American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-53 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajmp doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20160503.14 ISSN: 2326-8867 (Print); ISSN: 2326-8891 (Online) Apparent Detection via New Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities
(ITE) Ruggero Maria Santilli Thunder Energies Corporation, Florida, U. S. A. Email address: email@example.com To cite this article: Ruggero Maria Santilli.
Apparent Detection via New T elescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE). American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 45-53. doi: 10.11648/j.aj mp.20160503.14 Received: December 24, 2015; Accepted: December 25, 2015; Published: June 8, 2016
Abstract: By using telescopes with concave lenses, known as Santilli telescopes (trademark and patent pending by the U.S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation), we review preceding evidence for the apparent existence of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cosmic rays.
Independently from these astrophysical detections, we present for the first time evidence for the apparent existence of entities in our terrestrial environment that are solely visible via telescopes with concave lenses, while being invisible to our eyes and to conventional Galileo telescopes with convex lenses, which entities leave dark images in the background of digital cameras attached to the santilli telescopes.
These entities are here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1) or dark ITE.
We then present, also for the first time, evidence for the apparent existence in our terrestrial environment of additional entities that are also visible to telescopes with concave lenses while being invisible to our eyes and to conventional telescopes with convex lenses, which entities leave bright images in the background of digital cameras.
These additional entities are here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the second kind (ITE-2) or bright ITE .
It is pointed out that both types of entities generally move in the night sky over sensitive areas, and their behavior generally suggests unauthorized surveillance.
This paper has been motivated by the significance and diversification of the collected evidence, as well as available independent confirmations, that warrant systematic inspections of the sky over our sensitive civilian, industrial, and military installations via telescopes with concave lenses, so as t o detect possible unauthorized surveillance. Keywords: Antimatter, Santilli Telescope, Invisible Terrestrial Entities 1.
As it is well established in particle physics laboratories, matter and antimatter particles “annihilate” at mutual contact by transforming their masses into light. One of the necessary conditions for a consistent, quantitative representation of this experimental evidence is that all characteristics of antimatter must be opposite to those of matter. It as also been established that the use of 20th century mathematics for the representation of both, matter and antimatter, leads to predictable catastrophic inconsistencies. Therefore, a consistent, quantitative representation of matter-antimatter annihilation requires the continued use of conventional mathematics for the representation of matter, while antimatter must be represented with a basically new mathematics characterized by a suitable conjugation of 20th century mathematics known as the isodual map (technically given by an anti-Hermitean map). In summer 1993, while visiting the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, the author initiated the construction of the new mathematics needed for anti matter, with the proposal of new numbers, today known as isodual numbers , whose basic unit has the negative value -1, thus assuring that all quantities measured with the new numbers are opposite those of matter . By noting that the possible existence of antimatter galaxies must be studied at the macroscopic, and therefore classical level, thus preventing the use of quantum mechanics , and that galaxies must be assumed as being neutral, thus preventing the use of the charge for the conjugation from matter to antimatter, in the following paper  (also written in Dubna), the author presented the first, and, apparently, the only known classical representation of neutral antimatter based on the new isodual numbers and ensuing new mathematics. 46 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) In summer 1995, while conducting research at the Institute for Basic Research at the Castle Prince Pignatelli in Italy, the author conducted systematic studies on the novel isodual mathematics via a step-by-step isodual image of 20th century mathematics, thus including the isodual image of functional analysis, differential calculus, algebras, geometries, etc. . In spring 1996, the author presented at the First International Workshop on Anti-matter in Sepino, Italy, the prediction of isodual mathematics that light emitted by antimatter-stars, here called “antimatter-light,” i s different than our ordinary matter-light in an experimentally verifiable way . The above prediction was based on the fact that ordinary light has no charge. Therefore, the only known consistent way to conjugate light from matter to antimatter is the map under isoduality of all other physical characteristics of light. This lead to the prediction that antimatter light has negative energy , by therefore confirming the original 1928 conception of antimatter by P. A. M. Dirac as having negative energy, this time, with the resolution of its historical in consistencies permitted by the novel isodual mathematics. A systematic study of the ensuing isodual theory of antimatter was presented in monograph  in 2006, including the isoduality of Newtonian mechanics, Ga lileo relativity, Einstein special and general relativity , and quantum mechanics, with the first known classical representation of the gravitational field of antimatter bodies. In particular, Ref.  presented the proof that the isodual theory of antimatter verifies all known experimental data on antimatter at both the classical and particle level s. At the classical level, experimental data are verified by the interplay between the conventional Newton’s equation for particle and their isodual for antiparticles, while at the particle level experimental data on antimatter are verified because the isodual map is equivalent to charge conjugation. In Ref. , the author also presented the prediction at all levels of study, including the isodual Newtonian mechanics, isodual special and general relativity and isodual quantum mechanics, that matter and antimatter experience gravitational repulsion , thus including the prediction that antimatter-light is repelled by a matter gravitational field (Figure 1). Figure 1. A necessary condition for a consistent, quantitative representation of matter-antimatter annihilation into light at con tact is that “all” characteristics of antimatter are opposite those of matter. This basic requirement implies the prediction that light emitt ed by antimatter, viz., antimatter-light, is repelled by a matter gravitational field, and the consequential prediction that, when propagation wit hin a matter-medium such as water, antimatter-light has a “negative” in dex of refraction opposite to the conventional “positive” index of refraction of matter-light. In 2012, the author presented at the International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics held in Kos, Greece, the prediction of the isodual theory of antimatter according to which, when traversing a transparent matter-medium, antimatter-light has a “negative” index of refraction (in the sense of being opposite to the conventional “positive” index of refraction of matter-light), thus