscienceScanning electron microscopy of a cracked inverse opal scaffold used in microbattery electrodes. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and James Pikul, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
A family portrait of magnetic dipoles
A family portrait of magnetic dipoles A family portrait of magnetic droplets. The image is a composite photograph of ferrofluid droplets on a superhydrophobic surface at varying magnetic field strengths. The “eyes” are reflections from two lamps. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Robin Ras, Aalto University)
Desert landscape on micron scale
Desert landscape on micron scale – A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of GaAs substrate cleavage plane after nanowire growth. The hill and cliff structures result from imperfect alignment with the cleavage plane orientation while cleaving the substrate. Features that resemble cactus and bushes result from nanowire growth. During nanowire growth, the sides of the substrate (cleavage planes) are exposed to nanowire growth conditions and heterogeneous nucleation of nanowires may occur. The top of the substrate, where nanowires nucleate and grow in a controlled manner has the scientific importance; however, the side of the substrate can give rise to interesting images. This image is constructed by stitching two SEM images and cropping the desired portion. (Image courtesy of the Materials Research Society Science as Art Competition and Sema Ermez, Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

(Nanowerk News) Help Argonne choose the winners of its 2013 Art of Science contest. The annual contest calls for lab employees and users of Argonne’s facilities to submit images and photographs that showcase their research. Some are computer simulations, some are photographs, and some are taken with incredibly powerful transmission electron microscopes that see down to nearly atomic level; all of them show the stunning intersection of beauty and science in Argonne’s world-class labs. Votes will be accepted through Nov. 1, 2013.
Here are some examples of images from the contest:
Forest of Atoms
These tiny cadmium nanorods are so small that the entire field of vision is just 13 x 13 nanometers (for scale, your fingernails grow about 1 nanometer per second). It was taken with a transmission electron microscope with color added.
droplets of metallic indium
These are droplets of metallic indium on a silicon oxide surface. Metallic droplets are a stage in the process to grow nanowires, which scientists are studying for future generations of batteries and other technologies. The nanowires need something to “climb” on to start growing–that’s why some of the droplets appear to be covered by ice-like sheets and crystals. (The original black & white scanning electron microscopy image has color added)
Indium Balloon on a Nano Silicon String
Scientifically, this electron microscope image depicts the emergence of silicon nano strands (green) from an indium droplet (blue) during a plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition growth process. The blue balloon is an indium droplet. The growing silicon nanostrands (which form the string) lift the balloon from a silicon wafer substrate – the nanostrand is speckled with indium droplets. Metaphorically, the image portrays a night scene lit up by glowing lights. A blue balloon dances through the night sky, followed by a glowing trail of dusty light. There is something hopeful about the one blue balloon with its speckled tail. It dances playfully and engages the viewer, flying through the sky followed by a trail of dusty light.
gold-tipped cadmium nanorod
A gold-tipped cadmium nanorod covered with gold nanoparticles – which is just 115 nanometers across. (That’s smaller than the diameter of an HIV virus.) Image taken by a scanning transmission electron microscope with color added.
droplet of indium (blue) with silicon nano-strands (green)
This “planet” is actually a very tiny droplet of indium (blue) with silicon nano-strands (green) growing around it. Scientists can use a special vapor deposition process to create unique materials, then use an extremely powerful electron microscope to see it and study its behavior. (With color added)
Lead Titanate Domain Terrain
The tallest “mountains” in the landscape below are actually only a few nanometers high (about how long your fingernails have grown while reading this). It’s made out of lead titanate, which has unique properties and is widely used in sensors and actuators. The image, which has color added, was created using atomic force microscopy.

‘Carbon Galaxy’ and other amazing nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) Here is another installment of our collection of amazing images from nanotechnology labs from all over the world. You can find other nanotechnology images here.
Visualization methods provide an important tool in materials science for the analysis and presentation of scientific work. Images can often convey information in a way that tables of data or equations cannot match. Occasionally, scientific images transcend their role as a medium for transmitting information, and contain the aesthetic qualities that transform them into objects of beauty and art.
As a special feature of recent MRS Meetings, the MRS has offered the popular Science as Art competitions, with entry open to all registered meeting attendees. The images below represent the winners of the 2012 MRS Fall Meeting Science as Art competition.
You can see all galleries here on the MRS website: Science as Art
Carbon Galaxy
Carbon Galaxy. Scanning electron micrograph of spherical carbon particles, prepared at high temperature and pressure, mimics the galaxy. Technologically, these spherical particles are of interest as lithium-ion battery electrodes and as lubrication additives to reduce friction and wear in gasoline-powered engines. (Vilas Pol, Michael Tackeray, Dean Miller and Michele Nelson, Argonne National Laboratory) ©MRS
sunflowers
Not your average sunflower. Colorized SEM image of ZnO crystallites blooming on the surface of single crystalline hexage of gold. The gold plate is obtained through solution-based thermolysis. The ZnO is nucleated and grown through a 2-step solution synthesis. (John Joo, Harvard University; Background image of sunflowers was taken by Monica Scanlan) ©MRS
Micro Spacecraft
Micro Spacecraft. The collage shows two false color SEM images. The ZnS spacecraft (~20 µm in length) predominantly consists of hexagonal platelets, which are obtained by thermal decomposition of a molecular source under solvothermal conditions. The globular planets represent porous LiFePO4 microspheres (~3 µm in diameter) prepared by a solvothermal approach. (Sven Barth, Vienna University of Technology) ©MRS
Screw dislocation network in alumina
Screw dislocation network in alumina. Screw dislocation network formed in a (0001) / [0001] twist grain boundary in an alumina bicrystal. The network consists of hexagonal units due to the three-fold symmetry about the c-axis, and the size of each unit is about 50nm. The ribbon-like structures lying along the vertical direction correspond to planar voids between the crystals. The image was taken along the [0001] zone axis by using a transmission electron microscope (JEOL, JEM-2010HC, 200kV). (Eita Tochigi, University of Tokyo) ©MRS
The Happy 2D World
The Happy 2D World. 2-D Ti3C2 layers were produced by etching Al from Ti3AIC2, a member of the ternary transition metal carbides called MAX Phases. Given its similarities with graphene, it was labeled “MXene.” (Babak Anasori, Michael Naguib, Yury Gogotsi and Michel W. Barsoum, Drexel University) ©MRS

‘Nano Graveyard’ and other amazing nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) Here is another installment of our collection of amazing images from nanotechnology labs from all over the world. You can find other nanotechnology images here.
Visualization methods provide an important tool in materials science for the analysis and presentation of scientific work. Images can often convey information in a way that tables of data or equations cannot match. Occasionally, scientific images transcend their role as a medium for transmitting information, and contain the aesthetic qualities that transform them into objects of beauty and art.
As a special feature of recent MRS Meetings, the MRS has offered the popular Science as Art competitions, with entry open to all registered meeting attendees. The images below represent some of the best entries from past meetings. You can see all galleries here on the MRS website: Science as Art
A dendritic baby giraffe born inside Ni-Ac-C melt
“A dendritic baby giraffe born inside Ni-Ac-C melt. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image depicts a baby giraffe formed within a jungle of Ni-Al-C dendrites. As the molten alloy was being solidified inside a graphitic crucible, the melt was decanted, leaving behind a little dendrite wetted by a thin molten blanket. As the jungle got colder, the blanket froze and rejected carbon which eventually crystallized as a graphite cover. Upon further cooling, the graphitic cover wrinkled, due to its thermal expansion coefficient mismatch with metallic substrate, creating a faceted network of creases resembling the familiar skin patches of a giraffe. (Shaahin Amini and Reza Abbaschian, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside)
Still life of flowers, mushrooms and other vegetation
Still life of flowers, mushrooms and other vegetation. Made by capillary self assembly of carbon nanotubes. (M. De Volder, S. Tawfick and A.J. Hart)
Van Gogh painted with a glassy polymer
Van Gogh painted with a glassy polymer. Block copolymer lamellae self-assembled in thin films recreate the distinctive brush strokes of Post-Impressionist paintings. (Mark Stoykovich)
Nano graveyard
Nano graveyard. The “Nano Graveyard” is a thin film of tin (II) sulfide prepared by a solution method with post-annealing and was imaged using scanning electron microscopy at a low incidence angle. The width of the image covers approximately 10 microns. Part of the film has been artificially colored to represent a lumpy ground of moss or grass while the protruding crystals, resembling tombstones, and have been left unaltered. These cenotaphs commemorate the material “Gray Goo”, who, after a notorious career of public fear-mongering, has gently been laid to rest. Kindly pay your respects. (Steven Herron, Stanford University)
Nano flower
Nano flower. Nano Flower made of zinc oxide, Scanning electron microscope image of zinc oxide nanowire arrays with flower-like form. (Hyun Wook Kang)
The dark forest of GaAs/GaInP nanowires
The dark forest of GaAs/GaInP nanowires. Looking into the dark forest of GaAs/GaInP nanowires imaged by SEM. The nanowires were grown in two steps: first the GaAs stem using a Au particle as seed particle in MOVPE. The sample was removed from the reactor and a layer of HSQ resist was applied by spinning, forming a thin layer of moss. When the GaInP was grown during a second MOVPE step, the resist prevented growth on the substrate and sidewalls of the GaAs stems. The image is artificially colorized, but based on EDS measurements; light green represents GaInP and light brown/red GaAs. The substrate and base of GaAs nanowires has a dark green color to represent the areas where thicker resist was detected. (Daniel Jacobsson, Lund University)
The cliff of the two-dimensional world
The cliff of the two-dimensional world.When the layered ternary compound, Ti3AlC2, is placed in hydrofluoric acid, the Al layers are selectively etched away resulting in two dimensional (2-D) layers of Ti3C2 weakly bonded to each other. The image shows a number of these particles, where exfoliation is obvious. Like graphene, individual layers can be isolated and their properties explored. Since Ti3AlC2 is a member of a large family of layered solids called MAX phases – that number over 60 – and given the similarities with graphene, we are calling this new family of 2-D solids “MXene.” This image was chosen to represent a new frontier – that is only visible from the cliff – in the world of 2-D materials that will indubitably play an important role in the future. (Babak Anasori, Michael Naguib, Yury Gogotsi, Michel W. Barsoum)

 

The Silk Collective, moon rises, and other winning nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) Here is another installment of our collection of amazing images from nanotechnology labs from all over the world. You can find other nanotechnology images here.
During the 2010 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, MA in December, the MRS conducted the tenth installment of the popular “Science as Art” competition (View winners from past competitions). Here are the six first-place and second-place winners:
The silk collective
The silk collective. Silk, produced by the silkworm Bombyx mori, has been viewed for millennia as a prestigious and valuable material. This protein has recently found application as a high technology material in biomedical micro- and nanotechnology. This scanning electron microscopy image depicts a detail of a micro patterned silk surface, fabricated with an all-aqueous micro molding technique. The silk structures, measuring approximately one micrometer in diameter, were fabricated at room temperature and under ambient pressure. The research is performed in Prof. Fiorenzo Omenetto’s group (Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics and Biophotonics Laboratory) and is part of “the silk collective” at Tufts University. (Image: Konstantinos Tsioris, Tufts University)
Stem of nanoflowers
Stem of nanoflowers. SThis picture is created from a high resolution SEM image of zinc oxide “nanoflowers” synthesized by a physical vapor deposition technique. (Image: Abhishek Prasad, Michigan Technological University)
Surfacing Turtle - nano-image
Surfacing Turtle. Calcium carbonate crystals mineralized on a chitosan thin film. Image taken in a scanning electron microscope with the secondary electron detector at 6 kV. The sample was coated with Pt/Pd for 30 seconds. (Image: Philipp Hunger, Drexel University)
Rising Moon - nano-image
Rising Moon. Tin Ball on KOH-etched Si surface appears like the moon rising above Si pyramids. This image was obtained using a scanning electron microscope at 16,100x magnification and was colorized using Adobe Photoshop. (Image: Sedat Canli, Middle East Technical University)
Aurora Zinc Oxide
Aurora Zinc Oxide. This picture was created from the convergence of a high-resolution cross-sectional and a plan view SEM image of a zinc oxide “nanowall structure” synthesized by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Color was added to the original image. (Image: Dong Chan Kim, Sungkyunkwan University)
Grassland Sunrise nano-image
Grassland Sunrise. High-resolution SEM image of germanium/silicon core/shell heterostructure nanowires (diameter ∼10 nm) synthesized by a two-step chemical vapor deposition method on a layered Si/SiO2 substrate. (Image: Yongjie Hu, Harvard University)

Nice pics – A good Micrograph is worth more than the MegaByte it consumes

(Nanowerk News) Here is another installment of our collection of amazing images from nanotechnology labs from all over the world. You can find other nanotechnology images here.
Here are some of the images from a micro- and nanograph contest held at the 36th International Conference on Micro & Nano Engineering (MNE), held in Genoa, Italy from September 19 to 22, 2010
You can also download a pdf with all 60 entries.
trapped zig zag snake
“Trapped Zig Zag Snake” Scanning electron microscope image of a copper oxide cluster, 3.5 microns in diameter, prepared by evaporation and condensation over an alumina substrate. The smiley nose and eye are present in the original SEM image, which has only been color-enhanced. (Image: Anton Koeck, Elise Brunet, Stephan Steinhauer, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Health & Environment Department, Nano Systems)
electroplated gold
“Falling…” After electroplating of gold a small adhesion problem seemed to occur and all split rings looked like after an earthquake. (Image: Birgit Päivänranta, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland)
Self-illuminating flowers of Pandora
“Chocolate Chip Cookies” Micro-spheres of 7.5µm thick SU-8 resist exposed by EBL with 25kV. Cross-linked resist exceeds the boundaries of the spheres and tries to reach the neighbor sphere This results in free standing bridges with gaps in between. (Image: Guido Piaszenski, Raith GmbH, Dortmund, Germany)
Micro Sea
“The Oriental Orchid” The zinc oxide fibers look like the oriental orchid. The smooth curve of ZnO orchid shows the beauty of the orient. (Image: Sang Han Park, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea)
A ball of unknown particles on a lithographically patterned elastomer surface
“Lithography has got brains” A ball of unknown particles on a lithographically patterned elastomer surface. (Image: Peter Nill, Institute of Applied Physics, Eberhard-Karls-Univerität Tübingen, Germany)
Gold nanoparticle contamination on an evaporated gold film and buckled nanoimprint resist
“At the Reflection Pool” Gold nanoparticle contamination on an evaporated gold film and buckled nanoimprint resist. (Image: Keith Morton, National Research Council Canada)
ZnO Nanowire Arrays
ZnO Nanowire Arrays SEM image of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with a standing human-like form. Color was added to the original image. (Image:Surawut Chuangchote, Kyoto University )
Self-illuminating flowers of Pandora
Self-illuminating flowers of Pandora This picture is created from a high resolution SEM image of a zinc oxide “nanoflower” synthesized by a physical vapor deposition technique. (Image: Jian Shi, University of Wisconsin )
Micro Sea
Micro Sea MA scanning electron microscope image of the 250 nm diameter polymer fibers capturing 2 µm polymer spheres by evaporative self-assembly. The image brings to mind eggs of fish on marine plants in the sea. The SEM image was taken by a Zeiss Ultra 55 field emission scanning electron microscope and color enhancement was done using Adobe Photoshop. (Image: Sung H. Kang, Harvard University)
Bad Pitch
Bad Pitch SEM image of microbeads lying outside a self-assembled 500 micron sized box. (Image: David Gracias, Johns Hokins University)
Watermelon on Pandora
Watermelon on Pandora Colorized SEM image of the superparamagnetic poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres with Fe2O3 nanocrystals self-assembly on the surface and inside. (Image: Yongxing Hu, University of California, Riverside)

Of Van Gogh nanotubes and nano-witches – winning nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) During the 2009 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, MA last year, the MRS conducted the eigth installment of the popular “Science as Art” competition (View winners from past competitions). Here are the six first-place and second-place winners:
single crystalline diamond grain that is anisotropically etched by hot spheres of molten nickel
Squaring the Circle The imaged object is a single crystalline diamond grain that is anisotropically etched by hot spheres of molten nickel (red). Self-organized nickel particles are obtained by sintering a thin Ni film (100 nm) that is evaporated on a polished diamond substrate. Self-organisation and etching are conducted by the following annealing procedure: 1000°C in 500 mbar H2, 24 h. (Image: Waldemar Smirnov, Fraunhofer Institut Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Germany)
SiC-SiC Composite
SiC-SiC Composite SEM observation of a mechanical test performed on a SiC-SiC composite. (Image: Francois Willaime, CEA/Saclay, France)
Van Gogh Nanotubes
Van Gogh Nanotubes From the mind of Vincent van Gogh to the surface of self-assembled arrays of carbon nanotubes. This image obtained via scanning electron microscopy, evokes the magnum opus of Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night. These arrays are formed from a dried dispersion of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed in water with a polymer PVP and a surfactant SDBS. The average width of a small SWNT bundle shown here is ∼1 µm. False color was added with Adobe Photoshop. (Image: Mariela Bravo-Sanchez, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Mexico)
Dandelion Parachute Ball in the Nano-World
Dandelion Parachute Ball in the Nano-World Multiple scanning electron microscope images of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) at different length scales. The BNNTs were synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) at 1200°C. Various interesting morphologies can be formed on a Si substrate, depending on the methods of catalyst deposition. The actual diameter of the BNNTs is typically ∼50nm. (Image: Chee Huei Lee, Michigan Technological University, USA)
Indian Summer
Indian Summer Polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy with a twin boundary structure (imaged with a polarized optical microscope). (Image: Claudia Hürrich, IFW Dresden, Germany)
Nano-Witch
Nano-Witch SEM image of crystalline wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure synthesized via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. (Image: Wen Hsun Tu, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan)

Nano-Kamasutra and other nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) The 52nd International Electron Ion and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication (EIPBN) Conference announced six Micrograph Contest winners at its annual Conference held this year in Portland, Oregon May 27-30.
The 2008 Grand Prize was won by T. Pinedo and D. Peyrade of the ColloNa team LTM-CNRS in France for a micrograph of self-assembled 1µm and 200nm polystyrene beads taken at 18,000x magnification with an SEM Hitachi 4000 electron microscope. Other winners included micrographs taken with ion microscopes and optical microscopes and a video taken with an electron microscope.
“The EIPBN Micrograph Contest attracts many bizarre and beautiful images taken by engineers and scientists in pursuit of cutting-edge technology,” said Dr. Randall, vice president of Zyvex Labs. “The most amazing images are often a result of what went wrong and what can be learned from experimentation.”
Dr. John Randall has been running the contest for the EIPBN Conference for 14 years. Zyvex, a leading nanotechnology company, has hosted the contest since 2001. All of the winners and honorable mentions are available on the Zyvex Labs website at: http://www.zyvexlabs.com/EIPBNuG/uGraph.html.
The EIPBN Conference is the world’s leading symposium on lithography and nanofabrication. The conference attracts researchers from all over the world to present papers on science and engineering of fabricating, electronic, storage, mechanical, biological, and other devices and structures at the nano-scale.
beginning of life
Grand Prize: Begining of Life Description: Self-assembled 1µm and 200nm polystyrene beads. Magnification: (3″x4″ image): 18,000X Instrument: SEM HITACHI 4000 Submitted by: T. Pinedo and D. Peyrade. Affiliation: ColloNa team LTM-CNRS.
nano pacifier
Best Photon Micrograph: Nano Pacifier. Description: Optical micrograph of first imprint at our nanocenter. Pattern is a radial array used for crystallographic orientation for Si wet etch. Image was obtained in polarization mode. Magnification: (3″x4″ image): 100 x Instrument: Olympus MX-61 Submitted by: L. Ocola and R. Divan. Affiliation: Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Lab.
Nanoscale landscape painting
Best Ion Micrograph: Nano Caviar. Description: Spider Eggs on Convoluted Membrane. Magnification: (3″x4″ image): 4,000X Instrument: Zeiss ORION Submitted by: John Notte. Affiliation: Carl Zeiss SMT.
Nano Kamasutra
Most Bizarre Micrograph: Kama Sutra. Description: The corrosion protection layer for copper metalization was thick but having pin-holes, so the corrosive stuff entered through the pin-hole (the darkest spot) and then propagated in a branching manner under the inhibition layer (which obviously did not work). Magnification: (3″x4″ image): 500x Instrument: Optical microscope Sony AL 100M. Submitted by: Yehiel Gotkis. Affiliation: KLA-Tencor Corp.
Inferno
Bending the Rules! Description: CVD grown Carbon nanotubes. Magnification: 12KX Instrument: Philips XL30 Submitted by: Michael Häffner. Affiliation: Universität Tübingen.