requiring “concave” lenses for the focusing of it. Figure 2. The first view depicts the structure of all existing, refractive, Galileo telescopes whose primary lens must be “convex” due to the positive index of refraction of matter-light. The second vie w depicts the structure of the novel, refractive, Santilli telescopes whose primary lens must be “concave” under the prediction that antimatter-light has a negative index of refraction (See Figure 1). The main principle of detection of the Galileo and Santilli telescopes is the following. In the Galileo telescope, all antimatter- light is dispersed by the convex lens into the internal walls of the telescope, thus permitting images of matter-light to be focused in a camera without significant interferences by antimatter-light. By contrast, ordinary matter- light is dispersed by the convex lens of the Santilli telescope, thus permitting images of antimatter-light to be focused in a camera without major interferences from matter-light. The images shown in Figures 1 and 2 are referenced in . Subsequently, the author constructed the first know n telescopes with concave lenses , today known as Santilli telescopes (trademark and patent pending by the U. S. American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 47 publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation , http://www.thunder-energies.con). Since no conventional im age can be seen with concave lenses, Santilli telescope s were paired to conventional, refractive Galileo telescopes of the same size, with curvature of the primary lenses and focal distance conjugated into negative values (Figures 2 and 3). Experimental paper  of 2014 presented the first known evidence of the apparent existence in our universe of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cos- mic rays via the use of a pair of 100 mm Galileo an d Santilli telescopes with attached digital camera Cannon 600D used at ISO 1600 under a 15 seconds exposure. These first detections were independently confirmed in Refs. [8, 9]. The detections consist of black streaks over a conventional background of a digital camera attached to the Santilli telescope, which black streaks are absent in the Galileo Figure 3. A view of the 50 mm, 70 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm pairs of Galileo and Santilli telescopes used for the detections presented in this paper, that are under production and subsequent sal e by the U. S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation (www.thunder- energies.com). Santilli telescopes cannot be effici ently used alone because the human eye has a convex cornea, thus being unabl e to focus images of antimatter-light. The efficient use Santilli telesc opes is that of pairing them with optically aligned, Galileo telescopes of the s ame size with exactly the same, yet opposite curvatures of the primary lenses and focal distances (Fig. 2). The Galileo telescope is then used for focusing images of matter-light. The related settings are then transferred to the Sa ntilli telescope. Images in the Santilli telescope are considered for analysis if and only if they do not appear in the Galileo telescope, are not caused by impurities in the lens and verify other conditions. Note that the pairs of telescopes depicted in this figure are equipped with two identical cameras, one per telescope, however, detections selected for publication are generally achieved via one single camera, first used in the Galileo telescope to verify focusing, and then transferred to the Santilli telescope. The very focusing of images via a telescope with concave lenses constitutes direct experimental evidence for the existence in nature of light with a negative index of refraction, while the black character of the streaks constitute s direct experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis of Ref. according to which antimatter-light carries negative energy. In turn, both these features are considered as experimental evidence for the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter due to its need to achieve a negative index of refraction. A number of independent studies exist on isodual mathematics and on the isodual theory of antimatter among which we quote: Ref.  on the need to conduct sy stematic studies on the still unknown means to detect antimatter asteroids prior to their impact on Earth that have occurred in the past without advance detection; Ref.  on quantitative calculation of the trajectories and speed under whi ch antimatter asteroids can hit Earth despite the indicated gravitational repulsion from Earth; and Ref.  providing, a list of all known contributions in the field published in refereed journals as of early 2015, including the l ink to numerous PRWeb Releases on the ongoing search for antimatter galaxies in the universe. In a language accessible to the general audience, thus without any equation, in this paper we present for the first time the detection of entities existing in our terrestrial envi-ronment here defined as including our atmosphere, terrestri and lunar orbits and under the sea, which entities are not visible by our naked eye or via existing optical me ans, yet they are fully detected in cameras attached to the novel telescopes with concave lenses. To prevent a prohibitive length as well as unnecessary repetitions, a knowledge of papers [7-9] is essential for the understanding of this paper. 2. Detection of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the First and Second Kind (ITE-1 and ITE-2) On September 5, 2015, at 9.30 pm the author aimed a pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes at the ni ght sky over Tampa Bay, Florida, as seen from the NE orient ation of the terrace of room 775 of the Vinoy Renaissance Ho tel in St. Petersburg. Both telescopes were equipped with a So ny camera model SLT-A58K set at ISO automatic and 15 seconds exposure, the two cameras being activated j ointly by remote shutters. The tests were merely intended for the search of an timatter galaxies and, consequently, the paired telescopes w ere aimed at the sky, but sudden clouds halted the tests and the author oriented the pair of telescopes horizontally over T ampa Bay. To his great surprise, unidentified yet clearly vis ible entities immediately appeared in the screen of the camera attached to the Santilli telescope, without any enl argement, without the same entities being visible to the nake d eyes, and without any corresponding image existing in the scr een of the camera attached to the Galileo telescope. This unexpected discovery triggered a novel systema tic use of the pair of Galileo and Santilli telescopes, this time, for the search of entities, here called Invisible Terrestrial En- tities , that are invisible to our eyes as well as to our op tical instruments with convex lenses, but are otherwise f ully visible via the Santilli telescope with concave len ses, and are located in our terrestrial environment , as defined in Section 1. Following systematic tests, the author has detected the existence of at least two different types of ITE, with the acknowledgement that additional types may be identi fied in the future. Thanks to independent confirmations on the existence of ITE, such as that by K. Brinkman  and others, the author first presented the discovery of ITE on 48 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) September 25, 2015, at an invited lecture delivered to the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club . In Figures 4, 5, and 6, we report representative ex amples of rather numerous detections of Invisible Terrestr ial Entities of the first kind (ITE-1), here defined as entities that: 1) are not visible to the human eye or to conventional optical instruments with convex lenses, but are otherwise fully visible via Santilli telescopes wit h concave lenses; 2) exist in our terrestrial environment as defined in Section 1, rather than in deep astro-physical spaces; and 3) leave “ dark images ” in the background of digital cameras attached to Santilli telescopes. In Figures 7 to 11, the author presents representat ive examples of Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the s econd kind (ITE-2), here defined as entities that: 1) are not visible to the human eye or to conventional optical instruments wish convex lenses, but are otherwise fully visible via Santilli telescopes wit h concave lenses; 2) exist in our terrestrial environment as defined in Section 1, rather than in deep astro-physical spaces; and 3) leave “ bright images ” in the background of digital cameras attached to Santilli telescopes. A first significant aspect of the detections presen ted in Figures 4 to 11 is that they establish beyond “cred ible doubt” the capability of telescopes with concave lenses to focus images visible in the background of a digital camer a attached to Santilli telescopes. These images are at times, visible without enlargement, thus establishing the utilitie s of telescopes with concave lenses. A second salient aspect is that the focusing of ima ges via concave lenses is solely possible for light having a negative index of refraction in the sense of being opposite that of ordinary light (Section 1). A third salient aspect is that the emission of anti matter- light does not mean that the entity is made up of antimatter, because the existence of the entities within our at mosphere would imply a cataclysmic explosion due to matter- antimatter annihilation. Yet another salient aspect is that the emission of antimatter-light could well be evidence that their propulsion system is based on the extraction of antimatter fro m space intended as a universal substratum of the entire un iverse with an extremely high energy density (also known as zer o point energy) . In short, it appears that ITE-1 consist of matter-e ntities in our terrestrial environment achieving locomotion vi a the acquisition of antimatter in their interior with co nsequential use of matter-antimatter propulsion, and achieve in visibility via the emission of antimatter-light as a sort of e xhaust. A Post Ph.D. mathematical study of the new type of lo comotion via the use of the new isodual Minkowskian geometry for antimatter is available in monograph . A third salient aspect is that the creation of “dar k images” in the background of digital cameras for ITE-1 (Fig ures 4-6) establishes that the light originating from the ima ge has negative energy , since only a negative energy can annul the conventional positive energy existing in the pixels of the cameras. Consequently, the dark images of ITE-1 are caused by a type of light either equivalent or identical t o antimatter- light as presented in the preceding section. By contrast, ITE-2 (Figures 7 to 11) appear to be s tructures composed of matter which ordinary light (because of their bright character), yet possessing means to achieve in- visibility via the conversion of their index of ref raction from a positive to a negative value. It should be indicated that ITE-1 appear to be loca ted mostly in the areas of terrestrial or lunar orbits. By contrast, ITE-2 are generally located directly over sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations, and appear t o behave in a way strongly suggesting their unauthorized surveill ance. Figure 4. A view of an Invisible Terrestrial Entity of the f irst kind (ITE-1) detected in two different photos on September 5, 20 15, in the evening sky over Tampa Bay. Florida, via the pair of 100 mm Gal ileo and Santilli telescopes with Sony Camera SLT-A58K set at ISO aut omatic and 15 seconds exposure. The entity is classified as an IS E-1 because it is solely detected via the Santilli telescope (thus emitting light with negative index of refraction), and it leaves a black image in the bac kground of the digital camera (thus emitting light with negative energy). Since we are dealing with two different photos each taken with 15 seconds exp osure, the entity moves at a relative small speed. Note the ridges of ordin ary light surrounding the entity, which can only be explained quantitatively via the gravitational repulsion of ordinary light by the entity because, in the absence of such repulsion, ordinary light should merely experience diffraction. Note additionally that the entity “cannot” be composed o f antimatter because, being within our atmosphere, it would annihilate wi th a cataclysmic explosion. Therefore, the entity is predicted to be made up of ordinary matter, although emitting antimatter light. These c onditions support the hypothesis of locomotion based on the e xtraction American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 49 of negative energy from space conceived as a univer sal substratum (also known as negative point energy). A ccording to this interpretation, the entity achieves invisib ility to our eyes as well as to all conventional refractive tele scopes by merely emitting antimatter-light as a kind of “exha ust” from its locomotion . Figure 5. Views of another ITE-1 taken in three consecutive pictures by the digital camera of the Santilli telescope on Septemb er 5, 2015 in the night sky over Tampa Bay, Florida. Note that the entity not o nly moves slowly from photo to photo, but also rotates. This particular t ype of motion excludes impurities in the telescope lens or in the camera a s possible interpretations. Figure 6. Views of an ITE-1 independently taken by K. Brinkm an from the night sky of St. Petersburg, Florida, on September 20, 2015 via the use of the pair of 150 Galileo and Santilli telescopes, under a series of three burst (rapid) shots . The entity is clearly an ITE-1 because it was in our terrestrial environment, it was only visible in the Santilli telescope, and it produced a dark image on the background of the digi tal camera. Note that this entity too, not only moves with respect to an image caused by an impurity in the telescope lens, but also rotates (s ee the original report  for more pictures and details). 3. Concluding Remarks In works [1-7], the author presented evidence on th e apparent existence of antimatter galaxies, antimatt er asteroids, and antimatter cosmic rays obtained via dark images in the background of a digital camera attached to a telesc ope with convex lenses, known as the Santilli telescope . The same astrophysical entities are completely invi sible to our naked eyes as well as to conventional Galileo t elescopes with convex lenses because matter-antimatter annihilation mandates that all characteristics of antimatter mus t be opposite those of matter. Consequently, light emitt ed by antimatter has an index of refraction opposite that of matter, thus requiring a concave lens for its focusing, and carries 50 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) negative energy as predicted in 1928 by P. A. M. Di rac, thus explaining the dark character of the images. Figure 7. A view in the top of an Invisible Terrestrial Enti ty of the second kind (ITE-2) taken on September 5, 2015, in the nig ht sky of the Tampa Bay, Florida, from room 775 of the Vinoy Hotel in St. Pe tersburg at 9.15 pm via the 100 mm Santilli telescope. We have an ITE-2 bec ause the entity is in our terrestrial environment; it is only visible in the Santilli telescope and it produces a bright image in the digital background, as established by the fact that ordinary light remains visible under strong co ntrast (bottom view) These data imply that the entity produces light wit h a negative index of refraction, but with positive energy, thus constitu ting discovery of a basically new form of light here presented apparent ly for the first time. In the author’s opinion, ITE-2 are indications of stru ctures composed by ordinary matter which emit ordinary light, but achi eve invisibility to the human eye as well as to conventional refractive tel escopes via the inversion of its index of refraction. This paper has been mot ivated by the need for our monitoring the possible presence of ITE-1 and/or IT E-2 over sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations sin ce they could be conducting unauthorized surveillance. 