Beautiful nanotechnology images from the SPMage09 contest

(Nanowerk News) The Most Beautiful Images Of The Nanoworld: Winners Of The Second Edition Of The International Contest Spmage09
An international jury of prominent researchers in the field of SPM judged the images submitted to the Image Prize competition. Here are the five winners.
First place
SPMage09 first prize
Human malaria (Plasmodium malariae) infected red blood cells. Li Ang, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
Second place
Atom Spangled Patchwork
Atom Spangled Patchwork. Sander Otte, NIST-Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (United States)
Third place
SPMage09 third prize - Winter-time Nanofishing
Winter-time Nanofishing. Sviatlana Abetkovskaia, A.V. Luikov, Heat and Mass Transfer Institute (Belarus)
Fourth Prize
Venis of Coral
Venis of Coral. Francesco Mantegazza, Universita’ degli studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy)
Fifth Prize
Looking for the summer ice
Looking for the summer ice. Mar Cardellach Redon, Centre d’Investigació en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (Spain)

Beautiful nanotechnology images from the SPMage competition

(Nanowerk News) To recognize the continuing contributions that Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) have made to advances in Nanotechnology, an International SPM Image Competition last year identified important and remarkable SPM images.
An international jury of prominent researchers in the field of SPM judged the images submitted to the Image Prize competition. Here are the top three winners plus some other beautiful entries:
First place
SPMage07 first prize
Nano Rings – The image shows a four-terminal quantum ring structure defined in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with local anodic oxidation using an atomic force microscope tip. The elevated white lines represent the oxide on the surface of the GaAlAs heterosstructure containing the 2DEG. These oxide lines are on average 15nm high and penetrate just as deep into the sample surface, forming barriers in the electron gas below. The ring has an average diameter of 1 micron and the four outer rectangular areas enclosed by oxide lines are used as in-plane gates to tune the electron density of the four arms of the ring. Measuring Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the ring conductance this device is used to interferometrically detect the relative phaseshift of Coulomb blockade resonances in two quantum dots induced in the arms of the ring. (Dr Andreas Fuhrer, Nanophysics Group of Prof. Ensslin at ETH Zürich/Switzerland)
Second place
The surface of human red blood cells after treatment with an antibiotic peptide
The surface of human red blood cells after treatment with an antibiotic peptide – Phyllomelittin is a novel antibiotic peptide isolated from the skin of the monkey frog Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis. It has been demonstrated that antibiotic peptides exert their activities by disrupting cell membranes. Therefore, the study of the effects of such peptides on cell membranes has been the focus of intense research efforts using the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The aim of this study was to investigate the surface of human red blood cells (RBCs) after treatment with phyllomelittin. The cells were deposited onto a glass slide (blue) and fixed with methanol for 5 minutes. The image shows the intermittent contact mode topography (14.5 µm x 14.5 µm x 819 nm) of three RBCs after 25 minutes of incubation with phyllomelittin at 32 µM. A large number of elevations of few nanometers (yellow) were found to be distributed heterogeneously on the RBCs surface (red), presumably reflecting the regions of the cell membrane disrupted by and/or interacting with phyllomelittin molecules. (Dr Luciano Paulino Silva, EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e biotecnología Brasilia/Brazil)
Third place
SPMage07 third prize
Root – The ability to control the size of conductive nanostructures and to manipulate them on a nanometer scale are priority subjects in the field of nanotechnology. One of the promising way for miniaturization is a template direct method. Polyelectrolytes molecules (PE) offers a range of interesting properties, such as, unique recognition, association and ability to assemble conductive polymers and metals. That is why PE are one of the most attractive templates. The ability to reproducibly create and align well-stretched PE molecules very important for realizing nanoscale electronics. We developed a simple method creating highly aligned PE molecules, which enabled us to straighten and fix PE molecules on the surface without any surface modification or special equipment. Some times, during our AFM measurement, we found unusual structures. One of them have been chosen for SPMAGE07. This image represent part of PE network absorbed on hydrophobic surface. (Mr. Konstantin Demidenok, Leibniz-Institut fur Polymer Forshung Dresden/Germay)
Other entries
Escherichia coli with Pili and Flagella
Escherichia coli (E. coli) with Pili and Flagella – An Escherichia coli cell is imaged using tapping mode AFM under dry condition. Well preserved pili and flagella structures can be seen clearly. The size of the cell is about 1.9um long and 1um wide. The width of pili is about 20nm and flagella is about 30nm. (Mr Ang Li, National University of Singapore)
Nano-Clover
Nano-Clover – AFM microscopy has emerged as an efficient tool to observe molecules deposited on a surface, specially the changes suffered after induction of external factors. The image shows fibres after treatment with ultrasounds of a bismuth cluster (2 nm high). It is interesting to observe the singular arrangement of the fibres on the surface at the first moments after deposition. (Mrs Lorena Welte Hidalgo, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid/Spain)
Fantasy
Fantasy MMX polymers are a particular type of coordination polymer assembled by dimetallic subunits bridged by halides (Cl, Br or I). This kind of compounds is very attractive because of their chemical-physical properties, such as magnetism, electrical conduction, etc… In order to study MMX properties by AFM, the polymers have to be deposited on a surface. The resulting deposition depends on the surface and on the concentration of the sample. In our case, the samples were deposited on a HOPG surface. At low concentrations, the AFM image shows a single MMX polymer, whereas at higher concentrations, superposition of MMXs builds a layer with a peculiar topography, shown in the image. (Dr Rodrigo Gonzalez Prieto, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid/Spain)
Climatic change on carbon nanotubes
Climatic change on carbon nanotubes – Carbon nanotubes have many characteristics that promise to revolutionize the world of structural materials. There are different ways to grow carbon nanotubes, especially the CVD technique, which allows obtaining SWCNT’s on a silicon surface. These SWCNT can be carried from the silicon surface to another surface, as HOPG, without suffering changes on their properties. That means nanomanipulation of carbon nanotubes. (Mr Miguel Ângel Fernández Vindel, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid/Spain)
Quantum Forest
Quantum Forest – GeSi quantum dots on Si, average diameter approx. 70 nm, typical height approx. 15 nm. (Mr Thorsten Dziomba. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany)
To see the entire collection of 51 images go to the SPMage07 site.

Winning nanotechnology images from the Science as Art competition

(Nanowerk News) The 2008 MRS Spring Meeting concluded in San Francisco on March 28. As a special feature of the meeting, the MRS conducted the fifth installment of the popular “Science as Art” competition. (View winners from past competitions). The competition was open to all meeting attendees, with entries on display in the Moscone West Convention Center. Here are the six first-place and second-place awards:
jumper
Jumper Sometimes the thesis just gets to be too much… This image is of some contamination (probably monodisperse polystyrene spheres from a previous user) in the microscope which just happened to collect at the corner of a Ta2O5 particle. The image was collected using secondary electrons in a Hitachi S-4700 SEM and was colorized using the Gnu Image Manipulation Program (GIMP). (Image: Georff Brennecka, Sandia National Laboratories)
chinese nanoscale painting
Chinese painting This image was color-added from one ZnO nanoneedle SEM image. The nanoneedles look like beautiful mountains in a Chinese painting. (Image: Hui Ying Yang, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Field of Sunflowers
Field of Sunflowers Amorphous SiOx nanowire bundles have an uncanny ability to self-assemble into various shapes, including one that strikingly resembles a sunflower. In these sunflowers, highly packed bundles form the disc florets and loosely packed ones around the rim of the disc form the ray florets. The scanning electron image shows a field of sunflowers. The grey-scale image was mapped into pseudo-colors by graphic software. The nanowires grew out of the reaction of Si and oxygen, with molten Ga and Au acting as catalysts. Each nanowire is about 10 nm in diameter and tens of micrometers in length. (Image: S.K. Hark, The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
Nanoscale landscape painting
Landscape painting This is a cross-polarized light optical microphotograph of an array of organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) fabricated with newly synthesized, highly crystalline 4T-TMS organic semiconductor deposited by newly developed solution-shearing method. Besides the excellent performances these new OTFTs exhibited, this microphotograph represents itself an aesthetic landscape painting full of beauty and art— different parts of the cross polarized thin film look like lakes, lands, mountains and sunglows, while the gold electrodes of the transistors seem to be a fence between lakes and far-away mountains… (Image: Zihong Liu, Stanford University)
Inferno
Inferno Color-enhanced TEM micrograph showing twins and strain contrast in a post-compression [111] NiTi micropillar. The micropillar was produced via FIB milling and was compressed using a nanoindenter equipped with a flat punch. By creating and testing compression pillars in a range of diameters, this method allows us to study the effect of size scale on the shape memory behavior of NiTi. (Image: Blythe Gore Clarkk, Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung)
Big bang
Big Bang AFM image of a sputtered Au(001) single crystal. (Image: Violeta Navarro, Universidad Complutense de Madrid)

 

We have a collection of these amazing images in some of our articles on Nanowerk. You can find them here:

 

 

 

Beautiful nanotechnology images from the Science as Art competition

(Nanowerk News) The 2007 Materials Research Society (MRS) Fall Meeting concluded in Boston on November 30. This was the first time that the popular Science as Art competition was held at an MRS Fall Meeting. Three first place and three second place winners were selected from the various entries. Some of the images are from the nanotechnology domain but most are micro-scale.
First place winners
Nano-Explosions
Nano-Explosions Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph of an overflowed electrodeposited magnetic nanowire array (CoFeB), where the template has been subsequently completely etched. It’s a reminder that nanoscale research can have unpredicted consequences at a high level. (Image: Fanny Beron, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Canada)
Bamboos for Vibration Control
Bamboos for Vibration Control Ni-Mn-Ga melt-extracted fibers with an approximate diameter of 100 µm showing a bamboo-type structure (imaged with a backscattered electron detector in an FEG-SEM). Melt-extraction is a unique and novel method to prepare single-crystalline particles for magnetic shape memory composites. (Image: Oliver Gutfleisch, IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials, Dresden, Germany)
Dirty Dice
Dirty Dice Self-assembled 200 micron size nickel dice, imaged using scanning electron microscopy in the lower secondary electron (LEI) mode. The dice were colorized using Adobe Photoshop. (Image: Timothy Leong, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA)
Second place winners
Beauty of Nature
Beauty of Nature SEM image of CuInSe2 film with Cu2Se (plates) and InSe (needles) crystals on the surface. (Image: Olga Volobujeva, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia)
Layered steps in Lanthanum Cobaltite
Layered steps in Lanthanum Cobaltite The picture shows a colored image of the layered steps formed inside closed pores of La0.8Ca0.2CoO3, which were revealed due to fracture of the material. (Image: Siddhartha Pathak, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA)
Red Planet
Red Planet Combined 3-D representation of two images taken by scanning tunneling microscopy. The land is from an STM image of one monolayer of HATNA deposited on Au(111), and the sky is from an image of THAP/Au(111) exposed to a high background pressure of cobaltocene. (Image: Sieu Ha, Princeton University, Princeton, USA)

Blow-up: The startling landscapes of nanotechnology

(Nanowerk Spotlight) The nanoworld cannot be portrayed with a camera, nor can it be seen even with the most powerful optical microscope. Only special instruments have access to images of the nanoworld. A fascinating new exhibition “Blow-up: images from the nanoworld” in Modena/Italy shows the work of scientists associated with the National Center on Nanostructures and Biosystems at Surfaces in Modena, Italy, headed by Elisa Molinari. The images have been manipulated in a variety of ways by photographer, Lucia Covi. Covi is particularly sensible to the aesthetic paradigms of scientists: her gaze thus grasps essential aspects of the portrayed objects and allows her to shine them with a new light, as they are revealed now. This exhibition brings to the public images that are usually accessible to few, because they remain confined in the research laboratories, on the scientists’ desks. The images are stills that, over time, have been put together from different framings, and that we can look at thanks to the mediation of machines. Some of them represent exceptional events, outstanding results that ended on the cover of scientific journals. Others were born from everyday research. All of them show a landscape that is being unraveled by scientists, scenery that is very different from the one we can see in the media, largely obtained through computer graphics and “artistic” interpretations, when not directly borrowed from science fiction.
Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) uses nanoscale metal tips to scan a surface. Here, a standard tip has been modified and sharpened to increase its precision. The tip in the middle of this structure measures a few tens of nanometers. (Image: G.C. Gazzadi, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena; P.Gucciardi, CNR-IPCF, Messina. Artwork: Lucia Covi)
Developing new instruments to be able to “see” at the nanoscale is a research field in itself. Shown here is the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM), one of the foremost tools for imaging, measuring and manipulating matter at the nanoscale. Here, a platinum electrode measuring one hundredth of a nanometer has been deposited on the tip of this pyramid shaped AFM tip via focused ion beam (FIB) deposition. (Image: C. Menozzi, G.C. Gazzadi, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)
Top view of a hole carved in a polyethylene surface. During a series of experiments the use of a FIB has proven to be very versatile and capable of carving various materials, including plastic. (Image: G.C. Gazzadi, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of quantum dots fabricated through electron beam lithography and subsequent dry-chemical etching on a quasi bidimensional layer (GaAl heterostructure). These structures are used to study the behavior of electrons, which are confined into tiny spaces – approximate. 10 electrons per dot. The diameter of each quantum dot is 200 nm (which means that a billion of these structure easily fit on the tip of your finger). (Image: C.P. Garcia, V. Pellegrini , NEST (INFM), Pisa. Artwork: Lucia Covi)
SEM image of a micron sized trench (10 x 20 x14 µm3) in a Cu/SiO2/Si multilayer, obtained through FIB milling. The precision of this technique allows the visualization of ultrathin (tens of nanometers) layers. (Image: G.C.Gazzadi, S.Frabboni, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)
SEM image of a work sample on a magnesium oxide surface using FIB. The diameter of the hole measures approximate. 4 µm. (Image: G.C. Gazzadi, A. Spessot, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)
Tiny spaces have formed inside titanium dioxide nanocrystals, as shown in this SEM image. The square structure of these inside spaces, which measure between 20 nm and 40 nm, is due to the crystalline structure of the material. (Image: L. Nasi, IMEM (CNR), Parma. Artwork: Lucia Covi)

Nano Teddybear, Garden of Eden and other spectacular nanotechnology images

(Nanowerk News) At the 2008 MRS Fall Meeting last December in Boston, MA, and the Spring Meeting this April this year in San Francisco, CA, the Materials Research Society conducted the sixth and seventh installments of their popular “Science as Art” competition. Here are some of the amazing images from the fields of nanotechnology that won prizes:
Nano Teddy Bear
Nano Teddy Bear The scanning electron microscopic image (taken using a FESEM LEO 1530) shows the ZnO nanostructures on an indium oxide coated glass substrate deposited at 70oC by using a facile electrochemical deposition technique. A potentio-/galvanostat electrochemical workstation (CH Instruments 660A) was used to deposit the ZnO nanostructures by amperometry potentiostatically at -1.1 V (relative to the Ag/AgCl reference electrode) and a spiral platinum wire served as working electrode. An aqueous zinc nitrate [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O] solution was used as an electrolyte to prepare these ZnO nanostructures. (Image: Helia Jalili, University of Waterloo)
Carbon NanoEden
Carbon NanoEden Garden of Carbon NanoEden (Image: M. de Volder, S. Tawfick, A.J. Hart, University of Michigan)
Nano Spaghetti and Meatballs
Nano Spaghetti and Meatballs Colorized and overlaid scanning electron microscope images of Spaghetti and Meatballs made out of Au and Si. The ‘spaghetti’ is a collection of electrodeposited Au nanowires, 100 nm in diameter, that have released from the substrate and bundled together (Thomas Cornelius – GSI Darmstadt). The ‘meatballs’ are Si nanoparticles, ~1.5 um in diameter, with Au nanocrystals on the surface that were grown on carbon-coated substrates using ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy (Gunther Richter – MPI Stuttgart). These images highlight some of the many varied structures that can be formed at the nanoscale. (Image: Blythe G. Clark and Dan Gianola)
Nano Flower
Nanoflower The crystalline wurtzite indium nitride (InN) nanoflower was synthesized via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) processes, using pure indium and a high efficient nitrogen source, hydrazoic acid (HN3). (Image: PaiChun Wei, Center for Condensed Matter Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan)
THE NANO-GRIP
The nano-grip This is an SEM image (color enhanced by Photoshop) of high aspect ratio 250nm thick epoxy bristles that have self assembled and trapped a 2.5 micron diameter PS sphere. (Image: Boaz Pokroy, Harvard University)
Modern Stonehenge
Modern Stonehenge Colorized SEM image of silicon nanopillar formation created by Gallium implantation and DRIE-etching. (Image: Nikolai Chekurov)

 

We have a collection of amazing nanotechnology images in our Introduction section.

Source: MRS

Mission possible: This device will self-destruct when heated

(Nanowerk News) Where do electronics go when they die? Most devices are laid to eternal rest in landfills. But what if they just dissolved away, or broke down to their molecular components so that the material could be recycled?
University of Illinois researchers have developed heat-triggered self-destructing electronic devices, a step toward greatly reducing electronic waste and boosting sustainability in device manufacturing. They also developed a radio-controlled trigger that could remotely activate self-destruction on demand.
The researchers, led by aerospace engineering professor Scott R. White, published their work in the journal Advanced Materials (“Thermally Triggered Degradation of Transient Electronic Devices”).
Heat-Triggered Electronic Device Destruction
A device is remotely triggered to self-destruct. A radio-frequency signal turns on a heating element at the center of the device. The circuits dissolve completely. (Image: Scott White, University of Illinois)
“We have demonstrated electronics that are there when you need them and gone when you don’t need them anymore,” White said. “This is a way of creating sustainability in the materials that are used in modern-day electronics. This was our first attempt to use an environmental stimulus to trigger destruction.”
White’s group teamed up with John A. Rogers, a Swanlund chair in materials science and engineering and director of the Frederick Seitz Materials Laboratory at Illinois. Rogers’ group pioneered transient devices that dissolve in water, with applications for biomedical implants. Together, the two multi-disciplinary research groups have tackled the problem of using other triggers to break down devices, including ultraviolet light, heat and mechanical stress. The goal is to find ways to disintegrate the devices so that manufacturers can recycle costly materials from used or obsolete devices or so that the devices could break down in a landfill.
The heat-triggered devices use magnesium circuits printed on very thin, flexible materials. The researchers trap microscopic droplets of a weak acid in wax, and coat the devices with the wax. When the devices are heated, the wax melts, releasing the acid. The acid dissolves the device quickly and completely.
To remotely trigger the reaction, researchers embedded a radio-frequency receiver and an inductive heating coil in the device. The user can send a signal to cause the coil to heat up, which melts the wax and dissolves the device.
Watch a video of the researchers demonstrating and explaining the devices:
“This work demonstrates the extent to which clever chemistries can qualitatively expand the breadth of mechanisms in transience, and therefore the range of potential applications,” Rogers said.
The researchers can control how fast the device degrades by tuning the thickness of the wax, the concentration of the acid, and the temperature. They can design a device to self-destruct within 20 seconds to a couple of minutes after heat is applied.
The devices also can degrade in steps by encasing different parts in waxes with different melting temperatures. This gives more precise control over which parts of a device are operative, creating possibilities for sophisticated devices that can sense something in the environment and respond to it.
White’s group has long been concerned with device sustainability and has pioneered methods of self-healing to extend the life of materials.
“We took our ideas in terms of materials regeneration and flipped it 180 degrees,” White said. “If you can’t keep using something, whether it’s obsolete or just doesn’t work anymore, we’d like to be able to bring it back to the building blocks of the material so you can recycle them when you’re done, or if you can’t recycle it, have it dissolve away and not sit around in landfills.”

Source: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

 

 

 

 

 

via Nano orchard and other amazing nanotechnology images.

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The 3D-architecture of individual free silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

The 3D-architecture of individual free ​silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering

The diversity of nanoparticle shapes generated by condensation from gaseous matter reflects the fundamental competition between thermodynamic equilibration and the persistence of metastable configurations during growth.

In the kinetically limited regime, intermediate geometries that are favored only in early formation stages can be imprinted in the finally observed ensemble of differently structured specimens. Here we demonstrate that single-shot wide-angle scattering of femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser pulses allows three-dimensional characterization of the resulting metastable nanoparticle structures. For individual free ​silver particles, which can be considered frozen in space for the duration of photon exposure, both shape and orientation are uncovered from measured scattering images. We identify regular shapes, including species with fivefold symmetry and surprisingly large aspect ratio up to particle radii of the order of 100 nm. Our approach includes scattering effects beyond Born’s approximation and is remarkably efficient—opening up new routes in ultrafast nanophysics and free-electron laser science.

Naturally grown particles exhibit a vast variety of architectures ranging from simple, almost spherical shapes (for example, fog droplets), to highly symmetric polyhedral (for example, clusters or certain viruses) and fascinating, complex geometries such as snowflakes or pollen grains. Studying growth processes of nanostructures addresses the key fundamental question of how geometric structure and stability are determined by the occurrence of thermodynamically metastable shapes during particle formation. An illustrative case is the condensation of metal nanoparticles. Albeit optimal equilibrated shapes can be predicted from energetic considerations such as the Wulff construction1, manifold morphologies are frequently reported2, 3, 4 that are far away from the ideal equilibrium geometries and often beyond theoretical predictability. Conventional microscopy methods have enabled high-resolution imaging of individual particles grown or deposited on surfaces and revealed insight into their geometric properties3, 5. Single free, unsupported particles, however, elude experimental access via microscopy since they cannot be immobilized without an interacting substrate. The current knowledge on the morphology of free metal particles is therefore based on orientation- and ensemble-averaged approaches such as electron diffraction6, 7, 8, drift measurements9 and photoelectron spectrocopy10.

An unambiguous experimental morphology characterization of free particles has to face a number of challenges. First, the co-existence of diverse shapes requires circumvention of ensemble averaging by the study of individual particles. Second, to reliably resolve the particle shape irrespective of its orientation, three-dimensional (3D) imaging methods are required. Third, free particle growth is a statistical process such that a specific combination of shape, orientation and size cannot be repeatedly prepared, excluding tomographic techniques11, 12 that rely on multiple measurements of the same object or of equivalent replicas. Considerable efforts have been devoted to obtaining 3D structure information of nanosystems via diffractive imaging with intense femtosecond pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs)13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. In-flight characterization of single nanoparticles by X-ray small-angle scattering has been successfully demonstrated, revealing the effective two-dimensional (2D) projection of the electron density14, 16, 20. The 3D reconstruction based on single-shot small-angle X-ray scattering data can only be achieved by exploiting additional symmetry information, as was shown for the case of deposited particles18. The reconstruction of wide-angle X-FEL scattering has been advocated as an enabling technology for the complete single-shot 3D structure determination of individual nanosystems15. However, the short X-FEL wavelengths utilized in previous single-shot in-flight particle imaging studies precluded the detection of sufficient wide-angle signal to apply this technology.

Here we show that this limitation can be overcome by employing soft X-FEL pulses. Based on the resulting single-shot wide-angle scattering images, we demonstrate the identification of symmetry, morphology and orientation of individual gas-phase ​Ag particles by means of a simple and efficient procedure based on fast simulations. Our approach is complementary to the full reconstruction via phase retrieval methods14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23 as it allows extracting the relevant 3D structure information from a single scattering pattern of an individual particle without computational inversion of the scattering process, provided that the particles can adequately be described by a parametric geometry model. The reported results provide evidence for metastable shapes of unsupported ​Ag particles in a so far inaccessible size regime.

Wide-angle scattering experiment

The key experimental requirement for the 3D characterization is the ability to resolve the scattering signal up to large angles. For an illustrative motivation of this requirement, it is convenient to assume validity of the first Born approximation. In the limit of small-angle scattering, the scattered far-field can essentially be described by a 2D Fourier transform of the object’s shape projected onto a plane (characterized by normal vector np||kin) perpendicular to the incident beam direction, see Fig. 1a. This follows from the fact that the transfer momentum q is small in magnitude (|q|≪|kin|) and therefore essentially perpendicular to the incident wave vector kin. The resulting intensity distribution (i) reflects only effective 2D information on the object’s density distribution and (ii) is point-symmetric with respect to q=0, which impedes unique identification of the target orientation.

Figure 1: Schematics of the wide-angle scattering experiment.
Schematics of the wide-angle scattering experiment.

In Born’s approximation, the far-field scattering intensity reads I(q)∝|∫ρ(r)eiqrd3r|2, where ρ(r) is the scattering density of the particle centered at r=0. After decomposing r into components parallel (r||) and perpendicular (r) to the projection vector np=kin+q/2, which is by definition perpendicular to q, the intensity can be recast as , representing the Fourier transform of the projected density ρ(r)=∫ρ(r)dr|| on a plane with normal vector np. (a) For small scattering angles, the approximation np||kin is valid, which inhibits access to any structural information along this direction. (b) The variation of np with q for large scattering angles provides access to the 3D properties of the particle. (c) In the experiment, single-shot diffraction patterns of ​silver particles intersecting the FEL photon beam are captured by the 2D detector.

These limitations can be overcome by recording scattering under large angles (|q|≈|kin|) because the scattering pattern then reflects dependent projections of the density (on planes with normal vectors ), see Fig. 1b. In a sense, wide-angle scattering enables single-shot tomography as the direction of the projection plane varies with scattering angle within a single image.

However, due to the drastic decrease of the scattering intensity I(q) with increasing |q| (Porod’s law), significant signal from the particle shape can in practice be detected only up to a critical angle. Considering near spherical shapes, this angle is roughly proportional to the wavelength and limited to a few degrees when using hard X-ray radiation in the keV range (see Methods). Here we remedy this limitation by employing 90 eV soft X-ray laser pulses to access the wide-angle regime required for the 3D characterization of individual particles.

In the experiments (see scheme in Fig. 1c), ​silver particles were prepared in a cluster machine24 equipped with a magnetron sputtering source and directed into the focus of the 100 fs soft X-ray pulses provided by the free-electron laser (FEL) facility FLASH (see Methods for details). Note that for the employed wavelength of 13.5 nm, the detailed atomic structure is averaged out in the scattering images, simplifying the shape analysis tremendously. Scattering images were captured by a 2D detector with 78° acceptance angle17, 25. A total of 25,000 scattering images with significant intensity have been recorded.

Scattering patterns and particle morphologies

The measured single-particle scattering images (Fig. 2, left column) show highly symmetric patterns with twofold (a), threefold (b), fivefold (c), and sixfold (d) symmetry. The patterns consist of one or more closed ring-like features near the centre followed by discontinuous higher order rings that form streak-like features accompanied by a faint fine structure. Scattering patterns with odd number of mirror axes (Fig. 2b,c), that is, with broken point symmetry, immediately demonstrate that the wide-angle scattering data contains true 3D structure information. Because of substantial absorption of the soft X-ray radiation inside the particles (penetration depth ≈12.5 nm for bulk ​silver), the morphology identification method must account for scattering effects beyond the Born approximation, which excludes application of conventional iterative reconstruction techniques. We use a simple and efficient multislice Fourier transform (MSFT) algorithm that includes an effective treatment of absorption to calculate scattering images from 3D trial shapes based on a large systematic set of polyhedra (see Methods).

Figure 2: Comparison of measured and theoretical scattering images.
Comparison of measured and theoretical scattering images.

(ad) Selected experimental scattering patterns of single ​Ag particles and MSFT simulation results for matched geometries (as indicated). False-colour images show the scattering intensity (logarithmic scale) as function of the transverse components of the scattering vector. The dark spot in the centre of the experimental data originates from a hole in the detector for direct beam transmission. Cluster shapes are drawn as seen from the direction of the incident beam. The size is given by the radius r of the polyhedra’s circumscribed sphere. (eh) Same cluster shapes as in ad imaged at different orientations with respect to the incident beam. Trunc, truncated.

Excellent qualitative agreement between measured scattering images and MSFT results (Fig. 2) is achieved by adjusting size and orientation of the trial model shapes (see Methods for the detailed procedure). In most cases, even fine details are well reproduced, such as the spots in between x-shaped main features in Fig. 2a. Among the morphologies that match the experimental data are decahedra (a), truncated octahedra (b), icosahedra (c) and surprisingly flat hexagonal particles, which correspond to truncated twinned tetrahedra (d). For each of the above shapes, particles with different size and orientation are identified in the data set (see examples in Fig. 2e–h), confirming the repeated occurrence of the identified geometries. Although some of the compact shapes (such as those in Fig. 2b,c) deviate only weakly from a sphere, the scattering images taken for different orientations are extremely diverse (compare Fig. 2b,c to Fig. 2f,g respectively; see Supplementary Movie 1 for a simulation of all high-symmetry orientations of a truncated octahedron). The strong directional and shape sensitivity (even for nearly spherical shapes) demonstrates the 3D capabilities required for the unique identification of particle morphologies. Striking evidence for the transition from small- to wide-angle scattering regimes can be found within a single image for large clusters if it shows broken point symmetry (see Fig. 2b,g). In these cases, the symmetry changes from even, close to the image centre, to odd in the outer regions.

Benchmark of the MSFT method

To corroborate the reliability of the MSFT method and to elucidate the role of absorption, we have compared theory results for different levels of approximation for the case of the truncated octahedron (cf. Fig. 2b). The resulting data within the small-angle approximation (Fig. 3a), implemented via a 2D Fourier transform of the projected scattering density, predicts point symmetric scattering images (the power spectrum of a real-valued function is symmetric) and fails to resemble the experiment. This point symmetry is lifted in the 3D simulation (Fig. 3b) obtained within Born’s approximation. Comparison to MSFT including effective absorption (Fig. 3c) shows that absorption induces a broadening of scattering features, a relative intensity increase in higher diffraction orders and a reduction of the scattering angle of the first-order intensity maximum. Differences between the MSFT result and that of the full treatment of multiple scattering within the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) framework (Fig. 3c versus Fig. 3d) are more subtle and in most cases irrelevant for shape identification, justifying the effective absorption treatment in MSFT. Compared with the 3D simulations in Fig. 3b–d, the 2D scattering image in Fig. 3a shows similar features close to the centre but deviates significantly at large scattering angles, illustrating the transition from small-angle to wide-angle scattering within a single image.

Figure 3: Comparison of different approximation levels.
Comparison of different approximation levels.

False-colour images show the simulated scattering intensity (logarithmic scale) of a truncated octahedron (cf. Fig. 2b) as function of the transverse components of the scattering vector within different approximations. (a) Small-angle approximation corresponding to an effective scattering density projected onto a plane. (b) Born’s approximation taking into account the full 3D geometry but no absorption and refraction. (c) Same as b but including a simplified absorption model. (d) Full FDTD simulations using the optical properties of bulk-​silver.

Shape refinement

The MSFT method enables efficient shape identification from a finite set of trial shapes and yields a rough estimate of the parameters of the respective geometry model. A more accurate description of the scattering process via FDTD simulations offers further refinement of the free parameters by direct minimization of the mean-squared deviation of calculated and experimental scattering patterns (see Methods for technical details). This is exemplarily illustrated in Fig. 4 for the truncated octahedron from Fig. 2b, yielding even better agreement between experiment and simulation (R-factor ≈0.18, see Fig. 4e). The resulting shape (Fig. 4c) was obtained after optimizing the degree of truncation and the radius of the particle, leading to a slightly reduced value of the predicted radius of r=95 nm (Fig. 4d) and a relative truncation of 0.39, as compared with the MSFT estimate of r=100  nm obtained under the assumption of an ideal Archimedean shape with a truncation of 1/3. This scheme can be extended to other parameters such as orientation (see Fig. 4e) or shape asymmetries to obtain precise information on the geometry of the individual nanoparticle.

Figure 4: Optimization of model parameters.
Optimization of model parameters.

(a) Experimental and (b) simulated scattering patterns for a single ​Ag particle with the optimized shape of a truncated octahedron as depicted in c using the FDTD method (false-colour on logarithmic scale). Parameter optimization for truncation and radius was performed by minimization of the mean-squared deviation (MSD) of experimental data from theory as exemplarily shown in d for the particle size. The optimal radius is r=95 nm with an uncertainty of ±8%, estimated from the curvature of the normalized MSD around the minimum40. (e) R-factor as a function of rotation angle for the truncated octahedron depicted in c. For these calculations, the model shape is rotated away from the optimal orientation in c around an axis parallel to the upper edge of the hexagonal front facet.

The variety of particle structures derived from the scattering images in Fig. 2 demonstrates that the motives are much richer than expected from thermodynamic considerations in the investigated size regime. Similar morphologies as those found in this work were reported for preparations involving chemical reactions3, physically evaporated2, 26 or cluster-beam deposited27 particles, providing evidence for the general existence of such shapes. The particles in these studies were, however, supported by a substrate and are not imaged in the free beam. In the absence of a surface, only truncated octahedra can be derived by free surface energy minimization of particles with face-centred cubic (fcc) lattice structure. Decahedral and icosahedral geometries represent metastable states whose facets cannot be constructed from low-index surfaces of a single fcc crystallite. Particularly striking is the case of unsupported icosahedral particles, which are stable for small clusters but have been predicted to undergo a transition to fcc-derived structures already for sizes as low as a few hundred atoms28. Previous observations of icosahedral clusters considerably larger than that (a few 106 atoms) have been explained by a non-equilibrium growth process, where isomers being favoured for small sizes provide seed shapes that persist in subsequent stages of particle formation2, 7, often resulting in multiple twinned species3. The current results demonstrate the existence of free metastable nanoparticles up to much larger radii of ≈150 nm (≈109 atoms). The identified highly symmetric metastable shapes reveal that free ​Ag nanoparticles retain a structural memory of early formation stages up to this so far unexplored size range. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation of strongly oblate particles with aspect ratios of about four (Fig. 2h). The 30–40% larger surface of such shapes substantially increases the surface energy when compared with minimal energy structures (for example, truncated octahedral). In contrast to supported particles, where anisotropic shapes can result from cluster–surface interactions29, 30, the strongly anisotropic free metal particles observed here provide evidence for pronounced symmetry breaking solely induced by the seed structures, in surprising analogy to the formation of ionic or water crystals like salt or snowflakes.

Retrieving the 3D morphology of free nanoparticles from single wide-angle scattering patterns opens up new routes for interdisciplinary research. The efficient and simultaneous determination of size, shape and orientation enables systematic high-throughput studies of particle properties. Applied to time-resolved experiments, the shape-specific evolution of growth, structural phase transitions and relaxation phenomena become accessible, with implications for various fields including molecular and atmospheric physics, material science, chemistry and astrophysics. Combined with femtosecond pump-probe schemes, single-shot imaging promises new insight into the ultrafast dynamics of free nanoparticles, such as collective electron31 and nuclear32 motion or non-equilibrium melting processes. Moreover, the sensitivity to the complex index of refraction may provide access to ultrafast changes of optical and electronic properties of nanoparticles17.

Methods

Particle source

Silver particles were produced by a cluster beam machine24 equipped with a magnetron sputtering source, operated with Ar and Xe at a pressure of the order of ≈1 mbar. The aggregation section was cooled with liquid nitrogen. No mass selection or ion optics have been used. The clusters were guided into the differentially pumped main chamber through a conical skimmer with 3 mm inner diameter.

Scattering experiment

About 70 cm behind the source, the beam density was low enough to ensure a single nanoparticle at a time in the focal volume (focus size≈20 μm) of the FEL FLASH at DESY in Hamburg. The power density of the FEL pulses has been estimated from the highest observed charge state of atomic Xe. Typically, Xe11+ is found which corresponds to 1014-1015 W cm2 at a pulse length of ≈100 fs (refs 33, 34). The scattering patterns were recorded shot-to-shot (10 Hz repetition rate) with an imaging detector as described in refs 17, 25, covering scattering angles from θ≈3° to 39° over a 2π azimuth. To avoid detector damage from the direct FEL beam, all detector components have a centre hole. The tilt angle of the detector microchannels results in a depletion artefact visible at (qx, qy)≈(0.6, –0.4) nm−1 in the scattering images (for example, Fig. 2d). Due to the weak focus conditions (Rayleigh length: some mm; wavelength: 13.5 nm), the description as a plane wave is justified for the incident beam. In order to maintain single-particle conditions in the focal volume35, the hit rate was kept below 10%. Most of the 25,000 scattering patterns with significant signal (from a total of 300,000 recorded images) originated from small clusters resulting in no fringes or from agglomerates of two or more particles (for typical signatures see ref. 35). About 1,000 images were suited for further analysis, for about 100 of them, the particles’ shape, size and orientation have been uniquely identified in this work. The most common symmetric morphologies are truncated octahedra, flat hexagonal shapes, decahedra and isosahedra. Due to manual selection of scattering images for identification, the obtained variety of shapes does not necessarily reflect the actual statistics present in the particle beam.

Experimentally accessible angular range

Within Born’s approximation and under the assumption of free electrons (scattering factors of unity), the scattering cross-section for a homogeneous sphere, and therefore also the scattering intensity I(q) measured at a fixed distance, is independent of the photon wavelength up to trivial polarization effects. As the envelope of the resulting fringe pattern rapidly decreases with the transfer momentum q (Porods law: q−4), the experimentally accessible q-range is restricted to a maximum value qcrit (limited by dynamic range of the detector, background noise, incoherent scattering and so on). The relation between q and scattering angle θ is , hence the angular range onto which the accessible part of the scattering pattern is mapped scales (in first-order approximation) as θcritλ·qcrit. Therefore, the wide-angle scattering regime is easily accessible for soft X-ray radiation used in our experiment (λ=13.5 nm), in contrast to hard X-rays (λ<1 nm), where the detectable signal is restricted to an angular range of a few degrees for realistic experimental conditions.

Observed scattering features

Independent of shape, the scattering images show a number of quasi-continuous, often interrupted rings near the centre (for example, Fig. 2b,c), whose distance Δ|q||| directly reflects the particle size (for example, for a sphere via Δ|q|||=π/r due to Mie scattering17). This enables a useful size estimate, almost irrespective of other parameters. Note that while the maxima of the radial intensity oscillations for a sphere are strictly equidistant as function of q, their period length decreases towards the edges of the scattering images when plotting against kx=qx and kx=qx. For non-spherical shapes, the ‘ring distance’ Δ|q||| at large |q||| depends on the direction in the (qx, qy) plane, as is most apparent for strongly oblate clusters such as the decahedron (Fig. 2a) or the truncated twinned tetrahedron (Fig. 2h). The breakup of rings into radial oscillating streaks indicates the transition from signatures of the coarse shape (for example, compact versus flat) towards sensitivity to the arrangement of facets, edges and vertices at higher diffraction orders. Bright streaks in the scattering image can be attributed to the diffraction of facets that are aligned almost parallel to the incident photon beam. The direction and intensity of the observed streaks thus enables an efficient preselection of relevant morphological candidates for the matching process to simulation data.

Multislice Fourier transfom method

The model electron density distributions used for calculating the scattering patterns are divided into stacks of 2D slices whose normal vectors are oriented parallel to the incident photon beam. This is similar to techniques previously applied to electron scattering7, 36, 37, as well as to soft X-ray diffraction of supported particles38. The final scattering intensity corresponds to the modulus square of the phase-correct sum of the 2D Fourier transforms of the slices. Polarization properties have been included via an angle-dependent differential Thomson cross-section. Material properties are approximately taken into account by reducing the scattering amplitude as a function of propagation through the material according to Beer–Lambert’s law. Compared with the direct field summation from an arrangement of point scatterers, the MSFT method accelerates the computation by two orders of magnitude for typical particles investigated here.

Shape identification

The procedure for finding the size, shape and orientation of a particle from a single scattering image is as follows. The observed features are first qualitatively compared with simulation results based on a finite set of model shapes that consists of all Platonic and Archimedean shapes up to 32 facets, derived geometries obtained via truncation and some additional shapes described in the literature as candidates for deposited metal particles (see for example, refs 2, 3, 26, 27). We used homogeneous density distributions for the simulations, but inhomogeneities arising from impurities or core shell structures are accessible if they induce distinct features in the wide-angle scattering image. The priority for judging the quality of this comparison is given to the number, direction, and shape of the main streaks. For each shape, all inequivalent orientations are tested along high-symmetry directions or in coarse steps of typically 5°–10° around two axes (the last axis corresponds to a trivial 2D rotation of the scattering image as a whole). If qualitative agreement is achieved, an approximate particle size is determined from the distance Δ|q||| of the higher-order diffraction rings. The model shape is then rotated until best agreement between simulation and experiment is achieved. In a last step, the precise particle size is adjusted by matching the period of simulated features in radial q|| direction to the experimental data19. Since the duration for calculating one MSFT pattern is about a second on a standard desktop computer, this procedure is surprisingly efficient, despite the need for a large quantity of simulations per experimental scattering image. Among the set of model shapes described above each identified shape is unique in that any other model results in significant qualitative discrepancies between experimental and simulation results. Only in the case of extremely flat platelets (see Fig. 2d,h), the exact orientation of the small-side facets cannot be specified since they do not give rise to pronounced features in the diffraction pattern. The important observation of the large aspect ratios, however, remains unaffected.

Finite difference time domain simulations

For accurate refinement of model parameters describing the shape and for benchmarking the MSFT approach, we performed FDTD simulations of the wide-angle scattering. Therefore, the model shapes are sampled on a cubic, equidistant grid with spatial resolution Δx=1.0 nm and 959 × 959 × 319 cells, where the shortest dimension corresponds to the propagation direction of the soft X-ray radiation. The complex permittivity of bulk ​silver for the considered wavelength of 13.5 nm was used39. The corresponding attenuation length is λabs≈12.5 nm for bulk ​silver. Maxwell’s equations are solved for a plane incident wave on a staggered grid (Yee scheme) with absorbing boundary conditions (uniaxial perfectly matched layer) using the FDTD implementation of ref 31. The complex scattered electric near-fields are extracted on a plane with normal vector parallel to the optical axis placed closely behind the target structure. The scattered far field intensity distributions are obtained using a near-to-far-field transformation of the continuous wave solution. A typical result of the FDTD method is compared with MSFT in Fig. 3c,d.

Refinement of parameters describing the model shape

Refinement of the model shape is done by optimizing additional parameters such as orientation, truncation and size. An upper bound for the error of the parameters specifying the model shape can be estimated via the mean-square deviation of experimental and simulated scattering images. Such a quantitative comparison requires FDTD calculations to accurately include the material properties and knowledge of the detector response as a function of intensity, which is in general nonlinear and may be described by a power behaviour (in our case, the exponent is close to 1/3). The example in Fig. 4 results in a near-parabolic evolution of the deviation as a function of radius, from which the parameter uncertainty (that is, the standard deviation of a parameter in a non-linear fit, see ref 40) σr=7  nm can be estimated. This calculation has been performed after optimization of the truncation, hence the radius slightly differs (≈5 nm) from the one given in Fig. 2b, where the latter reflects the best MSFT estimate. We note that the reduced radius has only minor effect on the particle volume because of the specific definition of the radius as that of a circumscribed sphere. The R-factor in Fig. 4e was calculated via R=∫∫|IexpIcalc|dqxdqy/∫∫Iexpdqxdqy, where Iexp and Icalc are the experimentally observed and FDTD-calculated intensities in the scattering images, respectively.

via The 3D-architecture of individual free silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group.