11 The historical inconsistencies of negative energies have been resolved for antimatter by the underlying new mathematics specifically constructed for antimatter , known as isodual mathematics , with ensuing, novel, isodual theory of antimatter [1-5]. The above results have been confirmed by a number o f independent contributions, such as those of Refs. [ 8-11]. Ref.  provides a comprehensive list of scientific pa pers published in refereed journals and links to PRWeb R eleases in antimatter up to early 2015. Figure 8. Another ITE-2 (top view) detected under the same c onditions as those of the preceding figure. The entity was also invisible to the naked eyes and to the Galileo telescope but fully detected via the Santilli telescope in the night sky of the Tampa Bay. Again, the entity w as releasing light with negative index of refraction, yet carrying positive energy as established by the bright residue following maximal contrast (bott om view). Note that this particular ITE-2 moves and, most importantly, cause s rings of ordinary light in its surroundings, which can only be quantitative ly explained via a gravitational repulsion of ordinary light by this p articular entity. On technical grounds, we should recall that the conven tional (positive) index of refraction, and the consequential reduction of the speed of light within transparent media, are due to the attraction of lig ht by matter via complex electromagnetic interactions at atomic distances. T he negative index of refraction of antimatter-light when passing through a matter-medium such as water, is then expected to be due to the repulsi on of antimatter-light by matter. Note finally that the reversal of the index of refraction implies that antimatter light travels in ordinary water at speed s faster than that of light in vacuum . American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 51 Figure 9. Photos of a cloudy night sky over Tampa Bay, Flori da, taken from the third floor of the valet parking garage of the Westin Hotel on September 19, 2015, at 10.20 pm via two Sony cameras SLT-A58K set at ISO Automatic and 15 seconds exposure, attached at the proper foc al distance to the pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes. All photos were taken with simultaneous remote shutters. The photos were taken in the presence of the author, his wife Carla Santilli, and an independent witness. The first photo depicts the lights of the Gandy Bridge in the Tampa Bay as seen from the 100 mm Galileo telescope without any enlargement. T he second photo clearly depicts a bright ITE-2 taken with the 100 m m Santilli telescope also without any enlargement, which entity was completel y invisible in the Galileo telescope as well as to the eyes of the thr ee eyewitnesses. The third picture compares the first photo (top) to the secon d (below). In comparing the two photos, one should note: 1) The illuminatio n of the clouds in the first photo, and the absence of such an illumination in t he second photo; 2) The lights viewed with the Galileo telescope are statio nery (except for small fluctuations due to wind), while the lights viewed via the Santilli telescope are pulsating; and 3) Close inspection of the view from the Santilli telescope shows that we are dealing with one single light tha t, not only pulsates, but moves backward and forward with respect to the tele scope in a horizontal plane. This peculiar behavior clearly suggests that this ISE-2 was conducting unauthorized surveillance of the Tampa A rea solely visible with the Santilli telescope, thus confirming the need fo r systematic views of sensitive civilian, industrial and military install ations. Figure 10. We present here a photo taken on a cloudy night sk y of Tampa, Florida, taken from room 775 of the Vinoy Renaissan ce Hotel, St. Petersburg, on September 5, 2015, at 9:15 pm via tw o Sony cameras SLT- A58K set at ISO Automatic and 15 seconds exposure a nd connected at the proper focal distance to the pair of 100 mm Galileo and Santilli telescopes. All photos were also taken with simultaneous remote shutters. No view from the Galileo telescope is here reported due to lack of any meaningful image. The top view depicts a very unusual and bright ITE- 2 as seen from the Santilli telescope without any enlargement. The rem aining views depict the same photo under progressively increasing enlargeme nts. A first striking aspect is that this particular entity was not seen at all by the author with his naked eyes despite its size and brilliance. A secon d striking aspect is the complexity of the entity that, due to the 15 second s exposure, show some clear ongoing operation. The most striking aspect i n the view of the author (a theoretical physicist) is the sharpness of the l ight at its edges, as shown by the last view, since such a feature is against know n physical laws requiring light to experience diffraction at its edges with a short yet progressive decrease from full brightness to full darkness. Clo se inspection of the photo indicates that the entity is in the process of rele asing “seven” smaller equally bright ITE also of the second kind, that ar e reminiscent of the bright ITE-2 of the preceding figure. The unusual features of this particular ITE-2 confirm the need to conduct a systematic surveillan ce of our sensitive civilian, industrial and military installations, wh ich mandated the writing and release of this paper. 52 Ruggero Maria Santilli: Apparent Detection via N ew Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE) Figure 11. In the top view of this figure we present an enlar gement of a second ITE-2 depicted in the top right of the main photo of Figure 10, while the remaining views show progressively increasing e nlargements. As one can see, the entity consists of “three” lights of d ifferent colors that are pulsating and move synchronously in the cloudy nigh t sky over the Tampa Bay, according to a rather complex trajectory durin g the 15 seconds exposure, including a point in which motion apparen tly stopped for a few seconds, to resume thereafter. The synchronous moti on of the three separate trajectories strongly suggest that this particular entity consists of one single structure made up of matter that achieves invisibil ity to the human eyes and to our optical instruments via the creation of a ba sically new light with negative index of refraction but positive energy pr esented in this paper apparently for the first time. In the author’s opin ion, such a behavior suggests again the conduction of unauthorized surve illance of Tampa Bay that motivated the author to write and release this paper. Via the use of pairs of Galileo and Santilli telesc opes, in this paper we have presented for the first time exp erimental evidence on the apparent existence of two types of entities existing in our terrestrial environment (as defined in Section 1), here called Invisible Terrestrial Entities of the first and second kind (ITE 1 and ITE-2), that are also completely invisible to the naked eyes as well as to Galileo t elescopes, yet they are fully visible via Santilli telescopes. Consequently, both ITE-1 and ITE-2 have a negative index of refraction when propagating in a matter medium s uch as glass. Their main difference is that the former ent ities, also called dark ITE , carry negative energy, thus causing dark images in the background