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METALS IN MEDICINE AND THE ENVIRONMENT-Aluminum and Alzheimer’s Disease

METALS IN MEDICINE AND THE ENVIRONMENT-Aluminum and Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by a build up of extracellular neural plaque and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the noeocortex and hippocampus (responsible for short-term and spatial memory), resulting in decreased cognitive capacity and dementia.  Neural plaque is composed of beta-amyloid protein, which is the proteolytically cleaved form of beta-amyloid precursor protein (AbPP).    In its unaggregated a helical state, as is found in healthy cerebrospinal fluid, Ab is benign.  However, biological conditions may promote the aggregation of AbPP into fibrils, which adopt a b-pleated sheet conformation.(1)

abpp
Figure 1.  Immunohistochemical staining of AbPP.

Recently, there has been a significant amount of investigation of the role metal cations play in development of neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer’s disease.

However, through various investigative techniques and experimental approaches, much of the research conducted has yielded conflicting results.

Regardless, it is widely accepted that aluminum is a formidable neurotoxic agent, with biological roles including but certainly not limited to impaired signal transduction and free radical damage. (1) Aluminum is present in many everyday commodities, including deodorant, cookware, and food packaging.  Thus, it makes sense to investigate its possible role in the onset and development of Alzheimer’s disease.
Various neuropsychological and statistical studies have unearthed a strong correlation between excessive aluminum exposure and impaired cognitive capacity indicative of neurodegenerative disorder.  (2, 3) Molecular studies using AbPP transgenic mice reveal that an aluminum-enriched diet results in an accumulation of aluminum in the hippocampus, which is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage (4).  Furthermore, in a metal-rich diet, aluminum can act synergistically with copper to increase AbPP levels. (1)

hippocampus

Figure 2. The hippocampus.

Aluminum has also been suggested to act in the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins. (6) Tau proteins stabilize microtubules, and their hyperphosphorylation promotes the aggregation found in neurofibrillary tangles.  Control of regulatory factors and cascades are of interest as well.  Transcription or translation of kinases involved in tau regulation may be affected by aluminum.
Other researchers have proposed that aluminum can actually potentiate the defibrillogenesis of beta-amyloid protein.  Chauhan et al. (5) report that though cations traditionally may act as nucleation sites for polymerization, as is the case for actin, cations like aluminum in fact act as severing factors in serum to break down Ab fibrils. 

If this is the case, aluminum may actually be a useful treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.
Conflicting hypotheses and experimental evidence complicates this research.

Clearly, if studies suggest aluminum has a pathological role in Alzheimer’s disease, while others suggest it as a possible treatment of the disease, there is much research to be done.

References

(1) Gómez, M., Esparza, J., Cabré, M., García, T., Domingo, J.  Aluminum exposure through the diet: Metal level in AbPP transgenic mice, a model for Alzheimer’s disease.  Toxicology 249, 214-219 (2008).

(2) Polizzi, S., Pira, E., Ferrara, M., Bugiani, M., Papaleo, A., Albera, R., Palmi, S.  Neurotoxic Effects of Aluminum Among Foundry Workers and Alzheimer’s Disease.  NeuroToxicology 23, 761-774 (2002).

(3) Pechansky, F., Kessler, F.H.P., von Diemen, L., Bumaguin, D.B., Surratt, H.L., Inciardi, J.A., Brazilian crack users show elevated serum     aluminum levels.  Rev Bras Psiquiatr 29(1), 39-42 (2007).

(4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus

(5) Chauhan, V.P.S., Ray, I., Chauhan, A., Wegiel, J., Wisniewski, H.M., Metal Cations Defibrillize the Amyloid Beta-Protein Fibrils.    Neurochemical Research 22, 805-809 (1997).

(6) Domingo, J., Aluminum and other metals in Alzheimer’s disease: a review of potential therapy with chelating agents.  Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 10, 331-341 (2006).


Arsenic is well known as a toxic element.  The World Health Organization (WHO) has set a recommended limit of 10 mg/L (reduced from 50 mg/L in 1993) concentration of arsenic in drinking water (1, 2).  The increased knowledge of arsenic toxicity, particularly carcinogenesis, led to the change.  Not until 2001 did the United States follow WHO by also reducing the acceptable arsenic concentration to 10 mg/L.  In many countries an acceptable arsenic level remains 50 mg/L.   This is in part due to inadequate testing facilities and equipment.   In some areas of the world, arsenic is present in the groundwater at concentrations higher than the set provision (1).  Natural and unnatural arsenic in the environment can lead to groundwater contamination.  Figure 1 shows areas where arsenic is present in aquifers.

Figure 1.  Map illustrating arsenic-affected aquifers (1).

The two common forms of arsenic are As(III), arsenite, and As(V), arsenate.  Arsenite is more mobile and toxic than As(V).   Arsenic can be released from sediments under anaerobic reducing conditions in the form of arsenite, and under oxidizing conditions where the pH is high, in the form of arsenate (HAsO4­­­2-) (1, 3, 4).

There are a variety of symptoms resulting from chronic arsenic exposure.  Skin lesions and hyperkeratosis are signs of arsenic poisoning (Figure 2).  These telltale signs can take as long as 10 years to appear (2, 5, 6).  Skin cancer is the most common cancer with a connection to arsenic poisoning.  Cancers of the bladder, kidney, and lung are being linked to excessive arsenic exposure.   Low dose exposure to arsenic may lead to neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes (6).


Figure 2.  A woman shows signs of arsenic poisoning.

Arsenic in Bangladesh

Dr. Alan Smith, director of the arsenic research program at the University of California, Berkeley, states, “The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history…” (6).
Beginning in the 1970’s the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) partnered with the Department of Public Health and Engineering to install tube-wells to provide a safe source of drinking water.  These wells were to replace water supplies contaminated with bacteria and responsible for causing large outbreaks of disease.  During the time the wells were installed, arsenic was not a known concern and was therefore not tested.  Today, there are between 8-12 million tube wells and 90% of the population receives their drinking water from a well (2, 6).

In the mid-1980’s there was increasing evidence that arsenic was hazardous.  However, the fact was not acknowledged until 1993 when WHO decreased the acceptable concentration (6).  The issue in Bangladesh was not addressed until 1998 when the World Bank attempted to initiate a program to screen the countries tube wells (5).

Arsenic concentrations in the range of <0.5 µg/L to 3200 µg/L were found in groundwater across Bangladesh (2, 7).  Figure 3 shows a map of Bangladesh and the concentration of arsenic in groundwater.  The estimated number of people exposed to arsenic concentrations greater than 50 µg/L is 28-35 million and the number of those exposed to more than 10 µg/L is 46-57 million (2).   Chakraborti et al. reported that of 27,000 wells sampled in Bangladesh, 59% of them exceeded 50 µg/L and 73% exceeded 10 µg/L (8).  According to some approximations, arsenic in drinking water will cause 200–270 thousand deaths from cancer in Bangladesh alone. (5).


Figure 3. Map showing concentrations of arsenic in groundwater (1).

The problem in Bangladesh is further detrimental due to the economic status of the country.  Many of the people are living in poverty and are unaware of the contamination, and cannot afford healthcare.

Linking Arsenic in the U.S. to Chickens

It is reported that the poultry industry in the United States supplements chicken feed with roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzene arsonic acid.  The organic arsenic compound promotes growth and controls intestinal parasites.  Nearly all the arsenic consumed by the chickens is excreted in the manure.  Manure has been used as a nitrogen containing fertilizer for centuries and is spread onto farmland (9).   A large percentage of the nations poultry comes from the Delmarva Peninsula, with Sussex County, Delaware being the largest producing county of broiler chickens in the United States (10). Chicken manure introduces huge quantities of arsenic to agricultural land.  Poultry litter is spread on land at the rate of 9 to 20 metric tons per hectare. Each year, it is estimated, 20 to 50 metric tons of roxarsone in chicken litter is applied to fields on the Delmarva Peninsula (11).


Figure 4.   Roxarsone

Roxarsone itself is not toxic, but the compound is converted to inorganic arsenate fairly quickly.  The organic form is soluble in water can be easily leeched into groundwater or surface water. The genus Clostridium is responsible for the conversion to As(V).  In anaerobic reducing conditions, the As(V) is further converted to As(III), a more mobile and toxic form.  The processes involved in the transformation have not been investigated to date (12).  In Figure 5 the path from chicken feed to water and beyond is illustrated (13).

Manure is spread onto fields and rainwater causes run-off into rivers, streams, and lakes.  Studies report that elevated concentrations of arsenic was found in the Pocomoke River near areas spread with poultry manure.  Another study, by the Maryland Geological Survey, found arsenic levels violating federal health standards in 11 percent of 250 drinking wells sampled on the Eastern Shore and elsewhere in the state (14).  There is not a large amount of evidence linking these higher arsenic levels to chicken litter, but it cannot be ruled out. Arsenic may have an impact on aquatic life.   Arsenic represses the immune system in fish and may be contributing to the fish-kill in the Shenandoah River (15).  An additional manner of arsenic pollution is through pellets sold as garden fertilizer.  This can lead to exposure by dust (9).


Figure 5. Arsenic from chicken feed to water (13).

 

Arsenic Remediation

Due to the high solubility in water across a wide pH range, an oxidation step is required to reduce both solubility and mobility.  Manganese(IV) oxides represent one of the main redox catalysts in the environment, while also extensively adsorbing a number of anions and cations.  Their highly reactive surfaces allow manganese oxides, even in low concentrations, to oxidize metals such as arsenic from arsenite to arsenate, a much less reactive and mobile form (Figure 6). However, several variables can influence the oxidation reaction: a variety of particle sizes can be found in nature ranging from a nanometer to micrometer size particles, thus altering the exposed surface area. Iron oxides will also reduce arsenic, but much slower.  The released Mn2+ ions adsorb onto the manganese dioxide, giving it a positive surface charge and leading to an enhancement in the removal of arsenate produced as a result of arsenite oxidation (3).

H3AsO3 + MnO2 –> HAsO42- + Mn2+ + H2O

Figure 6. The reduction of arsenite by manganese dioxide (3).

This treatment could be applied to water filtration.  Bajpai and Chaudhuri constructed a home arsenic removal unit that was affordable and effective.  They made manganese dioxide coated sand and used it to efficiently remove arsenic from a water sample.  The unit cost approximately five U.S. dollars (4).

Resources

World Health Organization – Arsenic in drinking water

Wikipedia – Arsenic contamination of groundwater

Image Sources

Poisoned woman

Roxarsone

References

(1) Smedley, P. L. and Kinniburgh, D. G.  A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters.  Applied Geochemistry. 2002, 17:517-568.

(2) World Health Organization.  Arsenic in drinking water. May 2001. Accessed October 26, 2008.

(3) Driehaus, W., Seith, R., and Jekel, M. Oxidation of arsenate(III) with manganese dioxides in water treatment.  Wat. Res. 1995, 29(1):297-305.

(4) Bajpai, S. and Chaudhuri, M.  Removal of arsenic from ground water by manganese dioxide – coated sand.  J. Envir. Eng.  1999, 125(8):782-784.

(5) Pearce, F.  Bangladesh’s arsenic poisoning: who is to blame?  The UNESCO CourierJanuary 2001. Accessed October 26, 2008.

(6) Smith, A. H., Lingas, E. O., and Rahman, M.  Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency.  Bulletin of the World Health Organization2000.  78(9):1093-1103.

(7) Vu, K. B., Kaminski, M. D., and Nunez, L.  Review of arsenic removal technologies for contaminated groundwater.  2003. Accessed October 26, 2008.

(8) Chakraborti, D. et al.  Characterization of arsenic based sediments in the Gangetic Delta of West Bengal, India.  Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects IV2001.  27-52.

(9)  Christen, K.  Chicken poop and arsenic.  Environmental Science and Technology Online. March 29, 2006. Accessed October 26, 2008.

(10) Delmarva Poultry Industry.  Delaware broiler chicken production. May 2008. Accessed October 26, 2008.

(11) Hileman, B.  Arsenic in chicken production. Chemical and Engineering News. April 7, 2007.  85(15):34-35. Accessed October 26, 2008. 

(12)  Stolz, J. F., Perera, E., et al.  Biotransformation of 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzene arsonic acid (roxarsone) and release of inorganic arsenic by Clostridium species.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41:818-823.

(13) Denver, J., Ator, S. W., et al.  Water quality in the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, 1999-2001. U. S. Geological Survey. 2004. Accessed October 26, 2008.

(14) Pelton, T. Arsenic’s use in chicken feed troubles health advocates.  March 10, 2007. Accessed October 26, 2008.

(15) Something fishy about the Shenandoah River. March 2008. Accessed October 26, 2008.

Grandma smelled geranium,
Started feeling kind of bum.
Sure you guessed the trouble, right—
Grandma whiffed some Lewisite.

From How to Tell the Gases, by Major Fairfax Downey
(United States Field Artillery Branch) [1]

Introduction

The thought of chemicals scares a lot of people in today’s society.  Whether discussing household cleaners, metals found in soils and water, or chemical warfare, poisonous chemicals surround us in our every day lives.  WWI displayed the first mass use of toxic gases as a weapon of battle, leading to the loss of many lives as seen in Table 1.  These original toxic gases were synthesized using commercial products. For example, in 1917 mustard gas shells were introduced to the battlefield—leading to severe skin burns. [2] However, the signing of the Geneva Protocol after WWI detailed the permissible use of chemical weapons.  The protocol stated that the only lawful use of chemical weapons for a country was in the case of retaliation.  During WWII this agreement was upheld, yet it did not cease the production of these toxic gases. [2] Even though the number of chemical deaths associated with WWI was only 7.7% of the troops, this new concept of chemical warfare came as a shock to the world.

Table 1.  Deaths Associated with Gas in WWI [3, p.36]

Country

Numbers (tons)

Deaths

% Deaths

Russia (unreliable)

475,340

56,000

11.7

France

190,000

8,000

4.2

Italy (unreliable)

13,300

4,627

34.7

U.S.

70,752

1,421

2.0

British Commonwealth

180,983

6,062

3.3

Germany

78,663

2,280

2.9

Totals

1,009,038

78,390

7.7

Characteristics

Lewisite, the “dew of death”, methyl, or L are all used to refer to the extremely poisonous gas containing arsenic that could potentially be used in chemical warfare [1,4]. The name “dew of death” originated because the liquid chemical was planned to be released from airplanes in the night and would sprinkle to the ground causing a “dew” on the ground in the morning [1].  Lewisite was discovered in 1903 by a Catholic priest, Father Julius Aloysius Nieuwland, but was not introduced to the world; however, the molecule was rediscovered and characterized in 1918 for use as a chemical weapon [1].


Figure 1.  Reaction Scheme to Produce Lewisite[1]

Lewisite is an arsenic trichloride compound, C2H2AsCl3, an oily, colorless liquid, insoluble in water and smells like geraniums.  The potential effectiveness of Lewisite as a warfare agent is caused by the high boiling point, 374°F and the low freezing boiling point, 0.4°F; nevertheless it is difficult to work with due to it’s low solubility in water  [4].

Figure 2. Lewisite Structure[A]

Figure 3. Identification Poster for Lewisite (1941-1945)[B]

Compared to mustard gas, Lewisite is significantly more toxic because of the arsenic. Lewisite can be introduced into the body through inhalation, skin/eye contact or ingestion. [4] Inhalation of Lewisite causes burning in the lungs at a concentration of approximately 8 mg-min/m3, yet it is not until a 20 mg-min/m3 concentration that the nose senses the smell. [5] The lethal dose (LCt50) is 1,500 mg-min/m3.  Testing on dogs demonstrated the effects of Lewisite inhalation.  The first symptoms are watery eyes, running nose, and vomiting.  The conditions progress to extreme nasal congestion, intense coughing and usually death.  If death is avoided, at this point more severe symptoms are observed, including violent sneezing and continuous drainage finally leading to death. However, if the animal was still alive on the 5th day, it usually recovered by the 10th day. [5]

If Lewisite comes in contact with the skin, blistering occurs within 26-48 hours.   In low concentrations deep burns and skin cell death occurs; however in large concentrations (i.e 1/3 teaspoon for a 70 kilogram man) death can occur in 1 to 10 days. [5] The health problems associated with acute exposure to Lewisite are caused by the interactions with and inhibition of certain enzymes– pyruvic oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and hexokinase. It is believed that the Lewisite interacts with thiol (-SH) groups; however “the exact mechanism by which the Lewisite damages cells is not known.” [4].

Figure 4. Blistering Caused by Poisonous Gases [C]

Sadly, there is no test available for Lewisite exposure.  The best available prediction is to test the arsenic concentration in urine. However, if exposure is known by the victim (i.e. the laboratory or during battle) there is one antidote, British Anti-Lewisite or Dimercaprol [4].  A key feature of 2,3 dimercaptopropanol in British Anti-Lewisite is a dithiol; it is this specific compound which has a greater affinity towards the arsenic than the enzymes otherwise affected, causing it to then be excreted. [1 pp. 78-81] Yet the treatment is not completely benign.  Rashes form on skin, blood pressures increases, vomiting, eye tearing, and drainage occur. [1]

Figure 5.  British Anti-Lewisite Compound: 2,3 dimercaptopropanol[D]

Lewisite in War

Lewisite’s main research development center was located on the campus of American University and the community of Spring Valley in Washington D.C. [6] It was here that the government founded the American University Experimental Station in 1918.  The poisonous gas production at this site was the 2nd largest in the world and it is estimated that approximately 1000-1200 different potential chemical weapons were produced there. [6] Not only were deadly chemicals produced at this location, but tests were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of the gases. When the plant was shut down in 1920, the remaining poisonous chemicals had to be disposed of, yet the question that is still debated today is whether it was done properly.  The regulations set by the army were that containers with poison had to be buried at least 3 to 3 ½ feet underground and could not be disposed of in water. [6] The issue of proper disposable of these poisons has surfaced multiple times. However, a true investigation on the issue was not completed until 1992 when a man paving broke a glass bottle and was rushed to the hospital because of eye pain and skin burns. After multiple similar events, the EPA reviewed soil samples and discovered that the soil concentration of 1,200 ppm for arsenic was 30 times greater than the emergency removal limit of 43 ppm. During the excavation, 600 items were discovered, “almost ½ of which were munitions and a small fraction of which still contained chemical agents. Some bombs were intact and still had fuses”. [6] This only one example of an area where history is beginning to come unraveled due to the contaminated from chemical warfare agents. There are as many as 9,184 Formerly Used Defense Sites known today. [6]


Figure 6.  Women Working in Chemical Production Plants[E]

It is also important to note that the United States is not the only country facing this problem. Chemical gases such as Lewisite were not widely used in WWII. There are two exceptions, by Japan on a Chinese battlefield and the other by the Germans in concentration camps. Major stockpiles were created in case of retaliation. [1, p. xxi] Countries with stockpiles include Germany, Italy, England, France and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had the largest amount of Lewisite because of their lack of nuclear weapons and their plan to use it as their primary defense.  Due to the large stockpiles, Russia has developed many problems with arsenic poisoning throughout the country. [1, p. xxii]

Table 2: Amount of Lewisite Produced by Countries [1, p. 119]

Country Tons of Lewisite
U.S.

20,150

Soviet Union

22,700-47,000

Japan

1,400

England, Iraq, North Korea, Italy

2,000

 

One needs to remember for the future that the actions with chemicals today can affect generations to come.  The production of Lewisite during the time of WWII, did not only affect the people in the past.  It is affecting the generations of today, with multiple causes of arsenic poisoning.

 

References

(1) Vilensky, Joel A., Richard Butler, and Pandy R. Sinish. Dew of Death : The Story of Lewisite, America’s World War I Weapon of Mass Destruction. New York: Indiana UP, 2005. vi+.

(2) Peak, John, ed. “Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMP): Chemical Weapons.” GlobalSecurity.org. 27 Apr. 2004. 17 Oct. 2008.

(3) Hammond, James W. Poison Gas : The Myths Versus Reality. New York: Greenwood Group, Incorporated, 1999. 36.

(4) Medical Management Guidelines for Blister Agents: Lewisite (L) (C2H2AsCl3) Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL). United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. 24 Sept. 2007. 17 Oct. 2008.

(5) Vilensky, Joel A., and Pandy R. Sinish. “Blisters as Weapons of War: The Vesicants of World War I.” Summer 2006. Chemical Heritage Fondation. 17 Oct. 2008.

(6) McLamb, Marguerite E. “From Death Valley to Spring Valley.” Sustainable Development Law & Policy III (2003): 3-6.

Image Credits

(A) Lewisite
(B) Lewisite Identification Poster
(C) Mustard Blistering
(D) Dimercaprol
(E) Women Working in Plants

Author: Evan Joslin

Disclaimer: This report was done for a case study in a class about Metals in Medicine on the effects of arsenic throughout the world; it is not being used as an act of terrorism. (EJ)


 

Bismuth

Bismuth is used to treat a range of ailments.  Most commonly, bismuth is used to help protect against gastric ulcers, as well as hydration therapies for young children suffering from severe diarrhea.  Although bismuth has been shown to be exceedingly useful in these capacities it has also been blamed for encephalopathy in adults.

Medicinal Uses

Bismuth Subsalicylate

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as sodium hydroxide and other caustic agents such as hydrochloric acid and ethanol have been shown to cause gastric lesions and injuries (1).  It is not known whether these injuries are directly caused by these harsh substances or if they retard the repair system in gastric mucosal cells (2).  The active ingredient in Pepto-BismolTM, Bismuth subsalicylate, has been shown to scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species and other caustic agents by decreasing damage to gastric mucosal cells (2).  A study by Bagchi et al. suggested that the subsalicylate functioned as a buffer against the pH fluctuation caused by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.  However, in another study bismuth is hypothesized to act as a binding factor in mucous thus making the mucous thicker and more effective at shielding the gastric lining from oxidative damage (3).

bismuth subsalicylate

Bismuth-mediated Hydration Therapies

Diarrhea kills five to ten million people annually worldwide (4).  Children are the hardest hit by diarrhea for they account for 4.6 million deaths per year (4).  Recently in an issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, Figueroa et al. reported that Bismuth Subsalicylate can be used as an agent for rehydration therapy for infants suffering from diarrhea.  The group found that there was a statistically significant retention of water and decrease of watery stool (5).  The mechanism of action is thought to be an antisecretory function against bacteria (6).

Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate

Helicobactor pylori has been indentified as  a leading cause of gastric ulcer disease.  Ranitidine bismuth citrate is administered in order to combat the bacteria.  Ranitidine has been linked to the non-competitive inhibition of Phospholipase A2 in Helicobactor Pylori.  The inhibition of this enzyme, which lyses endothelial cells in the stomach by cleaving phospholipids, prevents ulcer formation (7). Bismuth further prevents ulcer formation by binding mucous together and by inhibiting pepsin activity (7).

ranitidine

Adverse Side Effects

Encephalopathy

In the 1970’s and 1980’s there was a high incidence of encephalopathy traced to high levels of ingested bismuth.  Those affected suffered from headaches and eventually experienced difficulties walking and standing (8).  These cases were due to exceptionally high oral doses of Bismuth Subsalicylate administered to these patients.  These cases led to the heavy policing of bismuth containing medicines in Australia and other countries (9).  Although the mechanism of bismuth toxicity is not fully understood, it has been linked to its changes and alterations of neurons in the brain (10).

Bismuth Antidiarrheal Side Effects

With regard to the usage of bismuth as an antidiarrheal, the problems are two fold.  Reye’s Syndrome is characterized by symptoms ranging from mood irritability to coma and even death.  Although the cause and cure of this syndrome are unknown, a link between salicylic acids has been made.  This has been supported by epidemiological studies correlating aspirin usage and Reye’s Syndrome.  Correspondence to Figeueroa et al in the New England Journal of Medicine concerning their article brought up this important public health point.  It is known that children have higher uptake of nutrients in general.  Specifically, children also have an elevation in metal uptake versus that of adults (11).  Based on this knowledge it can be concluded that children would have an increased risk for elevated levels of Bismuth in the body.  This can potentially lead to encephalopathy which would certainly lead to other developmental problems.

Conclusion

Bismuth is certainly a cheap and effective way to treat gastric ulcers and to replenish water lost during diarrhea.  However, if excessive amounts of bismuth are introduced into the body serious and potentially deadly side effects can occur.  For this reason, patients should be vigilant about the warning signs of Bismuth toxicity and may want to talk with their doctor before adding any Bismuth containing products to their medicine regiment.

Resources

Pepto Bismol Website

Reye’s Syndrome

Worldwide Information about Diarrhea –World Health Organization

Chemical Information for Bismuth

Helicobactor Pyrlori

References

(1) van der Vliet, A., Bast, A. Role of reactive oxygen species in intestinal diseases. Free Radical Biol. Med. 12, 499-513 (1992).

(2) Bagchi, D et al. Mechanism of Gastroprotection by Bismuth Subsalicylate Against Chemically Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Human Gastric Mucosal Cells.  Dig .Dis. and Sci.  44, 12, 2419-2428 (1999).

(3) Tanaka, S., Guth, P. H., Carryl, O. R., Kaunitz, J. D.   Cytoprotective effect of  bismuth   subsalicylate  in indomethacin-treated rats is associated with enhanced mucus  bismuth  concentration.    Aliment. Pharm. and Ther. 11, 3,  605-612 (2003).

(4) Braun, S., Manhart, M., Balm, T., Bismuth Subsalicylate in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Clinical Study, Pediatrics, 87, 18-27 (1991).

(5) Figueroa-Quintanilla D, Salazar-Lindo E, Sack RB, et al.  A controlled trial of bismuth subsalicylate in infants with acute watery diarrheal disease. N. Engl. J. Med.  328, 1653-1658 (1993).

(6) Ericsson CD, Evans DG.  Bismuth subsalicylate inhibits actrivity of crude toxin of Escherichia coli and Vibrio chloerae. J. Infect. Dis. 136, 693-696 (1977).

(7) Ottlecz, A.; Romero, J. J.; Lichtenberger, L. M.   Effect of  ranitidine bismuth  citrate on the phospholipase A2 activity of Naja naja venom and Helicobacter pylori: a biochemical analysis.  Alim. Pharm. and Ther. 13, 7,  875-881 (1999).

(8) Bruinink, A.; Reiser, P.; Mueller, M.; Gaehwiler, B. H.; Zbinden, G.   Neurotoxic effects of  bismuth  in vitro.  Tox. in Vitro  6, 4,  285-293  (1992).

(9) Gordon M F; Abrams R I; Rubin D B; Barr W B; Correa D D   Bismuth  subsalicylate  toxicity  as a cause of prolonged encephalopathy with myoclonus.    Move. Dis. 10, 2, 220-222 (1995).

(10) Abramson, J et al. Bismuth in Infants with Watery Diarrhea
N. Engl. J. Med. 329, 1742-1743 (1993).

(11) Patriarca, M.; Menditto, A.; Rossi, B.; Lyon, T. D. B.; Fell, G. S.   Environmental exposure to  metals  of newborns, infants and young  children.    Micro. Journal  67, 351-361  (2000).

Author: James East


 

 

A Tungsten Carbide and Cobalt Pulmonary Disease

In the early twentieth century, Germany developed a metal alloy that would be used in many different industries (1,2). Tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co) is an alloy that is hard enough to cut and polish many different metals, hard woods, and diamonds. The alloy is produced when tungsten carbide powder and cobalt powder are heated to approximately 1,500 oC under high-pressure (Figure 1). The resulting product is approximately 80% tungsten carbide and 10-20% cobalt and may contain other metals (3). The cobalt binds the tungsten carbide molecules together and makes the material very resistant and approximately as hard as a diamond (1). Because of this it is used in high-speed cutting, drilling, grinding, or polishing of hard materials (4).


Figure 1. The hard-metal production process (2)

Case Studies

Workers who are exposed to the powdered forms of tungsten carbide and cobalt (<10mm) are more susceptible to the disease because of the dust and aerosol particles in the air (2, 5). Occupational exposure to potentially dangerous substances is often of great concern to government organizations and university-based hospitals. The Center for Disease Control released an article in 1992 about a 35-year-old industrial plant worker who had been exposed to aerosolized tungsten carbide and cobalt powder. In 1989 he had reported 21 months of shortness of breath and a chest radiograph showed interstitial abnormalities. An open-lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis, many macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells in the alveolar spaces (air sacs in the lungs). Upon testing of the biopsy, no tungsten or cobalt was detected. A year before his biopsy, a supervisor at the same plant, who had worked in the same department, died of acute pulmonary fibrosis and was diagnosed with hard metal pulmonary disease. A biopsy a few years prior to his death had shown multinucleated cells, interstitial fibrosis, and macrophages that are consistent with multiple pulmonary diseases. They reexamined his biopsy and detected the presence of tungsten but not cobalt. After these two occurrences, OSHA investigated the airborne cobalt levels in the plant and found in one instance the levels at 90% of the OSHA PEL. The process of the metal coating was adjusted and radiographs were taken of the 40 metal-coating employees (5).

The first reported occurrence of a pulmonary disorder associated with hard metal production or use was in 1940 in Europe (1, 2, 5). Twenty-seven workers who had been exposed to hard metal dust were examined after working in a hard metal factory that had been in operation for two years. Radiographs of the chest were taken of each worker and eight of the workers showed reticular shadowing in areas of fine nodulation, which suggested the beginning of pneumoconiosis (inflammation followed by scaring of the lung tissue) (2, 6). Also, in 1951 two men who had worked with the powders for 10 and 30 years had radiographs taken of their chests. They had suffered from dyspnea and the latter died from cardiac failure due to emphysema and chronic bronchitis (2).

lungs

Figure 2. Radiographs of healthy lung (left), 13 year (middle) and 23 year (right) exposure.

Case studies of hard-metal workers were performed from the 1940s to 1960s. Radiographs were taken of each worker. Figure 2 is a radiograph of healthy lungs and figures 3 and 4 are radiographs of lungs from a man who mixed the powders for 13 years and sharpened for 23 years, respectively. The patient in Figure 2 center has heavy hilar (openings by which nerves, ducts, or blood vessels enter or exits organs) shadows and profuse micro-nodular opacities. Most of his problems occurred in the mid and lower zones of his lungs. Figure 2 right shows that the second patient has an enlarged heart and small nodules. Also, he had an increase in translucency at the right base with destruction of both costophrenic angles (where the diaphram meets the ribs). Both patients had an increase in linear markings (2). As can be seen from the case studies discussed and the radiographs of these two patients, hard-metal workers who are susceptible to this disease have a poor prognosis.

What are the Symptoms of Hard-metal Disease?

There are many signs/symptoms of hard-metal disease. A patient may have tightening of the chest, cough, clubbing, external dyspnea (shortness of breath), fatigue, the production of sputum, and weight loss. Once the patient experiences some of these symptoms and seeks the advice of a medical professional, a radiograph is usually taken of the lungs. The usual finding is interstitial patterns suggesting fibrosis (8).

What Signifies Hard-metal Disease?

Once a radiograph shows interstitial fibrosis, a biopsy is taken of the lungs. The presence of tungsten carbide is the first indicator. Cobalt is not normally present because of its high biological solubility (5). The biopsy usually shows the presence of macrphages and multinucleated giant cells (Figure 3) that have engulfed the surrounding cells (4, 8).


Figure 3. Multinuclear giant cells engulfing the cells nearby (4)

Will All Hard-metal Workers Develop the Disease?

No. There is no correlation between the lengths of time working in the industry as compared to the progression of the disease. Some workers are individually sensitive to the particles (3). Researchers have attempted to suggest a route or mechanism of cause but have not been entirely successful. Some have suggested an autoimmune disease (3). It is believed that cobalt in the presence of tungsten carbide is what exacerbates the disease. Tests have been performed on rats, guinea pigs, and mini-pigs and tungsten metal and carbide alone did not reproduce the same results as when cobalt was present. Most of the animals showed the presence of the multinucleated giant cells and macrophages but the research was incomplete and did not produce a proper mechanism by which the disease takes place.

A Hypothesis on the Effect of Cobalt in the Lungs

A Fenton-like reaction can occur that causes cobalt to replace ferrous ions for the transportation of oxygen. This can produce hydroxyl radicals, which are referred to as an activated oxygen species (AOS). When cobalt and tungsten carbide particles are in close contact, electrons are donated by cobalt to the surface of the tungsten carbide particle surface. These can then in turn reduce oxygen to generate an AOS. The oxidized cobalt then goes into solution. This provides an explanation as to the reason cobalt is usually not found in a biopsy. Lison et al. had not completed the research required to confirm this hypothesis. They also give this radical formation as a reason only 1-5% of the hard metal industry’s population actually develops the disease. If a worker does not have a strong antioxidant defense then they may not be able to neutralize the radicals before damage has occurred (9).

Treatment

Unfortunately no cure has been developed. Once diagnosed, cortisteroids are the form of treatment but usually do not reverse the effects of the disease. Once contracted, the prognosis is poor (3, 4).

Regulations

OSHA has set the limit of hard metal in the air at 50 mg/m3. This will hopefully prevent workers from becoming sensitive or protect those who have already become hypersensitive to the particles (5).

References

  1. Fischbein, A.; Luo, J. J.; Solomon, S. J.; Horowitz, s.; Hailoo, W.; Miller, A. Clinical findings among hard metal workers. Brit. J. Industr. Med. 1992, 49, 17-24.
  2. Bech, A. O.; Kipling, M. D.; Heather, J. C. Hard Metal Disease. Brit. J. Industr. Med. 1962, 19, 239-252.
  3. Ruediger, H. W. Hard Metal Particles and Lung Disease: Coincidence or Causality? Respiration 2000, 67, 137-138.
  4. Cleveland Clinic. Occupational Lung Diseases. (accessed 22 September 2008).
  5. Center for Disease Control. Pulmonary Fibrosis Associated with Occupational Exposure to Hard Metal at a Metal-Coating Plant—Connecticut, 1989. (accessed 22 September 2008).
  6. Aetna InteliHealth. Pneumoconiosis. (accessed 30 September 2008).
  7. HubPages. Air Purifiers: What are they? And do you need one? (accessed 29 September 2008).
  8. Haz-Map: Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents. Hard Metal Disease. (accessed 22 September 2008).
  9. Lison, D.; Lauwerys, R.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. Experimental research into the pathogenesis of cobalt/hard metal lung disease. Eur. Respir. J. 1996, 9, 1024-1028.

Author: Morgan Moyer


 

History of Copper and Wound Healing

Copper is an essential trace element which has been known to be in living tissue for more than 200 years. Even before it was know to play an integral role in the human body, ancient cultures, such as the Egyptians, used copper for water sterilization, headaches, trembling of the limbs (likely seizures or Parkinson’s like symptoms), burns, and itching (1).  Copper was also used in the Roman Empire to treat many ailments including intestinal worms, chronic ulcers, and ear infections (1).  The Aztecs and nomadic Mongolian tribes also used copper for medicinal purposes (1).  In the 19th century, copper’s medical potency was first observed during the outbreak of cholera, in Paris, in 1832, when copper workers were found to be immune to cholera (1).  Other early medicinal applications of copper typically involved the treatment of painful joints and muscles using copper bracelets, or copper-containing ointments.  In the 20th and 21st centuries, copper is found in dietary vitamins, and has been used to treat chronic wounds, tuberculosis, burns, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, seizures, and as a supplement for general disease prevention (1). Scientific studies have clearly defined a role for copper in the regulation of growth, development, and function in Human and animal bodies. Copper is utilized by almost every cell in the human body, resulting in the intracellular formation of copper-dependent enzymes, such as, cytochrome c oxidase (energy production),  superoxide dismutase (antioxidation), lysyl oxidase (crosslinking of elastin and collagen matrix),and dopamine beta hydroxylase (catecholamine formation) (2).

Copper’s Wound Healing Complex

In the 1970’s, scientists isolated a sequence of amino acids (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine; GHK) which is a Cu binding peptide in humans (3) (see structure of GHK below).  GHK is a tripeptide with an affinity for copper (II) ions, that when bound, forms the GHK- Cu(II) complex.  Although used to treat a variety of modern day diseases, copper is especially known for its complex role in wound healing promotion. In human plasma and wound areas, GHK exists as a mixture of GHK and GHK-Cu(II). GHK has a high binding affinity for copper (II) (pK=16.2) (3). However, under physiological conditions, only about 5% to 20% of GHK molecules exist as GHK-Cu(II) complexes with copper (II) (3).

The structure of GHK is very similar to that of common drugs used to treat ulcers (3):
GHK

The structure of common anti-ulcer drugs (3):
antiulcer drugs

Structure of GHK-Cu(II) complex (7):

GHK Cu complex

Many Mechanisms of Action

There are four distinct but overlapping stages of wound healing: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (2).  Copper peptide activity begins almost immediately following injury, during the inflammatory stage.  Mast cells, which are immune cells located in the skin, secrete GHK which binds biologically available Cu(II), thereby increasing GHK-Cu(II) concentrations in the wound area.  In general, copper promotes healing via two pathways.  First, GHK-Cu(II) protects tissue by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent that limits oxidative damage after tissue injury and by suppressing local inflammatory signals (i.e. cytokine IL-1) (2).  Secondly, GHK-Cu(II) acts as an activator that signals the removal of damaged tissue and promotes insertion of healthy tissue (2).  Thus, copper is unusual in that it is an anti-inflammatory agent that unlike most anti-inflammatory agents (i.e. ibuprofen) does not disrupt wound healing and actually promotes cleaner, faster, and better wound closure.

There is a large data base of studies which supports the role of copper in wound healing in vivo and in vitro.  In dogs with paw pad injuries, local injections of tripeptide-copper in the first week following injury result in wounds which healed faster and have higher collagen contents than control animals (4).  The images below illustrate the increased presence and organization of fibroblasts (extracellular matrix/collagen producing cells) in rat tissue 14 days following GHK-Cu treatment (5).

Control tissue (5):

control tissue

GHK-Cu(II) treated tissue (5):

GHK Cu treated tissue

 

In vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms by which GHK-Cu(II) promotes wound healing (2, 6).  Keratinocytes are the major cell type of the epidermis.  Integrins are a family of cell surface receptors present on keratinocytes which allow for keratinocyte signaling and interaction with other cells and extracellular matrix.  Specifically, for wound healing, keratinocyte integrins facilitate cells to cell and cell to the extracellular matrix attachment necessary for epidermal repair.  Cellular studies have shown that copper can alter the complement of keratinocyte integrin expression during the re-epithelization and remodeling phases of healing (6).  It is thought that this is one of many mechanisms by which copper modulates healing signals to improve wound healing.  Although complex, it is clear that copper plays an essential role in cellular mechanisms of homeostasis and repair, and that wound treatments involving copper therapy can be effective in improving healing time and quality.

Note: Exposure to high concentrations of copper can cause illness.  For more information on the toxicology of Copper please click following link. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp132.pdf

References

(1) Image source

(2) Image source

(3) Image source

(4) Swaim SF., Vaughn DM., Kincaid SA., Morrison NE., Murray SS., Woodhead MA., Hoffman CE., Wright JC., Kammerman JR. Effect of locally injected medications on the healing of pad wounds in dogs. Am Vet Res. 57 (3), 394-399 (1996).

(5) Maquart FX., Bellon G., Chaqour B., Wegrowski J., Patt LM., Trachy RE., Monboisse JC., Chastang. F, Birembaut P., Gillery P., Borel JP. In vivo stimulation of connective tissue accumulation by the tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine-Cu2+ in rat experimental wounds.  J Clin Invest92, 2368-2376 (1993).

(6) Tenaud I., Sainte-Marie I., Jumbou O., Litoux P., Dreno B. In vitro modulation of keratinocyte wound healing integrins by zinc, copper and manganese.  Br J Dermatol140, 26-34 (1999).

(7) Image source

Author: Rebecca Reddaway


 

What is Itai-itai Disease?

Itai-itai disease was the first documented occurrence of mass cadmium poisoning in the world.  It occurred in 1950 in Toyama Prefecture in Japan.  However, the first time the disease was reported here was in 1912.  Toyama Prefecture was at the time the leading industrial prefecture on the Japan sea coast.  Itai-itai disease literally translates to “ouch-ouch” disease, named for the painful screams of its victims.

Cadmium Poisoning

Cadmium poisoning is a serious example of the toxicity of some metals in the body.  In the body cadmium has no constructive function, meaning it serves no biological function except as a toxin.  Cadmium is highly toxic even at low doses.  Some of the effects of acute cadmium exposure are flu-like symptoms, fever, chills, muscle aches.  These flu-like symptoms are referred to as “The Cadmium Blues”.  More serious exposure to cadmium has much more detrimental effects.  Any significant amount of cadmium taken up by the body immediately poisons the liver and kidneys.  Proximal Renal Tubular Dysfunction occurs when significant amounts of cadmium are ingested, meaning the kidneys lose their ability to remove acid from the blood.  A side effect of this is Gout, most likely contributing to much of the pain endured by victims of Itai-itai.  The kidney damage caused by cadmium is irreversible.  Serious damage is also inflicted upon the bones in a victim of Itai-itai.  Cadmium poisoning leads to osteomalacia (softening of the bones) and osteoporosis (loss of bone mass and weakness).  In extreme cases of this a person with Itai-itai can sustain bone fractures from their body weight alone.  Cadmium is also a carcinogen.

Why Did Itai-itai Disease Even Occur?

Mining was prevalent in the Toyama Prefecture of Japan starting around the year 710.  After WWI, new mining technology arriving from Europe made the Kamioka Mines in Toyama among the most productive in the world.  Starting all the way back in 1910 cadmium was being released in significant quantities into the Jinzu River in Toyama.  This was a major problem because the cadmium in the water killed all the fish, not to mention it was the major source for irrigation for the surrounding paddy fields, as well as drinking water.  In 1912 the first documented case of the disease emerged.  This was only two years after the cadmium had shown up in large quantities in the river.  This means that there was a lot of cadmium present.