of a camera attached to Sa ntilli telescopes, while latter entities, also called bright ITE , carry positive energy, thus causing bright images despite their negative index of refraction. The detection of ITE-1 and ITE-2 has been independe ntly verified by colleagues , and was disclosed for the first time at an invited lecture delivered at the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club on September 25, 2015 . We point out that ITE-1 and ITE-2 must be made up o f matter to prevent a cataclysmic explosion due to th eir immersion in our matter-atmosphere, but their locom otion appears to be based on the internal presence of ant imatter and the use of matter-antimatter repulsion, according t o a structure studied at the mathematical level in mono graph . The above and other aspects imply that ITE-1 and IT E-2 are structures dramatically beyond 20th century kno wledge for a number of reasons, such as the complete inapp licability of 20th century knowledge to the classical treatmen t of neutral antimatter, the change of the index of refr action, the apparent new typo of locomotion, and other reasons . We also point out that the above terrestrial entiti es achieve invisibility to our eyes and to Galileo telescopes either via the emission of antimatter light as a form of exhaust ( ITE-1), or via engineering means capable of inverting the inde x of refraction of ordinary light (ITE-2). The writing of this paper has been motivated by the fact that ITE-1 and ITE-2 behave in a manner strongly su ggesting the conduction of unauthorized surveillance of our sensitive, civilian, industrial and military installations, th us warranting their societal knowledge. On scientific grounds , the documentation presented in this paper establishes beyond credible doubt the existen ce of two new types of light that are totally outside any pos sibility of treatment via 20th century physical knowledge, but are fully treatable via the new methods [1-15] specifically d eveloped to treat neutral or charged antimatter at the class ical as well as particle levels. On industrial grounds , the findings presented in this paper establish, also beyond credible doubt, the utility of Santilli telescopes, not only for basically novel astrophysi cal advances, but also for issues pertaining to persona l, industrial and national security. The author would like to stress that, being a scien tist, his duty is only that of reporting the documentation on the existence of ITE-1 and ITE-2, with the understanding that their identification , or lack thereof, belongs to the U.S. Government. The original photos presented in this paper shall b e made available to qualified colleagues for supervised in spection. More importantly, pairs of Galileo and Santilli tel escopes are in production and subsequent sale in various sizes (Figure 3) American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(3): 45-5 3 53 at the U. S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation (www.thunder-energies.con), and they can be made available at no cost for supervised verificati ons anywhere in the U. S. A. References  R. M. Santilli, “Isonumbers and Genonumbers of Dimen sions 1, 2, 4, 8, their Isoduals and Pseudoduals, and; Hi dden Numbers; of Dimension 3, 5, 6, 7,” Algebras, Groups and Geometries Vol. 10, 273 (1993), http://www.santilli – foundation.org/docs/Santilli-34.pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Representation of antiparticles via isodual numbers, spaces and geometries,” Comm. Theor. Phys. vol. 3, 1994, pp. 153-181, http://www.santillifoundation.org/docs/Santilli-112 .pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Nonlocal-Integral Isotopies of Diff erential Calculus, Mechanics and Geometries,” in Isotopies of Contemporary Mathematical Structures,” P. Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (19 96), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-37 .pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Does antimatter emit a new light?” Invited paper for the proceedings of the International Confe rence on Antimatter, held in Sepino, Italy, on May 1996, Hyp erfine Interactions vol. 109, 1997, pp. 63-81, http://www. santilli- foundation.org/docs/Santilli-28.pdf  R. M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Ap plications to Antigravity, Grand Unifications and Cosmology, S pringer (2006), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/san tilli-79.pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “The Mystery of Detecting Antimatter Asteroids, Stars and Galaxies,” The American Instit ute of Physics, in press, 2012, http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/antimatter-asteroids.pdf.  R. M. Santilli, “Apparent detection of antimatter ga laxies via a telescope with convex lenses,” Clifford Analysis, Cli fford Algebras and their Applications vol. 3, 2014, pages 1-26 (Cambridge,UK),http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/Antimatter-telescope-2013-final .pdf.
CLIFFORD ANALYSIS, CLIFFORD ALGEBRAS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
CACAA – http://www.cliordanalysis.com
Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-26, 2014
c CSP – Cambridge, UK; I&S – Florida, USA, 2014
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER
GALAXIES VIA A REFRACTIVE TELESCOPE
WITH CONCAVE LENSES
Ruggero Maria Santilli 1
1 The Institute for Basic Research 150 Rainville Rd, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689, U.S.A.
? Corresponding Author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. In preceding works, the author has: 1) developed an anti-Hermitean image of the
mathematics used for matter characterized by a map called isoduality and denoted with the
upper symbol d; 2) achieved the isodual classical representation of neutral antimatter via the
conjugation of all physical quantities and their units, thus resolving the inconsistencies of
negative energies; and 3) shown that the the isodual (antimatter) light has negative energy
Ed = E, experiences a negative curvature tensor Rd = R gravitational repulsion) when
in a matter gravitational eld, and possesses a negative index of refraction nd = n when
propagating within a transparent matter medium. In this paper, we show, apparently for the
rst time, that the only possible detection of antimatter light with a negative index of refraction
is that via a telescope with concave lenses; we build the rst known antimatter telescope
verifying these conditions; and report the rst known detection of images apparently focused
by a telescope with concave lenses, which images appears as being of darkness, rather than
light, thus supporting the negative energy of their origination. In the event conrmed, these
unusual images may result in being the rst detection of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids
and antimatter cosmic rays. The main result of this paper is an apparent conrmation
of Dirac’s  original 1928 conception of antiparticles as possessing negative energy because
necessary for consistency with the negative energy of light in the electron-positron annihilation
e+ + e !
d, the consistency of negative energies being apparently assured by
their treatment via the isodual mathematics. The paper ends with the suggestion to test the
gravity of the photons in the electron-positron annihilation and conduct other truly basic
tests on antimatter.
2010 PACS: 03.65.Ta; 14.60.Cd; 29.30.-h
Keywords:antimatter, isodual light, antigravity
2 Ruggero Maria Santilli
1 HISTORICAL NOTES
As it is well known, Newtons mechanics , Galileos relativity  and Einsteins special  and
general  relativities were conceived before the discovery of antimatter and, consequently,
they have no provisions for the classical representation of neutral antimatter since their only
conjugation is the sign of the charge.