Finally to the Point – Pregnancy as it Relates to Cadmium Poisoning

It was reported that over 200 elderly women living in the Jinzu Valley in the 1940s being mothers of multiple children were disabled by the disease.  This was on top of a reported 65 deaths of women thanks to Itai-itai.  So what was going on?  Why were pregnant women at more of a risk for cadmium poisoning?

Metal Mimicry is the Answer

The key actually lies in a close relative of cadmium, namely in zinc.  Zinc and cadmium share an uptake pathway in the body.  So, cadmium which is very similar to zinc in reactivity, is taken up by the zinc uptake protein in the body unknowingly.  And it seems like it’s taken up in large quantities, very quickly.  Tests on zinc uptake in yeast cells show that the zinc uptake protein ZNT1 followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics when importing zinc.  However, cadmium did not.  The point at which the importing of cadmium started to reach Vmax was not found.  This means that the saturation point of the receptors that were shuttling cadmium into the cell was not in the same range as that for zinc, they were much higher.  So, it seems like the process of cadmium uptake is much quicker than that of zinc.

Figure 1.  The Michaelis-Menten Kinetics of the ZNT1 protein in Yeast when Importing Zinc and Cadmium

Zn Cd Protein Kinetics

From: Pence, N. S. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 4956-60 (2000).

What Does This Have to do with Pregnant Women?

A normal adult woman needs 7.0 mg/day.  However, a pregnant woman needs even more than this, and its believed that the body accounts for this by increased uptake from the gut.  On top of that, women who are breast feeding need even more, closer to 9.0 to 13.0 mg/day.  In the first four months of breast feeding, the milk contains 2 mg of zinc and a woman needs and extra 6 mg/day of zinc to make up for this.

Thinking About the Normal Diet of a Woman in this Region

During the mid-1900s in a prefecture in Japan it would be pretty safe to assume these women ate a lot of rice.  But, this turns out to be a very bad idea.  The rice is mainly irrigated by water from the Jinzu River which we know has been pumped full of cadmium.  So, now we have rice that is normally depleted of zinc and saturated with cadmium.  This is not the best thing for a pregnant woman to be eating when their bodies are trying to uptake extra zinc.  But, how would they know?  Or better yet what could replace a staple food like rice if it were cut out of the diet?

The Big Picture

Now we know that :

  1. Pregnant women’s bodies increase their uptake of zinc through the gut
  2. A staple food of the region was literally saturated with cadmium
  3. Zinc and cadmium share an uptake pathway in the body

It’s not hard to see how so much cadmium got into the bodies of these women.  With cadmium and zinc sharing an uptake pathway, the body is fooled into taking up loads of cadmium that it believes is zinc.  On top of that these women probably weren’t getting enough zinc, and a zinc deficiency can lead to a 15 fold retention rate for cadmium.  So, at first glance it would seem there isn’t a lot of connection between pregnancy and cadmium poisoning.  But, as you can see that’s not the case.

References

Wikipedia.  (2007).  Itai-itai Disease.  Retrieved September 24, 2007.

Energy Citations Database.  (2001).  Document #5175630.  Retrieved September 20, 2007.

VEGSOC.  Zinc Information Sheet.  Retrieved September 20, 2007.

Kanazawa-Med.  Itai-itai Disease.  Retrieved September 23, 2007.

Wikipedia.  (2007).  Cadmium poisoning.  Retrieved September 24, 2007.

N. S. Pence, P. B. Larsen, S. D. Ebbs, D. L. D. Letham, M. M. Lasat, D. F. Garvin, D. Eide, L. V. Kochian.  (2000).  “The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens”  Plant Biology, 97(9), 4956-60.

Author: Jarrod Rasnake


 

What is Nuclear Medicine?

Nuclear medicine is a subdivision of medical imaging where the patient is injected with a radioactive material that highlights or treats a disease or deformity.  The radioactive material is usually referred to as a radiotracer or radiopharmaceutical.  There are three ways that the radiotracer can be sent to its destination and these include injection, ingestion of a pill, or inhalation of a gas depending on where the radiotracer is needed.   Once inside the body this chemical accumulates at its intended target and gives off pairs of gamma rays.  Two or three different devices then detect these gamma rays.  These include a gamma camera, a Positron Emission Tomography scanner, and/or probe.  In terms of diagnosing ailments, it can be useful in determining kidney function, heart blood flow and function, respiratory function, gallbladder inflammation, density and structure of bones, presence and location of cancerous tissue, location of an infection, measure thyroid function, abnormalities in the brain, and localization of lymph nodes before surgery.  The second function of nuclear medicine is as a therapeutic treatment for hyperthyroidism, transport of antibodies for certain forms lymphoma, blood disorders, and tumors that have metastasized to the bones.

How Does the PET Scan Work?

PET scanning is a branch of nuclear medicine that uses radiotracers that emit positrons in the form of decay.  A positron is a particle that has an opposite charge to an electron.  These positrons encounter electrons and the two collide, emitting a pair of gamma photons.  These photons travel in every direction together, which creates the 3-D architecture of the organ being observed.  The tube that the patient is laying in is lined with a material called a scintillator.  This material absorbs the pairs of gamma photons and converts the energy to longer wavelength fluorescence that is easier to detect and record.  There are several radionuclides used for PET scans and they include carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, and fluorine-18.  These radionuclides are typically bound to compound that is normally used by the body like glucose or a glucose analogue, water, ammonia, or to molecules that bind to receptors that are drug targets.  Once the radiotracer is taken into the body there is a waiting period so that the chemical can be concentrated at the target.

PET process

A PET Scan of the Brain

The most common radiotracer used for neurology is FDG.  FDG stands for fluorodeoxyglucose.  It is one of the glucose analogues that can be absorbed by live tissue.

fluorodeoxyglucose

Once absorbed by a cell, the FDG cannot be phosphorylated and undergo glycolysis, so this delay gives the FDG time to release the positrons needed to find its location.  This can show doctors where there is good and not so good uptake of glucose a.k.a. live/normal functioning tissue. One application is locating a focal point of seizures.  At the focal point there is a significant decrease of oxygen metabolism.  One of the uses of FDG is at the forefront of Alzheimer’s disease diagnoses.  In a brain that is riddled with Alzheimer’s like pathologies there will be a significant decrease in both glucose and oxygen metabolism together.  A third application of using the PET scan for neuroimaging is to obtain an image of receptor pools in the brain.  The radiotracer that is injected is a ligand for a certain neuroreceptor, so that it binds with the specified receptor in the brain.  Certain neurological diseases can be characterized by increased or decreased receptor pools, which can be visualized with a PET-scan.

PET brain image

References

Radiology Info PET

What is PET

Medical Imaging

Image Sources

Sagittal brain MRI

PET image

fluorodeoxyglucose

PET and bhcp

Author: Weston Andrews


 

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most powerful techniques to date in the fields of diagnostic medicine and biomedical research.(1) It is a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualize the structure and function of the body and is especially useful in the areas of neurological, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging.


Figure 1. A MRI Instrument

When coupled with the use of a contrast agent, the images provided by such a technique are greatly enhanced enabling for the much improved ability to distinguish from different tissue types.(2) The MRI contrast agents in clinical use today are predominantly gadolinium based, and consist of a central paramagnetic gadolinium (III) ion chelated to an 8-coordinate water soluble ligand and a water molecule, to form a 9-coordinate complex.(3) The geometries of such complexes are found to be tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) or capped square antiprism (CSAP) with the former TTP geometry being most favorable.(3) These geometries are depicted below in Figure 2.

Figure 2. 9-Coordinate Geometries Adopted by Gadolinium Contrast Agents (3)

Gadolinium is a lanthanide metal and has a silvery-white appearance with a metallic luster as shown in Figure 3. Gadolinium itself has no known biological role, but rather is used in research techniques with biological systems.(4)


Figure 3. Gadolinium Metal

Gadolinium(III) is a toxic heavy metal with seven unpaired electrons. It has a size comparable to Ca(II) which can lead to the disruption of crucial Ca(II)-required signaling in the body.(5) The key reason for the perfectly safe use of gadolinium (III) ions in contrast agents (even when administered on the gram scale) is attributed to the fact that the gadolinium ion is strongly bound within its ligand and possesses zero observable dissociation from its ligand within the body.(3) This strong binding exists despite the presence of numerous chelating substances in the body such as phosphates, citrates and transferrin which allows the gadolinium complexes to be excreted from the body with the gadolinium(III) ion still intact.(3) Some examples of MRI contrast agents are shown in Figure 4.(3)

MagnevistTM (1, Figure 4) was the first drug to be approved as a MRI contrast agent (in 1988) and is produced and marketed by Schering, Germany.(3) It contains a highly paramagnetic gadolinium(III) central atom chelated to a 8-coordinate diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) ligand and to one water molecule to form a di-anionic complex. It is also marketed under the generic name of gadopentetate dimeglumine.


Figure 4. Various Gadolinium-containing MRI Contrast Agents

ProHanceTM (2, Figure 4) contains a gadolinium (III) ion chelated to an 8-coordinate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1-(2-hydroxypropyl)4,7,10-triacetic acid (HP-DO3A) ligand and to a solvent water molecule to form a neutral complex. It is produced by Bracco, Italy and goes by the generic name of gadoteridol.(3) OptiMARKTM (3, Figure 4) is a drug in clinical trials for evaluation as a potential extracellular MRI contrast agent.(3) It is produced by Mallinckrodt, USA and also is makes use of a highly paramagnetic gadolinium(III) metal center. The gadolinium is bound to an 8-coordinate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-N,N’-bis(methoxyethylamide) (DTPA-BMEA) ligand and one water molecule.

Since the approval of Magnevist in 1988 it has been projected that over 30 metric tons of gadolinium has been injected into millions of people around the world.(3) In 1999, about 30% of all MRI exams made use of gadolinium contrast agents and it has been predicted that this percentage has increased to near 50% to date.(7)

MRI evolves pulsing the target with radio frequency (RF) in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field to induce spin flip excitation of water molecule protons.(8) When the protons relax back to their ground state, energy is released back into the surroundings while being recorded, to eventually give rise to the MR image. There are three tissue parameters that determine the intensity (brightness) of the generated signal and thus image contrast between different tissue types namely:

  1. Proton density
  2. T1 (spin-lattice) relaxation time (a few seconds)
  3. T2 (spin-spin) relaxation time (a few hundred milliseconds) (8)

MRI scans that target T1 relaxation times are called T1-weighted scans and scans that target T2 relaxation times are called T2-weighted scans.(8) In T1 weighted scans, a short repetition time (time span between two successive excitations) of less than 600 ms is used to create contrast in the MR image.(8) Tissues having short T1 relaxation times are able to relax to the ground state to produce a signal but, tissues that have longer T1 relaxation times do not have time to relax between successive pulses and are kept in the excited state generating little signal. Tissues with short T1 relaxation times thus appear bright in the MR image in contrast to tissues with low T1 relaxation times.(8)

The T2-weighted scans make use of an echo time (period of time between excitation and measurement of MR signal).(8) T2 relaxation times are much shorter that T1 relaxation times. The larger the echo time the greater will be the image contrast. This contrast is achieved because tissue possessing short T2 relaxation times (shorter than echo time) fully relax before signal acquisition starts and tissue possessing longer T2 relaxation times (longer than echo time) are still relaxing at the comencment of signal acquisition and thus generates a signal.(8) Tissue having longer T2 relaxation times thus appear bright while tissues having short T2 relaxation times appear dark in the MR image.


Figure 5. Various MR Images

The gadolinium containing contrast agents such as those shown in Figure 4 reduce T1 and T2 relaxation times by roughly the same amount and are best visualized using T1-weighted scans.(3) Tissue containing higher concentrations of contrast agent will have heightened intensity in the MR images due to the decreased T1 relaxation time that it induces in the protons contained by surrounding water molecules. This also allows for the use of shorter repetition times as the contrast agent more rapidly restores the temporary excitation back to the ground state in between pulses.(7) These gadolinium(III) contrast agents function by rapidly transferring the excitation contained in the water protons to the highly paramagnetic gadolinium(III) central ion. The water exchange rate (1/τm, Figure 6) is thus of importance in MRI contrasting agents with high (1/τm) rates being desired. Other factors important to the efficiency of the contrast agents is the degree of molecular tumbling and number of inner sphere coordinated water molecules as shown in Figure 6. Increased contrast efficiency has been show when molecular tumbling is reduced (by increasing molecular weight) and when more inner sphere water molecules are present. Gadolinium(III) contrast agents rarely contain more than one inner sphere coordinated water molecule due to the compromised stabilty of the resulting complex with fewer bonds to the chelating ligand.(3)


Figure 6.  A Scheme Adapted from Raymond et al. (7) Highlighting the Factors that Affect the Efficiency of Contrast Agents

References

  1. Pierre, V. C.; Botta, M.; Aime, S.; Raymond, K. N. Inorg. Chem. 2006, 45, 8355-8364.
  2. Datta, A.; Hooker, J. M.; Botta, M.; Francis, M. B.; Aime, S.; Raymond, K. N. J. Am. Chem Soc. 2008, 130, 2546-2552.
  3. Caravan, P.; Ellison, J. F.; McMurry, T. J.; Lauffer, R. B. Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 2293-2352.
  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadolinium
  5. Cacheris, W. P.; Quay, S. C.; Rocklage, S. M. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1990, 8, 467-481.
  6. Jocher, C. J.;  Moore, E. G.; Xu, J.; Avedano, S.; Botta, M.; Aime, S.; Raymond, K. N. Inorg. Chem. 2007, 46, 9182-9191.
  7. Raymond, K. N.; Pierre, V. C. Bioconjugate Chem. 2005, 16, 3-8.
  8. Weishaupt, D.; Köchli, V. D.; Marincek, B. How Does MRI Work? Springer, 2003, 1-15.

Image Sources

MRI instrument
Gadolinium Metal
Various MR Images

Author:  Allan Prior


 

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects one to two percent of people worldwide, and five percent of women over the age of 55 (1).  Women between the ages of forty and sixty are most susceptible to the disease.  It is a painful, incurable disease, and can lead to total loss of joint use within ten years of onset (2).  Symptoms are pain and swelling of the affected joint, and over time the soft tissue surrounding the joint erodes away.  People with advanced rheumatoid arthritis often have deformed hands or feet due to uncontrollable hyperextention or hyperflexation.  The causes of rheumatoid arthritis are unknown.

joint erosion

Joint Erosion

Two classes of drugs are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.  The first class of drugs, called “first-line” drugs, are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which include drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen.  These drugs simply alleviate pain and swelling.  The second class of drugs, or the “second-line” drugs, are disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and include such drugs as methotrexate, D-penicillamine and various gold salts (3).  DMARDs “modify” rheumatoid arthritis, and are able to slow its advance, allowing patients to retain flexibility and motion for longer periods of time.  In general, these are dangerous drugs and are only prescribed for patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis who are not responding to other treatments.

rheumatoid arthritis hand

Rheumatoid Arthritis Hand

Gold salts have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis since the early twentieth century.  They are immunosuppressants.  Unlike other DMARDs, gold salts have been known to reverse erosive damage (4).  Examples of gold salts are gold sodium thiomalate (“Myocrisin”), gold thioglucose (“Solganal”) and gold thiosulfate.  Gold sodium thiomalate is the only gold salt that is FDA approved.  Countries outside the United States use other gold salts as well.

The Immune System

Rheumatoid arthritis patients are interested in anything that reduces pain and swelling.  The fact that gold salts are also able to reverse erosive damage makes them especially attractive as a treatment option.

The one biochemical reaction that gold ion is known to have in the body is binding to sulfhydryl groups (-SH) and interfering with reactions that rely on these functional groups (5,6).  This gives gold salts the potential to affect a wide range of reactions.  Links have been found between gold salt therapy and reduced activity of certain areas of the immune system.  For instance, gold salts inhibit the activity of lysosomal enzymes, which are important for the action of phagocytotic cells (7).  In the immune response, infected cells are targeted and attacked by phagocytotic cells, which engulf the infected cells and digest them using lysosomal enzymes.  In another example, studies have found that patients with inflammatory autoimmune disorders have greater levels of “substance P,” a neuropeptide found around nerve cells.  Gold therapy reduces levels of substance P in the blood serum (8).  Several studies have found that gold therapy affects relative levels of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes.  Specifically, gold salts lower levels of PGF-2α and increases levels PGE2.  PGF-2α is involved in stimulating the release of lysosomal enzymes, while PGE2 inhibits lysosomal enzyme release (9).  By changing relative levels of these prostaglandins, gold salts affect the immune response.

side effects

In short, gold salts suppress the immune response in such a way that the effects of rheumatoid arthritis are greatly reduced and in some cases reversed, making them very attractive to patients.

Mitochondria and Oxidative Stress

Doctors want to prescribe medicine that will treat their patients as well as possible, as fast as possible and as safely as possible.  Gold therapy has the potential to lead to some serious side effects that make doctors leery to prescribe gold salts.

The ability of gold ion to bind to a thiol group allows it to bind to proteins in the mitochondrial membrane.  When this happens, the mitochondrial membrane becomes more permeable to positively charged ions.  This results in decoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation reaction that synthesizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (10).  Mitochondria rely on a charge gradient to catalyze ATP production, and when this gradient is disrupted, ATP synthesis is severely inhibited and leads to cell death.  In addition, studies have found that gold may be retained in mitochondria of liver, kidney and bone marrow cells, all areas where gold treatment are the most devastating (11).  The presence of any heavy metal in the liver or kidneys interferes with their filtration function, and can lead to damage that is shown by the secretion of proteins or blood in the urine.  The effect of gold on bone marrow and blood cells (blood cells originate in the bone marrow) are the most serious side effect of gold therapy.  Patients on gold therapy have lower levels of red blood cells, white blood cells and blood platelet cells.  In severe cases, aplastic anemia can occur, where normal bone marrow stem cells are being replaced by fat cells, and the body is physically unable to replenish the blood cells that it is losing (12).  If left untreated, this can lead to death.

oxidative decoupling

Oxidative Decoupling

Thus, while gold salts may have some very beneficial treatment effects, their side effects are common enough and serious enough that doctors shy away from prescribing them.

Drug Comparision

In recent years, gold salts have largely been replaced by other drugs for rheumatoid arthritis treatment, especially the anti-cancer drug methotrexate.  Methotrexate may not be a “better” treatment so much as it is a newer treatment whose track record is not long enough to be as bad as that of gold salts.

In terms of dosage and effect, methotrexate has an advantage over gold sodium thiomalate.  Methotrexate dosage is 7.5 mg per week, and improvement may be seen in three to six weeks (13).  Gold sodium thiomalate, on the other hand, has a dosage between 25 and 50 mg per week and it may take three to six months for improvement to be detected (14).  In addition, the half-life of gold in the body (3-27 days) is much longer than that of methotrexate (3-10 hours).  So less methotrexate is required for a faster response with less of a chance to cause adverse reactions than gold salts.

Where methotrexate loses out is in side effects and drug interactions.  Overall, methotrexate has fewer side effects than gold salts, and a lower percentage of patients are affected by these side effects.  However, where gold salt side effects are almost always completely reversible upon cessation of treatment, methotrexate side effects, especially lung and liver damage, are not and can cause health problems later. Also, methotrexate interacts with a wide range of other drugs, including NSAIDs used to treat pain, and cause unexpected adverse reactions.  It is never used in conjunction with other drugs.  Gold sodium thiomalate, however, interacts with very few drugs, the most dangerous being penicillamine, another DMARD.  It is always used as part of a drug regime.  Finally, on a more economic basis, gold sodium thiomalate is much cheaper than methotrexate, costing less than $50 for a solution of 10mg/mL (15).  Methotrexate costs between $200 and $300 for 10 mg (16).

drug interactions

Whether or not methotrexate or gold salts are better rheumatoid arthritis drugs is a decision that should be left up to experts; yet looking at the data available to the public, it is not obvious why methotrexate, which appears to be as dangerous a drug as most gold salts, is FDA-approved while most gold salts are not.  It is especially important to note that the mechanism of action in rheumatoid arthritis is unknown for both drugs.  Some patients might prefer to be more at risk for coming down with side effects if those side effects are completely reversible as they are with gold salts.  Doctors want safety and results and  methotrexate gives faster results with fewer side effects.  All drugs containing heavy metals are toxic due to the effects of heavy metals on the body.  They are all dangerous, yet if used correctly and with caution can have great benefit.  Gold salts for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a good example of how heavy metal drugs can be taken off the market for being dangerous while other equally dangerous drugs are left on for reasons that are not clear to the public.  Ultimately, while people with little knowledge of medicine should not necessarily have a hand in drug policy, it is important that they have access to information concerning treatment and drug options, and why one treatment is FDA-approved while another is not.

Resources

http://www.medicinenet.com

http://www.hopkins-arthritis.org

http://www.fda.gov

References

(1) Rheumatoid arthritis John Hopkins Arthritis Center.  Accessed November 19, 2007.

(2) “Rheumatoid Arthritis.”  Wikipedia.org.  Accessed November 1, 2007.

(3)  Rheumatoid arthritis MedicineNet.  Accessed November 19, 2007.

(4) Ward, J. R.  Role of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs versus Cytotoxic Agents in the Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis.  The Amer. J. Med.  (1988) 85, 39-44.

(5) Westwick, W. J., Allsop, J. Watts, R. W. E.  The Effect of Gold Salts on the Biosynthesis of Uridine Nucleotides in Human Granulocytes.  Biochem. Pharmoc.  (1974) 23, 153-162.

(6) Abou-Khalil, W. H, Yunis, A. A., Abou-Khalil, S.  Discriminatory Effects of Gold Compounds and Carriers on Mitochondria Isolated from Different Tissues.  Biochem. Parmoc.  (1981) 30, 3181-3186.

(7) Westwick, W. J., Allsop, J. Watts, R. W. E.  The Effect of Gold Salts on the Biosynthesis of Uridine Nucleotides in Human Granulocytes.  Biochem. Pharmoc.  (1974) 23, 153-162.

(8) deMiguel, E., Arnalich, F., Tato, E., Vaszquez, J. J., Gijon-Banos, J., Hernanz, A.  The Effect of Gold Salts on Substance P Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis.  Neurosci. Letters.  (1994) 174, 185-187.

(9) Stone, K. J., Mather, S. J., Gibson, P. P.  Selective Inhibition of Prostaglandin Biosynthesis by Gold Salts and Phenylbutazone.  Prostaglandins.  (1975) 10, 241-251.

(10) Abou-Khalil, W. H, Yunis, A. A., Abou-Khalil, S.  Discriminatory Effects of Gold Compounds and Carriers on Mitochondria Isolated from Different Tissues.  Biochem. Parmoc.  (1981) 30, 3181-3186.

(11) Abou-Khalil, W. H, Yunis, A. A., Abou-Khalil, S.  Discriminatory Effects of Gold Compounds and Carriers on Mitochondria Isolated from Different Tissues.  Biochem. Parmoc.  (1981) 30, 3181-3186.

(12) Rawson, N. S. B., Harding, S. R., Malcolm, E., Lueck, L.  Hospitalizations for Aplastic Anemia and Agranulocytosis in Saskatchewan:  Incidence and Associations with Antecedent Prescription Drug Use.  J. Clin. Epidem.  (1998) 51, 1343-1355.

(13) Methotrexate on drugs.com Accessed November 24, 2007.

(14)  Gold sodium thiomalate Accessed November 24, 2007.

(15) Gold sodium thiomalate Accessed November 25, 2007.

(16) Methotrexate Accessed November 25, 2007.

Image source

“Oxidative decoupling” from Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith G.; Pratt, Charlotte W. Fundamentals of Biochemistry; Life at the Molecular Level. Ch. 17:
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Figure 17-20. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2nd ed. 2006. p. 568.

Author: Megan Love Huffman


 

Cause of Iron Deficiency During Pregnancy

During pregnancy the volume of blood in maternal circulation must increase concordantly with the growth of the fetus and the need for a fetal circulation system (5). Between 600 mg and 1 g of iron is required to accommodate this change (2). As a consequence of this, iron is depleted from maternal resources (blood levels and stores) to provide sufficient levels for the fetus. Once the maternal sources have been depleted the mother may enter a state of iron deficiency that can progress to anemia.

Anemia

Iron deficiency is defined as “low serum ferritin and sparse or absent stainable iron in bone marrow” (1). Numerous studies have shown detrimental effects to mother and fetus when iron is deficient. These effects include but are not limited to: maternal and fetal morbidity, low birth weight, decrease in duration of pregnancy, lower Apgar scores during labor, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood (1,2). The World Health Organization reports that 35% to 75% of pregnant women in developing countries and 18% of pregnant women in industrialized countries are anemic with approximately 43% of women being anemic before they become pregnant (9).

Iron Supplementation

Iron supplementation during pregnancy to prevent iron deficiency can be an effective means to prevent some of the previous mentioned problems (1). However it has been hard to quantify the benefits due to confounding factors such as maternal iron status prior to pregnancy (as the symptoms don’t show until late in pregnancy) and the number of previous pregnancies. The WHO recommends that pregnant women in areas with a “high prevalence of malnutrition” should be given iron supplementation at a dose of 60 mg per day for six months to prevent and treat iron deficiency anemia. WHO suggests in areas where the prevalence of anemia is more than 40% that supplementation continues for three months after the delivery of the child (9).

Mechanism of Iron Transfer from Mother to Fetus

Iron has to be transferred from the mother to the fetus via the placenta and this transfer can not be reversed (7). Iron bound to transferrin (Tf), an iron transport protein, as diferric transferrin is taken up in the maternal circulation and targeted to transferrin receptors (TfR) on the apical surface of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. The Tf (with iron) is taken into the cells and the iron is released resulting in the production of a maternal apotransferrin which is returned to maternal circulation. The iron released into the placental cells is captured by ferritin, an iron storage protein, and is transferred to available fetal apotransferrin and exits into the fetal circulation as holotransferrin (1).

iron transport

Regulation of Placental Iron Transfer

It is believed that rates of iron transfer from mother to fetus are controlled by the placenta. Studies have shown that when the fetus is removed but the placenta remains the amount of iron taken up from maternal circulation remains the same suggesting the presence of the fetus has little effect on iron uptake (8). It is thought that the placenta controls iron transfer by regulating the number of transferrin receptors on the materal circulation facing side of the placenta (7). Although it is known that the functions of the placenta are controlled by cytokines, the exact mechanism of how TfR increase is regulated is not known (5). TNF-alpha is a cytokine that is suspected to regulate the number of transferrin receptors on the maternal side of the placenta. Studies have shown that TNF-alpha can induce apoptosis of placental cells and high levels of TNF-alpha have been found in placentas of early to midstage failed pregnancies (5). Another study has shown that iron supplementation can increase TNF-alpha production while the presence of an iron chelator can decrease production of TNF-alpha (6). This suggests that TNF-alpha regulates TfR levels in counter-intuitive manner, wherein decreases in available iron decrease levels of TNF-alpha and increase levels of TfR. The exact mechanism by which this is accomplished remains unknown.

References

(1) Allen, L.H. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 1280S-12841S (2000).

(2) Gambling, L., Danzeisen, R., Fosset, C., Ansersen, H.S., Dunford, S., Kaila, S., Srai, S., McArdle, H.J. Iron and copper interactions in development and the effct of pregnancy outcome. The Journal of Nutrition 133, 1554S-1556S (2003).

(3) Killip, S., Bennet, J.M., Chambers, M.D. Iron deficiency anemia. American Family Physician 75, 671-682 (2007).

(4) Lewis, R.M., Doherty, C.B., Burton, G.J., Hales, C.N. Effects of maternal iron restriction on placental vascularization in the rat. Placenta 22, 534-539 (2001).

(5) McArdle, H.J., Danzeisen, R., Fosset, C., Gambling, L. The role of placenta in iron transfer from mother to fetus and the relationship between iron status and fetal outcome. BioMetals 16, 161-167 (2003).

(6) Scaccabarozzi, A., Arosio, P., Weiss, G., Dongiovanni, P., Franzani, A.L., Mattiolo, M., Levi, S., Fiorello, G.F. Relationship between TNF-alpha and iron metabolism in differentiating human monocytic THP-1 cells. British Journal of Haematology 110, 978-984 (2000).

(7) Srai, S.K., Momford, A., McArdle, H.J. Iron transport across cell membranes: molecular understanding of duodenal and placental iron uptake. Best Practice and Research Clinical Haematology 15, 243-259 (2002).

(8) Wong, C.T., McArdle, H.J., Morgan, E.H. Effect or iron chelators on placental uptake and transfer of iron in rat. American Journal of Physiology15, 243-259 (1987).

(9) http://www.who.int/making_pregnancy_safer/en

Author: Sara Dudgeon


 

Candy: A Sweet Treat or Dangerous Trick

Every Halloween parents are warned of the possible dangers of the candy being passed out. From razor blades in the candied apples to ensuring all candy is properly sealed, parents have their hands full checking the candy. However, parents also have to worry about the contents of candy straight from the manufacturers. Unfortunately, children are receiving chocolate candy with varying levels of lead. But is this a problem since the FDA approves of 0.1 ppm maximum allowable lead levels. The limit was also just lowered in 2006 from 0.5 ppm, and is only limited to candies that are marketed towards children, which excludes dark chocolate and food products containing chocolate but not considered to have a child-based market. In addition, a distinct difference in manufacturing techniques, ingredients, and lead content exist between chocolates made in different countries.(1) Mexican chocolate, in particular, can prove to be extremely hazardous because of the extra ingredients added. This contributor overviews the differences in chocolates, the contamination routes, potential dangers lead consumption, and actions to take (focusing on danger of lead consumption).

It’s All an Illusion

The differences in domestic chocolate and Mexican chocolate are not so distinct that you can easily screen them from your children. However, key ingredients (not found in domestic chocolate) are used in Mexican chocolate, namely chili and tamarind. The tradition of chili powder use in the chocolate recipe dates back to 595 A.D, and is considered essential to the culinary culture.(2)

So why are chili and tamarind a problem? In addition to the potential contamination from the lead ink in the wrapper, the cocoa bean, and the manufacturing method, Mexican chocolate contains chilies that often are contaminated with lead. The peppers are grown in lead rich soil, and then dried for the use in chocolate. The drying of the peppers actually causes the lead to become more concentrated. A study by the Orange County Register (CA) was conducted on chili to determine the amount of lead content.(3) It was discovered that from soil samples, chili powder samples, to finished product samples that lead is a common factor. From a Morelia market sample (from a seller that sells to chocolate companies), lead was found to be 1.5 ppm in a chili powder commonly used in Mexican chocolate production (tamarind was also found to have 1.5 ppm from the same market). Throughout the process of testing the water, soil, chili powder, and final product lead contents were found as high at 5 ppm. In addition to traditional chocolate, powdered snack mix products are generally made in Mexico and contain chili.(1) Since dark chocolate is a great risk to young children and the elderly that consume it, but is not restricted in lead content like milk chocolate a case study is being conducted to determine the threats. It is known that dark chocolate contains double the lead content of milk chocolate, and thus is more of threat because it is not regulated.(4) Furthermore, some lead comes from chocolate liquor used to make chocolate (dark chocolate containing more than milk chocolate).(1)

Where Does it Come From?

In 2005, the chocolate industry ran a test of 137 samples from seven different milk chocolate products and 226 samples from nine dark chocolate products. From these tests they found that the milk chocolate contained up to 0.222 ppm and the dark chocolate as high as 0.275 ppm. So where is all the lead coming from? In March of 2006, Dagoba recalled several of their chocolate lines because of contamination from new solder in one of the grinding machines.(5) It is well documented that lead can come from production and procession, packaging, and storage.(6) Production and processing have been discussed, and consist of absorption from the soil and grinding or cutting contamination. In addition packaging accounts for some lead content since bright yellow and red dyes on candy wrappers may contain lead.(7) It is also important to note that the primary exposure to lead is through ingestion.

Dangers of Lead

Everyone is at risk for lead poisoning, but children and the elderly are affected more at lower levels than others. However, lead is an accumulative hazard and thus possesses a greater problem because of the multiple pathways into the body. A person has to no only ensure that their pipes and paint are lead-free, but everything you come in contact with. Also it is known that Americans eat on average twelve pounds of chocolate per year, with intense marketing toward children.(8) Children under the age of six are at higher risk than others because their brains and central nervous system are still developing.(9) Even low levels will: reduce IQ, cause learning disorders, stunted growth, impair hearing, and cause kidney damage.(9) It was also discovered that children with higher levels of lead were prone to injuries and falls.(5) Roughly 430,000 American children between the ages of 1 and 5 years old have level above 10 ugm/dg of blood-lead.(10) These children, due to the side effects, are a market of $43.4 billon dollars.(11) Lead is also ingested more frequently in larger qualities in children than adults, and children absorb more lead than do adults.(6) Lead exposure in childhood has also been linked to higher absenteeism in high school, lower class rank, poorer verbal skills, longer reaction time, and poor hand-eye coordination.6 Also, the uptake of lead is increased when certain other metals are present. It was found that there was a higher absorption of lead when calcium was ingested at the same time.(12) Also be warned that some vitamin supplements contain more than the bottle states, and thus the lead content (which should be zero) and the calcium content might be higher than suspected.(13) Thus, although it is thought that you are helping your child to grow with a one-a-day chewable you might be stunting their growth.

Overall Physiological Effects(6)

  • At high levels of lead ataxia, coma, convulsions, death, hyperirritability, and stupor can occur.
  • Also for adults (high levels) it is known to decrease libido, cause: depression, fatigue, forgetfulness, impaired concentration, impotence, and weakness. (To name a few).
  • Children with acute lead exposure can have renal effects that are reversible if treated.
  • Lead decreases the heme biosynthesis by inhibiting d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and ferrochelatase activity.
    1. Ferrochelatase catalyzes the insertion of iron into protoporphyrin IX.
    2. The decrease also leads to increases erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) which binds more with zinc than iron.
  • This heme synthesis pathway is used for neural, renal, endocrine, and hepatic pathways.
  • Lead exposure also impedes conversion of vitamin D into its hormonal form, which is responsible for extra- and intra-cellular calcium homeostasis (affecting bone growth).
  • Also been linked to hypertension, although many factors go into hypertension.

Symptoms(6)

  • Most people with lead exposure are asymptomatic.

A informative table can be found at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/lead/pbcover_page2.html.

In addition to looking for signs, longbone radiographs are used to determine exposure. Below are two images of a five and three year old respectively with “lead lines”.(6)

lead lines 5
Five year old with “lead lines”

lead lines 3
Three-year old with “lead lines”

What to Do?

You should ensure that your environment has little to no lead; children are more susceptible to inhaling or eating lead from a house environment. Although it is unnecessary to exclude chocolate from the diet, it should be sparse and considered a treat.5 (5) Be aware of the unknown lead and higher calcium content in the vitamins you give your children. Also be aware of the symptoms and get the child check out immediately if you suspect any exposure. Be aware that you are at risk as well, and ensure you lead intake is not high. So this Halloween while checking your child’s candy, be sure to think about the amount of lead inherent in all those candies, and limit them to the pieces of candy that you will let them eat.

Resources

The History of Mexican Chocolate

Orange County Register “Toxic Treats”

Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry

Limiting Lead Intake from Chocolate

References

(1) ElAmin, A. Regulator lowers limits of lead levels in children’s candy. Decision News Media SAS. (2006).

(2) DeWitt, D. Chiles and Chocolate. FieryFoods.com. <http://www.fiery-foods.com/dave/chilechoc.asp&gt;

(3) Godines, V. Tests suggest lead introduced in powder. Freedom Communications, Inc. (2005).

(4) Raloff, J. Leaden Chocolates. Science News. 168, No. 19 (2005).

(5) McRandle, P.W. Lighten Hearts. Green Guide. 118 (2007).

(6) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease. Lead Toxicity. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. 9-55 (2007).

(7) Mushak P, Davis JM, Crocetti AF, Grant LD. Prenatal and postnatal effects of low-level lead exposure: integrated summary of a report to the US Congress on childhood lead poisoning. Environmental Research 50:11-36 (1989).

(8) American Environmental Safety Institute. Lead in Chocolate: The impact on children’s health. American Environmental Safety Institute Fact Sheet. (2002).

(9) National Safety Council. Lead Poisoning. National Safety Council. (2004).

(10) EPA. 2004b. Measure B1: Lead in the blood of children. Washington, DC. <www.epa.gov/economics/children/body_burdens/b1.htm>

(11) Landrigan PJ, Schechter CB, Lipton JM, et al. Environmental pollutants and disease in American children: Estimates of morbidity, mortality, and costs for lead poisoning, asthma, cancer, and developmental disabilities. Environmental Health Perspective 110 (7):721–728 (2002).

(12) Yanez, L., Batres, L., Carrizales, L., Santoyo, M., Escalante, V., and Diaz-Barriaga, F. Toxicological assessment of azarcon, a lead salt used as a folk remedy in Mexico. I. Oral toxicity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 41 91-97 (1994).

(13) Garcia-Rico, L., Leyva-Perez, J., and Jara-Marini, M.E. Content and daily intake of copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, and mercury from dietary supplements in Mexico. Food and Chemical Toxiciology. 45 1599-1605 (2007).

Author: Jessica Sheehan


 

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that makes uses of light, a photosensitizer and molecular oxygen to orchestrate programmed cell death in various biological systems due to the resultant generation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS).(1)

The principle of using light for the treatment of disease has been known for centuries and has been traced as far back as to the ancient Egyptians (about 4000 years ago) who successfully utilized light in conjunction with orally ingested Amni Majus plant in the treatment of vitiligo, a skin disorder of unknown cause.(2) In the late nineteenth century, Finsen demonstrated the successful use of heat filtered light from a carbon arc lamp in treating lupus vulgaris, a tubercular skin condition, which earned him a Nobel prize in physiology and medicine in 1903.(3) In the early twentieth century, the first account of PDT being used for treatment of solid tumors (cancer) was reported by the Von Tappeiner’s group in Munich.(4, 5) Much later, in the late 1980s, further studies culminated in the development of the photosensitizer Photofrin (Figure 1) which in 1993 was approved by the Canadian health agency for the treatment of bladder cancer and later in Japan, USA and some European countries for treatment of certain esophageal cancers and non-small cell lung cancers.(6)

photofrin

Figure 1. Structure of Photofrin, n = 1-9.
The structure of Photofrin has been found to be oligomeric in nature and consists of a number of porphyrin monomers, with each monomer comprising of a basic tetrapyrrolic porphine scaffold (four pyrrole sub-units interconnected by four methine groups).

The success of PDT treatment is attributed to the fact that it is highly selective, allowing for the targeting of cancerous tissue without the collateral damage that can be associated with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Based on the fact that diseased cancerous tissue is metabolically more active that healthy tissue, after administration, the photosensitizer readily accumulates in the rapidly dividing cancerous tissue.(1) Once the photosensitizer has accumulated in the cancerous tissue, it remains inactive until activated by an external source of light irradiation. Light of the correct wavelength is then directed at the tumor site electronically exciting the photosensitizer which subsequently transfers this excitation to molecular oxygen (triplet oxygen) contained within the tissue cells to form cytotoxic singlet oxygen, as well as other ROS.(7) It is these resulting products that attack cellular components such as DNA and proteins resulting in cell lysis and eventual death. An outline adapted from Josefsen and Boyle (6) showing this overall process is depicted below in Figure 2.

                               stages of photodynamic therapy

Figure 2. The Stages of Photodynamic Therapy

light therapy           pdt treatment
Figure 3. Applications of External Irradiation

The generation of singlet oxygen results from the reaction between the excited triplet state photosensitizer (3Psen*) and the ground state molecular oxygen (3O2) via a type II process which is a spin allowed transition. The triplet state photosensitizer is previously formed as a result of intersystem crossing (ISC) from the excited singlet state photosensitizer which forms as a result of the absorption of external irradiation. An energy diagram adapted from Josefsen and Boyle (6) that highlights the formation of singlet oxygen is depicted below in Figure 4.
jablonski diagram
Figure 4. Formation of Singlet Oxygen

As mentioned earlier, Photofin (Figure 1) was the first PDT photosensitizer to be approved for clinical use however it is far from ideal as it possesses prolonged patient photosensitivity resulting from poor clearance from the body, as well as poor long wavelength absorption. Ideally, photosensitizers must absorb at longer wavelengths such as in the red or near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (Figure 5), as this allows for deeper tissue penetration.(8)
electromagnetic spectrum
Figure 5. Electromagnetic spectrum

Ever since the approval of Photfin, researchers from around the globe have been trying to develop new PDT photosensitizers.(6) A large number of metal-macrocycle complexes have more recently been developed for use as photosensitizers with varied photodynamic consequences. Two metal containing PDT photosensitizers of interest that will be briefly discussed in this report are Purlytin and Lutex.