In fact, the rigorous prediction of antimatter via the negative energy solutions of wave
equations was done by P. A. M. Dirac  in 1928, and experimentally veried in 1933 by C.
D. Anderson . However, Dirac noted that particles with negative energy violate causality
and other physical laws and was consequently forced to represent antiparticles solely at the
level of second quantization in his celebrated equation.
A number of hypotheses were considered to resolve the causality problem of negative
energy solutions, such as the old hypothesis that antimatter evolves according to a negative
time (moves backward in time) as apparently necessary to represent the annihilation of matter
However, Dirac is reported stating that this hypothesis does not solve the causality problem
of negative energy solutions because the Minkowski line element is quadratic in time,
thus admitting both motions forward and backward in time.
As a result of the inability by the Newtonian, Galilean and Einsteinian theories to provide
a classical representation of neutral antimatter, and Diracs restriction of the treat- ment of
antimatter solely at the level of second quantization, it has been generally believed for about
a century that antimatter does not exist in the large scale structure of the universe, and solely
exists at the particle level when produced in our laboratories.
However, our planet has been devastated in the past by antimatter asteroids, such as the
1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia that had the energy equivalent of one thousand Hiroshima
atomic bombs, yet it left no crater or residue in the ground (that could be explained via an ice
comet), and excited the entire Earth atmosphere for several days (that can only be explained
via the annihilation of an antimatter asteroid in our atmosphere ).
Similarly, astronauts and cosmonauts have routinely detected
ashes of light in the upper
dark side of Earths atmosphere that can be best explained via antimatter cosmic rays
annihilating at the rst contact with our atmosphere . Finally, large
ashes of light in our
upper atmosphere are routinely detected in various parts of our planet (see the websites of
NASA, FERMILAB, CERN and other laboratories).
In summary, there is sucient evidence indicating the possible risk that our planet is hit
again by a large antimatter asteroid, with consequential devastations on the grounds as well
as the disruption of all civilian, industrial and military communications for days due to the
excitation of our atmosphere.
It is evident that the physics community cannot responsibly address these risks without
the conduction of systematic studies on antimatter primarily at the classical level evidently
because antimatter asteroids cannot possibly be treated in second quantization. In turn,
no such a study can be seriously conducted without surpassing Newtonian, Galilean and
Einsteins theories via formulations specically conceived and constructed for the classical
treatment of antimatter as a premise for the subsequent quantization.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 3
2 ISODUAL MATHEMATICS
The author has been interested since his graduate studies at the University of Turin, Italy, in
the mid-960s to ascertain whether a far away galaxy is made up of matter or of antimatter.
He soon learned that Newtonian, Galilean and Einsteinian theories had no value for the
indicated problem since far away galaxies must be assumed to be neutral, in which case said
theories had no distinction whatsoever between matter and antimatter.
For this reason, the author initiated a long journey that rst required the identication
of mathematical means for the consistent classical distinction between neutral matter and
antimatter prior to any possible physical application. In this way, after years of search- ing
for an existing mathematics, the author discovered that a mathematics for the consistent
classical treatment of neutral (or charged) antimatter did not exist and had to be built.
Following the study of a number of alternatives, the author gave priority to the search for
new numbers since all mathematics used in physics must be based on a numeric eld as a
condition for experimental verications. In any case, all aspects of applied mathematics can
be built on a given numeric eld via simple compatibility arguments.
In 1993, the author  nally identied the desired new numbers under the name of of
isodual real, isodual complex and isodual quaternionic numbers, which verify the condition of
being anti- isomorphic to the conventional real, complex and quaternionic numbers, respectively.
The word isodual was suggested to indicate a duality under the preservation of the
conventional abstract axioms of numeric elds.
The crucial condition of anti-isomorphism was achieved via the anti-Hermitean conjugation
called isoduality and indicated with the upper symbols d of all elements of a numeric
eld and all its operations. Given a conventional eld F(n; 1) with elements n, m, : : :,
conventional associative product n m = nm and trivial unit 1, , Santilli isodual elds,
are denoted Fd(nd;d; 1d), and are characterized by a negative basic unit 1d = 1y = 1,
isodual numbers nd = n1d and isodual product
nd d md = nd(1=1d)md = nm1d:
Following the identication of the desired numbers, the author passed to the systematic
construction of the isodual image of all main mathematics used for the study of matter, including
functional analysis, dierential calculus, metric spaces, Lie algebras, symmetries, Euclidean,
Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, etc. These isodual formulations were rst
presented in the mathematical memoir  and rst treated systematically in monographs
. The resulting mathematics is today known as Santilli isodual mathematics. Independent
mathematical reviews and advances can be found in Refs. [12-14].
It may be of some value to indicate that isoduality is a new transformation not reducible to
parity and/or other conventional transformations. We should also recall the new symmetry
identied by the isodual mathematics, called isoselfduality [10,11], namely, the invariance
under the isodual transformation, which is veried by the imaginary number i id as well
as by Dirac’s equation.
Contrary to a possible perceptions of mathematical complexities, the isodual mathe- matics
needed for applications can be constructed via the application of the simple anti- Hermitean
Q ! Qd = Qy
4 Ruggero Maria Santilli
provided it is applied to the totality of quantities and to the totality of their operations used
for the treatment of matter. Readers should be alerted that, in the absence of even one isodual
map, there are inconsistencies that generally remain undetected to non-experts in the eld.
Before appraising the results of this paper, readers are suggested to meditate a moment on
the dierences between conventional and isodual mathematics. As an illustration, a checking
account in the isodual world with $ 1M in the bank is in red because $ 1M is counted with
respect to the basic unit $1d = $1 which is negative. Similar conjugations occur at virtually
all levels of study.
3 ISODUAL THEORY OF ANTIMATTER
After achieving mathematical maturity, the author initiated systematic applications of isodual
mathematics to the study of antimatter at the classical and operator levels as well for neutral
or charged antimatter, resulting in the new theory today called isodual theory of antimatter
as one of the branches of the broader hadronic mechanics (for brevity, see Refs. [22,32]).