Purlytin (Figure 6) is a drug marketed by Miravant Medical Technologies in Santa Barbra, California, USA. It has been successfully used in the treatment of non-malignant conditions of psoriasis and restenosis.(6) It has also undergone Phase II clinical trials in the USA for PDT treatment against cutaneous metastatic breast cancer and Kaposi’s sarcoma in HIV patients.(6)

purlytin
Figure 6. Structure of Purlytin

Purlytin contains a chlorin macrocyclic scaffold with a tin atom bound in the central cavity. The presence of the chelated tin atom has shown to alter the electronic nature of the chromophore causing a red shift (20-30 nm) in its absorption as compared to the metal-free chlorin. This gives rise to a photosensitizer with an absorption range of 650-680 nm in the electromagnetic spectrum.(6)

Lutex (Figure 7) is a drug marketed by Pharmacyclics, California, USA. Lutex has entered Phase II clinical trials in the USA for testing against breast cancer and malignant melanomas.(6) Lutex contains a texaphyrin scaffold with a centrally chelated lutetium atom in its ligation site. The texaphyrins are derivatives of porphyrins but instead possess a penta-aza central core. The following molecule was shown to have a maximum absorption in the 730-770 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum which deems this drug to be a highly promising candidate for deeper PDT applications. Interestingly it has been shown that the presence of the central metal atom in the texaphyrin scaffolds plays a huge role in the photoactivation as the ligand derivatives alone show little absorption.(6)
lutex
Figure 7. Structure of Lutex
References

(1) Josefsen, L. B.; Boyle, R. W. “Photodynamic therapy: novel third-generation photosensitizers one step closer?” British Journal of Pharmacology 2008, 154, 1-3.
(2) Edelson, M. F. “Light-activated drugs.” Scientific American 1988, 259, 68–75.
(3) Bonnett, R “Photosensitizers of the porphyrin and phthalocyanine series for photodynamic therapy.” Chemical Society Reviews 1995, 24, 19–33.
(4) Sternberg, E. D.; Dolphin, D.; Brückner, C. “Porphyrinbased photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy.” Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 4151–4202.
(5) Allison, R. R.; Mota, H. C.; Sibata, C. H. “Clinical PD/PDT in North America: an historical review.” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 2004, 1, 263–277.
(6) Josefsen, L. B.; Boyle, R. W. “Photodynamic Therapy and the Development of Metal-Based Photosensitisers.” Metal Based Drugs 2008, 1-24.
(7) Farrer, N. J.; Sadler, P. J. Aust. J. Chem. 2008, 61, 669–674.
(8) Patrice, T. Photodynamic therapy Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004, 260.

Image Credits

Light application 1
Light application 2

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Author: Allan Prior


 

Manganism is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from chronic expose to abnormally high levels of the essential element manganese. The symptoms very closely resemble those of Parkinson’s disease, including bradykinesia (slow movement), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions), and disturbance of gait. As one would expect (just as in Parkinson’s), manganese toxicity is most severe in the basal ganglia, which is responsible for initiating and modulating movements. However, manganese exposure affects a different part of the basal ganglia circuit. Parkinson’s disease results from the degeneration of dopaminergic axons projecting from the substantia nigra to the striatum. Dopamine normally provides an excitatory input to the caudate/putamen, the area that receives the majority of the motor information in the basal ganglia. The projections from the caudate/putamen to the globus pallidus are inhibitory, and as such this degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway results in a decreased inhibition of neurons in the globus pallidus. The projections from the globus pallidus to the thalamus are also inhibitory, so decreased inhibition in the globus pallidus actually results in an increased inhibition to the thalamus. The signal from the thalamus to the primary motor cortex is thus reduced and results in a deficit in the initiation of movement. In contrast to Parkinson’s, Manganism symptoms result from the degeneration of inhibitory GABAergic input from the globus pallidus to the thalamus. This then results in an overall decreased inhibition of the thalamus, and thus thalamocortical signaling is increased. So the two diseases both result in similar movement disorders, but by affecting different parts of the same pathway, and producing opposite net changes in the balance of thalamic excitation and inhibition. (1)

mn basal ganglia

Manganism is caused primarily by the inhalation of trace amount of manganese rather than by absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (where it is relatively impermeable). Entry into the brain can occur in primarily via two pathways. First, it may be inhaled through the lungs and absorbed into the blood stream. From there it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier via specific transport proteins.(2) The other possible route is directly through the olfactory system. Manganese can be taken up by olfactory sensory neurons in the epithelium and actually transported trans-synaptically throughout the brain. These toxic inhalation routes make Manganism more prevalent among occupations such as welders and miners, where fumes containing MnO2 are especially concentrated. (3)

The actual mechanism by which manganese targets these individual neurons is not yet known. Even the cellular entry mechanisms are not fully understood. Two main pathways have been proposed: a transferrin-dependent and -independent route, both of which operate similarly to those for iron transport.(4,5)  The transferrin- dependent pathway involves the binding of Mn3+ to the tranferrin protein. This complex then binds to the tranferrin receptor, is invaginated by an endosome, and then dissociated and reduced to Mn2+ in the acidic environment. The transferrin-independent pathway can be mediated by a number of different channels such as the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, or even the glutamate-gated n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. (5)

Mn transport

Such mechanisms are most likely used in combination and might determine the differing susceptibility not only between cell types but also between individuals. These remaining questions will be the topics of much research to come.

Resources

Symptoms of manganism and FAQ

Metals and neurodegeneration

Manganism research: history, critique, and unanswered questions

References

(1) D. P. Perl and C. W. Olanow. The neuropathology of manganese-induced parkinsonism. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 66 (8), 675 (2007).

(2) M. Aschner. Manganese: Brain transport and emerging research needs. Environ Health Perspect 108 Suppl 3, 429 (2000).

(3) A. B. Santamaria, C. A. Cushing, J. M. Antonini et al. State-of-the-science review: Does manganese exposure during welding pose a neurological risk? J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 10 (6), 417 (2007).

(4) J. A. Roth and M. D. Garrick. Iron interactions and other biological reactions mediating the physiological and toxic actions of manganese. Biochem Pharmacol 66 (1), 1 (2003).

(5) J. A. Roth. Homeostatic and toxic mechanisms regulating manganese uptake, retention, and elimination. Biol Res 39 (1), 45 (2006).

Author: James Corson


 

History and Background

Vaccines play an important role in maintaining the health of the American population.  Anne Schuchat, Director of the CDC’s Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases estimates that every year, vaccines prevent 33,000 deaths, 14 million infections, and saves the United States $34 billion in health care costs. (3)

vaccine syringe

Thimerosal is used in vaccines as an additive that prevents bacterial and fungal contamination and infection, especially from multi-dose containers which are prone to contamination. (10)  It has been present in vaccines since the 1930s and until 1999, approximately thirty vaccines in the United States contained Thimerosal.  Five important vaccines for infants contained thimerosal: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae (Hib), and Hepatitis B.  Chemically, thimerosal is fifty-percent mercury by weight.  In the body, thimerosal is metabolized to ethyl mercury (chemical formula: C2H5Hg+) and thiosalicylate.  Thimerosal is also known by its International Nonproprietary Name (INN) Thiomersal and its IUPAC name Ethyl(2-mercaptobenzoato-(2-)-O,S) mercurate(1-) sodium.  Its molecular formula is C9H9HgNaO2S. (11)  According to the FDA, “As a vaccine preservative, thimerosal is used in concentrations of 0.003% to 0.01%.  A vaccine containing 0.01% thimerosal as a preservative contains 50 micrograms of thimerosal per 0.5 ml dose or approximately 25 micrograms of mercury per 0.5 ml dose.” (10)

thimerosal chemical structure

In 1998, Andrew Wakefield, a gastroenterologist, published an article in Lancet that claimed to find a link between autism and the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) vaccine. (2)  Until that time, the main side affect associated with thimerosal was minor irritation at the injection site. (10)  This sparked debate within the medical community and in response, multiple agencies within the United States and abroad undertook research to see if there was a connection between thimerosal, ethylmercury, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (under which autism falls).  In 1999, in response to concerns about information regarding the harmful affects of prenatal exposure to methyl mercury, the FDA realized that due to thimerosal, infants may have been exposed to a total amount of ethyl mercury that exceeded recommendations for methyl mercury. (10)  However, a major difference between ethyl and methylmercury is the fact that ethylmercury is excreted by the body at a faster rater. (7)  Ethylmercury has a much shorter half-life than methylmercury (less than one week vs. 1.5 months). (12)  That same year, in an attempt at a preemptive strike against a possible risk, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the United States Public Health Service recommended that thimerosal be eliminated as a preservative in vaccines. (10)  At that time, other countries such as Canada and Denmark, had already begun to phase out Thimerosal due to the emergence of newer vaccines that no longer required it or could be damaged by its presence. (2)

Further Research

In 2001, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the initial findings of their Immunization Safety Review Committee.   The committee found that at that time, there was not sufficient evidence to either accept or reject the link between thimerosal containing vaccines (TCVs) and autism and other disorders, but called the hypothesis “biologically plausible.”  In 2004, the IOM committee released its final report, which included information from studies performed in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.  Their final conclusion was a “rejection of a casual relationship between thimerosal containing vaccines and autism,” as well as a “rejection of a casual relationship of the MMR vaccine and autism.” (6)  Also in 2004, ten of the thirteen authors that worked with Wakefield retracted their original conclusion that there was a casual link between MMR vaccines and autism.  This coincided with the release of information about a serious conflict of interest; in 1997, one year before Wakefield’s study was published, he applied for a patent for a vaccine to replace the current MMR one. (2)  In an article published in 2006 in Pediatrics, the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, researchers studying children in Montreal stated that, “Thimerosal exposure was unrelated to the increasing trend in pervasive developmental disorder,” and “PDD rates were at their highest value in birth cohorts that were thimerosal free.” (5)

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently released findings in September 2007 about TCVs and neuropsychological outcomes.  This research, which was published in The New England Journal of Medicine, looked at children ages seven to ten years old to determine if early thimerosal exposure was related to onset of neuropsychological symptoms.  According to Anne Schuchat, Director of the CDC’s Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, “some of the results suggested that exposure to higher thimerosal quantities led to better performance. And some of the tests showed that exposure to higher thimerosal content led to worse performance.”  Taken together, the researchers determined that receiving TCVs poses no future risk to children.  At the same time however, the researchers observed a risk of higher incidence of tics in boys due to early thimerosal exposure.  However, the study was unable to conclusively link the two, and the CDC will be doing further research. (3)

Conclusion

In March 2000, a thimerosal free version of the Hepatitis B vaccine became available in the United States. (10)  Other childhood vaccines were quick to follow suit.  According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), “At present, all routinely recommended vaccines for U.S. infants are available only as thimerosal-free formulations or contain only trace amounts of thimerosal (≤ 1 than micrograms mercury per dose), with the exception of inactivated influenza vaccine. Inactivated influenza vaccine for pediatric use is available in a thimerosal-preservative containing formulation and in formulations that contain either no thimerosal or only a trace of thimerosal, but the latter is in more limited supply.” (10)  Thus, the presence of thimerosal in vaccines should not be considered a public health concern.  For more information about which vaccines previously contained thimerosal, visit the FDA’s website here.
In his articles, “True Believers: Why There’s no Dispelling the Myth that Vaccines Cause Autism” and “Thimerosal on Trial” Arthur Allen examines why the myth that TCVs cause autism continues to persist.  He argues that one of the keys to this controversy is the work of Dr. Mark Geier and his son, David Geier.  Both are supporters of the “vaccines cause autism” theory and have published several articles containing their findings.  The elder Geier has also claimed to have developed a treatment for autism.  (1, 2)  However, in a review of current research of the TCV link to autism published in 2004 in Pediatrics, researchers concluded that “the four epidemiologic studies that support an association between thimerosal exposure and NDDs including autism, all by the same authors and using overlapping data sets, contain critical methodologic flaws that render the data and their interpretation noncontributory.” (8)

Along with the Geiers, other “quack” healers have latched on to the theory that mercury causes autism, and have been using chelator therapies as a means to “cure” children of their autism. (1)  In August of 2005, a five year old boy died of an arrhythmia after receiving EDTA, a chelating agent, and it is estimated that about 10,000 autistic children in the United States receive mercury-chelating agents every year.  Currently, 4800 cases of children whose parents claim their autism was caused by vaccines have been brought before the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. (7)  Thus, even though all major governmental regulatory agencies, including the CDC and the FDA have rejected the claim that thimerosal exposure can be linked to disorders such as autism, public opinion on this matter remains divided.

More Information

National Network for Immunization Information

Food and Drug Administration: Thimerosal

Centers for Disease Control: Thimerosal

References

(1) Allen, A.  Thimerosal on Trial.  Slatehttp://www.slate.com/id/2166939/ (2007).

(2) Allen, A.  True Believers: Why There’s no Dispelling the Myth that Vaccines Cause Autism.  Slatehttp://www.slate.com/id/2169459/ (2007).

(3) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: New England Journal of Medicine Telebriefing.  Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 7 to 10 Years.  http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/transcripts/2007/t070926.htm (2007).

(4) Centers for Disease Control (CDC).  Recommendations Regarding the Use of Vaccines That Contain Thimerosal as a Preservative.  MMWR. Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep.  48, 996-998 (1999).

(5) Fombonne, E. et al.  Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and Links With Immunizations Pediatrics 118, 139-150 (2006).

(6) Institute of Medicine.  Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10997&page=1 (2007)

(7) Offit, P. A.  Thimerosal and Vaccines – A Cautionary Tale.  N. Engl. J. Med.  357, 1278-1279 (2007).

(8) Parker, S. K., Schwartz, B., Todd, J., Pickering, L.K.  Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Critical Review of Published Original Data.  Pediatrics.  114, 793-804 (2004).

(9) Thompson, W.W. et al.  Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 7 to 10 Years.  N. Engl. J. Med.  357, 1281-1292 (2007).

(10) U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  Thimerosal in Vaccines.  http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccine/thimerosal.htm (2007).

(11) Wikipedia.  Thiomersal.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiomersal (2007).

(12) World Health Organization: Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety.  (2007).

Author: Sarah Kleinfeld


 

Overview

Molybdenum, like many other micronutrients, comprises very little the dry weight of plants and animals (Figure 1). However, if it is not found in the correct amount in the diet it can have devastating consequences.  Linxian is a region in the Henan province in China that has seen staggering rates of gastroesophageal cancer in recents years.  The high rate is believed to be due to a lack of a number of micronutrients in the soil of that region, most notably molybdenum, which forces plants to produce cancer causing agents called nitrosamines.  This nitrosamine production may lead to the oxidative damage of cells during the ingestion of plant materials, which is always a risk factor for future carcinoma.  When antioxidants are administered in high doses the occurance of cancer decreased noticeably. This experimental evidence supports the oxidative damage hypothesis.

molybdenum metal

Figure 1 Molybdenum Metal

Molybdenum Uptake

It has been shown that the only way for plants to take up molybdenum is in its anionic form.(1)  Molybdenum is found in nature in three major forms.  The most prevalent form is found as MoS2 in Molybdenite, followed by Fe[Mo(O)4] (Wulfenite) and Ca[Mo(O)4] (Powellite).  It is hypothesized that these oxy anions are the anionic species of molybdenum take up in plants.  Although eukaryotic uptake mechanisms are very poorly understood there are molybdenum transportors found as sulfur/molybdenum cotransportors(2) and phosphate/molybdenum cotransportors in tomato plants(3) and also as distinct molybdenum transportors found in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.(4) The structure of a bacterial molybdenum storage protein that can hold ~100 Mo atoms is shown below in Figure 2.(5)

Mo storage protein

Figure 2 Bacterial Molybdenum/Tungsten Storage Protein (5)

Plants have two ways of converting nitrogen into the biologically useful ammonia.  The first is the fixation and conversion of elemental Nitrogen, N2.  The second is converting nitrate into ammonia.(6)  This ammonia is eventually carried on to more useful metabolites, including amino acids.  In most plants the nitrate reductase electron flow is passed through Nicatinamide Dinucleotide Phophate in its reduced form (NADPH + H+).  From there the electrons are passed to Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) to cytochrome 557 to a molybdenum complex (6,7).  This bidentate diothiol metal-ligand molybdenum complex is called molybdopterin (Figure 3).  After nitrite is produced as the product, it moves on to other nitrite reductase enzymes in the plant to finally form ammonia.

Mo Pterin

Figure 3 Molybdopterin

Gastroesophageal Cancer in Linxian Region

Linxian is a region in northern China that has seen esophageal and stomach cancer rates that are 10 times higher than the Chinese average and over 100 times higher than the average in the US. (8) It has been hypothesized that the cause of these cancers are due to the high levels of nitrosoamines (Figure 4) found in the systems and diets of the population in Linxian.(9)  The sources of these nitrosamines are from plants with a number of vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, most notably molybdenum deficiencies.(8)  It is thought that when there is deficiency of molybdenum in plants, nitrosamines are produced due to the fact that nitrate reductase is not able to perform properly without its molybdenum cofactor.  When this happens the plant uses other mechanisms to catabolize nitrate.  These compensatory mechanisms produce the cancer-causing nitrosamines.(8)  The mechanism of cargenogenesis is still poorly understood but it is hypothesized that it operates by some form of oxidative damage.  This theory is supported by the fact that when the diets of the population in Linxian was supplemented with antioxidants Vitamin A and Vitamin E the incidence of cancer over a five year period went down.(9)

nitrosamine

Figure 4 Nitrosamine

Molybdenum Mineral Water

Molybdenum even appears as a supplement in mineral water and can be purchased from Eniva Corporation (Figure 5).

Mo mineral water

Figure 5 Eniva Molybdenum Mineral Water

Conclusion

Although the molar quantity of molybdenum is minute in most living systems, as it is for most other inorganic micronutrients, it has been shown to still be a vital component to the balance of an ecosystem.   These types of studies show that in order to diagnose and treat human disease we need a healthy understanding of many different scientific disciplines.

Resources

Chemical Properties

Dental Problems and Diet

Copper Antagonism of Molybdenum uptake

Recommended Daily Values for Molybdenum

References

(1) Mendel, R. “Biology of the Molybdenum Cofactor”, J. of Exp. Bot., 9, 2007; 2289-2296.

(2) Alhendawi RA, Kirkby EA, Pilbeam DJ. Evidence that sulfur deficiency enhances molybdenum transport in xylem sap of tomato plants. J. Plant Nut., 28, 1347–1353 (2005).

(3) Heuwinkel H, Kirkby EA, Le Bot J, Marschner H.,  Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants. J. Plant Nut,  15 , 549–568 (1992).

(4) Llamas A, Kalakoutskii KL, Fernandez E., Molybdenum cofactor amounts in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii depend on the Nit5 gene function related to molybdate transport. Plant, Cell Envron.,  23, 1247–1255 (2000).

(5) From: Schemberg, J. et al, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2007, DOI: 10.1002/ange.200604858.

(6) Cowan, J.A., Inorganic Biochemistry : An Introduction, (Canada, Wiley-VCH, 1997).

(7) Kleinhofs A, Warner RL, Melzer JM,  Plant Nitrogen Metabolism , Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol 23, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 117-155, (1989).

(8) Higdon, J., An Evidence Based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals (New York, Thieme, 2003).

(9) Chung, Y., Vitamin Nutrion and Gastroesophageal Cancer, J. Nutr., 338S-339S (2000).

Author: James East


 

In March of 2007 CNW Marketing Research, Inc published their independent research data in a paper titled, “Dust to Dust: The Energy Cost of New Vehicles from Concept to Disposal (8).”  In the more than 450 page document, CNW argues that hybrid vehicles are not only not more energy efficient as conventional vehicles, but that they are actually less energy efficient and more environmentally detrimental than the largest of all commercial vehicles, the General Motor Hummer (8).  Following a frenzy of media attention, CNW’s report was quickly met with opposition from the scientific community for its complete lack of references cited (not a single reference for the entire document), peer review, and transparency of methods (1).   Not only did CNW’s report lack visible scientific proof to support their claims, the report went against all published peer review data known on the efficiency of hybrid vehicles (1).

Ninety percent of energy required for automobile production and operation is consumed during the vehicle operation (1).  Only about 10% of the total energy goes towards manufacturing the vehicle and all of its parts.  Thus, it follows that the best way to improve the energy efficiency of vehicles is to reduce the amount of energy consumed during operation and this is exactly what hybrid vehicles do.  Using hybrid technology, vehicles, such as the Toyota Prius, employ rechargeable nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries to lower gasoline consumption thereby increasing energy efficiency.  The vast majority of pollution which comes from vehicles occurs during vehicle operation (85%) and not during manufacturing (10%) or disposal (5%).  Hybrid vehicles reduce the main sources of operational environmental pollutants by 1) reducing the amount of gasoline burned, thus reducing exhaust Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NO), and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and, 2) replacing toxic Lead-Acid batteries with long lasting, rechargeable, environmentally friendly NiMH batteries.

mining materials in vehicles

Mining matrials used in vehicle production: http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/3_3_2_1.html

Lead is a highly toxic metal, which can lead to brain and kidney damage, hearing impairment, and learning and behavioral problems in humans (7).  The average 3000 lb car contains 27 lbs of lead and 95% of this lead is in the battery (4).  Thus by replacing lead-acid based batteries with NiMH batteries the amount of toxic lead in a car is reduced by 95%.  In 2000, Americans used >2 million tons of lead.  Automobiles are responsible for 50% of the 2 million tons and more than 90% of auto lead usage was for batteries.  If the American auto industry no longer used lead-acid batteries we could reduce the countries annual use of toxic lead by 900,000 million tons thereby reducing environmental pollution from the mining process and lead disposal.  Although lead batteries are the most recycled product known, 42,000 tons of lead ends up in land fills and thousands of more tons fall to the sides of our roadways and into our water in year.

car graveyard

Car graveyard: http://www.cleancarcampaign.org/GettingLeadOut.pdf

The pure nickel used in NiMH batteries is not considered toxic (9, 10) and there are recycling protocols in place to insure all NiMH battery components can be reused (2, 5).  Recycled nickel is mostly used for stainless steel production.  Like all metal mining and refining processes, nickel production is not a totally environmentally friendly process (3, 6, 13).  Flash Smelting is the most common form of nickel processing used today and the negative byproducts include SO2 and toxic nickel carbonyl gas.  However, since the 1970’s technologically advanced decomposer towers a