A main feature is that all quantities that are positive (negative) for the study of matter
become negative (positive) for the study of antimatter, with the clarication that, for matter,
all positive and negative quantities are referred to positive units of measurements, while for
antimatter all negative and positive quantities are referred to negative units.
In particular, antimatter is predicted to have negative energy Ed = E (exactly as conceived
by Dirac ) and evolves along a negative time td = t according to an old attempt
to understand annihilation of matter and antimatter. Causality and other physical problems
are resolved by the isodual mathematics, since negative quantities are measured in terms of
negative units. Hence, antimatter evolving backward in time with respect to negative units of
time is as causal as matter evolving forward in time with respect to positive units of time. The
same holds for negative energy referred to negative units, and of other negative quantities.
The image under isoduality of the entirety of the formulations for matter including the
isodual image of all quantities and all their operations, with no exclusion at all, is today
known as Santillis isodual theory of antimatter (see monographs [11,22] and independent
Ref.  (written in 1993) presented the rst known formulation of Newton equation
for classical and neutral antiparticles thanks to the isodual dierential calculus discovered
by Santilli in Ref.  and currently developed by the mathematician S. Georgiev in great
details . The resulting equations are today known the Newton-Santilli isodual equations
md d ddvd
ddtd = Fd(td; rd; vd; : : :);
verify all known experimental data on the classical behavior of antiparticles, and are at
the foundation of all subsequent classical and operator formulations.
Ref.  (rst edition in 1993 and second edition in 1995) provided a systematic presentation
of the isodualities of Euclidean, Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, Lie theory,
rotational, Galilean, Lorentz and Poincare symmetries, Galilean and special relativities,
and other basic formulations. In particular, Refs.  presented the rst known consistent
representation of the gravitational eld of an antimatter body via the Riemann-Santilli isodual
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 5
Ref.  of 1993 proposed a new isoselfdual cosmology (a cosmology verifying the new
symmetry of isoselfduality) for equal amounts of matter and antimatter, in which case all total
quantities of the universe, such as total time, total mass, total energy, etc., are identically
null to avoid a discontinuity at creation and set up the basis for continuous creation.
Fig. 1 The prediction of rRepulsion of antimatter light by a matter gravitational eld
Ref.  of 1994 conrmed the expected verication of the isodual theory with all particle
data on antimatter since, at the operator level, isoduality is equivalent to charge conjugation
by conception and construction. The main dierence is that isoduality applies at all levels
of treatment, beginning by conception at the classical level, while charge conjugation solely
applies at the operator level. Another important dierence is that isoduality maps our spacetime
into the new isodual spacetime, while charge conjugation maps our spacetime into itself.
It then follows that, according to isoduality, antimatter exists in a new spacetime, which
is distinct yet coexisting with our own spacetime while, according to conventional views,
antimatter exists jointly with matter in our spacetime.
Ref.  of 1994 indicated the prediction of the isodual theory at all levels, including the
Newton-Santilli, Minkowski-Santilli and Riemann-Santilli isodual formulations, that matter
and antimatter experience gravitational repulsion (antigravity). Ref.  then proposed the
measure of the gravity of positrons in horizontal
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled
Ref.  of 1997 presented technical aspects of the isodual special relativity studied in
Refs.  with particular reference to the hidden verication of special relativity axioms
under isoduality (due to the quadratic character of the Minkowskian line element), with the
understanding that matter-antimatter interactions are structurally beyond the sole use of
special rel- ativity beginning at the classical level and then, expectedly, at the operator level,
because requiring the joint use of special relativity and its isodual.
Ref.  of 1997 applied all preceding knowledge to initiate the study of antimatter-light,
the light emitted by antimatter, also called isodual light, resulting in a prediction of main
character for this paper according to which antimatter light is physically dierent than matter
light in an experimentally veriable way. Since the photon has no charge, the only possible
conjugation is that for all other physical quantities.
6 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 2 The prediction of negative index of refraction of antimatter light within matter water.
As a result, antimatter-light is predicted to possess negative energy while all other characteristics
are opposite to those of matter light. In particular, antimatter light is predicted to be
repelled by matter gravity (see Fig. 1), thus permitting the conception of experiments, e.g. via
neutron interferometry, to verify whether one of the two photons emitted in electron-positron
annihilation experiences repulsion in our gravitational eld.
Ref.  of 1998 presented an isotopic unication of Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries
for matter (namely, their unication into a single geometry and their dierentiation
via the generalized unit). Ref.  then presented their isodualities for point-like antimatter
in vacuum (exterior dynamical conditions) as well as for extended antimatter bodies moving
within physical media (interior dynamical conditions).
Ref.  of 1999 conrmed that isodual mathematics does indeed permit a consistent
classical representation of antimatter at the Newtonian, Minkowskian and Riemannian levels
in a way compatible with all available classical experimental data on antimatter.
Ref.  of 2006 presented a comprehensive study of antimatter in irreversible conditions
achieved via the Lie-admissible covering of Lie formulations.
Monograph  of 2006 presented a comprehensive study of isodual mathematics and its
application to antimatter, including one of the only known grand unication of electroweak
and gravitational interactions with the inclusion of antimatter at the gravitational level in a
way parallel to the treatment of antimatter in electroweak interactions. Ref. also indicated
the prediction of a causal spacetime machine and the need for isoduality to represent all four
directions of time existing in nature, namely, motion forward to future time t and forward
from past time t, as well as motion backward in past time td and backward from future
Ref.  of 2012 addressed the open problem of the detection of possible antimatter
asteroids and presented the rst known hypothesis that antimatter light possesses a negative
index of refraction nd = n when propagating within a transparent matter medium. Again,
the consistent characterization of neutral antimatter requires the conjugation of all quantities
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 7
Fig. 3 The two identical Galileo telescopes and the camera on arrival.
with no exclusion to avoid catastrophic inconsistencies. This implies the necessary conjugation
of the index of refraction into a negative value referred to our positive units of measurements
since it is observed in our matter world (see Fig. 2).
An important implication of the isodual theory of antimatter is the clarication that the
conventional Dirac equation characterizes the tensorial product of one point-like particle with
spin 1=2 and its antiparticle without any need for second quantization (see Sect. 2.3.6 of Ref.
). In essence, the author could not accept the conventional 20th century view that Dirac’s
equations represents only one particle with spin 1=2 because there exists no irreducible or
reducible representation of the SU(2)-spin symmetry with the structure of Dirac’s gamma
matrices. Therefore, the author re-inspected Dirac’s equation and showed that
thus yielding the indicated characterization of a spin 1=2 particle and its antiparticle.
In his genius, Dirac himself provided the true foundation of the isodual theory of antimatter
by characterizing antiparticles with the negative unit I22. Dirac merely missed the
mathematics for the consistent physical treatment of negative energies. Note that there is no
contradiction for a representation of antiparticle at the quantum mechanical level because the
isodual theory of antiparticles applies at the classical level, let alone that of rst quantization.
The reader should be aware that a negative index of refraction implies that antimatter
light propagates within a transparent matter medium at superluminal speeds. A con- ceptual
interpretation of this prediction is that the ordinary (positive) index of refraction for matter
light propagating within a transparent matter medium is due to various, ultimately attractive
interactions that slow down the speed of matter light. By contrast, when antimatter light
propagates within a transparent matter medium, for consistency, all features of matter have
to be conjugated, resulting in new repulsive interactions between antimatter light and the
matter medium that, as such, accelerate antimatter light to superluminal speeds.
Numerous independent studies have been conducted on Santilli isodual theory of antimatter,
among which we indicate: the theoretician J. Dunning-Davies  who con- structed
the rst known thermodynamics of antimatter bodies; the experimentalists A. P. Mills 
and V. de Haan  who conrmed the feasibility and resolutory character of Santillis proposal
to test the gravity of positrons in horizontal
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled
8 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 4 The parallel mount of the Galileo and antimatter telescopes with related nder scopes.
tube (see monograph  for details); the mathematician B. Davvaz et al  who identied,
apparently for the rst time, the multi-valued, four dimensional hyperstructural character
of the universe suggested by two dierent yet coexisting spacetimes; the thermodynamicist
A. Bhalekar who studied in Ref.  Santillis representation of the four directions of time
 and in Ref.  the rst known study of antimatter in irreversible conditions via the
Lie-admissible formulations of ref. ; R. Anderson et al  who presented a review of
the isodual theory of antimatter which is an excellent introduction to this paper; and the
physicists I. Gandzha and J. V. Kadeisvili  who wrote a systematic outline of the various
studies here referred to for matter and antimatter.
4 THE ANTIMATTER TELESCOPE
In this section, we report the initiation of experimental verications or denial of the prediction
of the isodual theory of antimatter according to which a consistent conjugation from
matter to antimatter requires that antimatter light has a negative energy Ed = E with
ensuing repulsion by a matter gravitational eld (Fig. 1 and Ref. ) and a negative index
of refraction (Fig. 2 and Ref. ).
To conduct the tests, we here introduce apparently for the rst time that, under these
premises, antimatter light from distant sources can only be focused via a new refracting telescope
with concave lenses, because a conventional telescope with convex lenses will disperse
light with a negative index of refraction.
It should be indicated from the outset that the above predictions imply that the human
eye cannot distinctly see far antimatter light sources since our iris has been designed by
nature to be convex in order to see matter light. As such, our eye will disperse throughout
the retina antimatter light with a negative index of refraction.
Consequently, all tests here reported have been conducted under the condition that possible
views of distant antimatter light have to be recorded with a suitable camera, and then
the pictures, their analyses and their enlargements can be seen by the human eye.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 9
Fig. 5 A close up view of the mounting of the camera directly in the telescope in place of the eyepieces.
We should also indicate from the outset that we expected no antimatter star in our galaxy.
Hence, the main hope of our tests has been to see whether there exist detectable far distant
antimatter galaxies, since a central open problem of contemporary astrophysics and cosmology
is to ascertain whether the universe is solely composed of matter galaxies or antimatter
galaxies also exist and, if so, what is their distribution.
Following the above clarications, we should indicate the expected existence in our galaxy
as well as in our planetary environment of possible antimatter asteroids  and antimatter
cosmic rays .
It should be noted that collisions between matter and antimatter bodies appear to be
minimized by nature in the event their gravitational repulsion  is conrmed. Similar
ections are expected for weak antimatter gamma and antiparticle radiations.
Only antimatter bodies and radiations with a threshold energy and a special trajectory can
eventually hit Earth according to the isodual theory of antimatter.
Regrettably, we had to exclude from our search the detection of possible antimatter asteroids
due to our lack of any knowledge at this writing on the optics of antimatter light, such
as the behavior of matter light from our Sun, when hitting an antimatter asteroid.
Therefore, our search was restricted to the detection of possible far away antimatter galaxies
and possible antimatter radiations annihilating in our upper atmosphere without unrealistic
expectations of nal resolutions in these rst tests, and the mere hope of results suciently
unresolved one way or the other to justify additional investments and more accurate tests.
After verifying the current lack of availability of a refracting telescope with concave lenses,
the author had no other alternative than that of securing from specialized opticians and their
companies the design and construction of the needed refracting telescope with concave lenses,
hereon refereed to as the antimatter telescope.
For these objectives: 1) we secured the design and fabrication of two identical Galileo
refracting telescopes (of course, both with convex lenses) and both without the star diagonal
viewer to avoid any unnecessary re
ection of antimatter light; 2) we had one of the two telescopes
converted to a concave version with identical but conjugated foci; 3) we secured one
single suitably selected camera to obtain pictures from both the Galileo and the antimat10
Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 6 Main characteristics of the Galileo and antimatter primary lenses (courtesy of Jianmin Guo from
Fig. 7 Schematic view of the telescopes with convex and concave lense (courtesy of Jianmin Guo from
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 11
ter telescopes; 4) we secured a tripod with mount suitable for the parallel housing of the
two telescopes; 5) we optically aligned the two telescopes on the tripod by keeping in mind
the evident impossibility of doing visual alignments with the antimatter telescope; 6) we
conducted a number of day views with the so mounted and aligned pair of Galileo and
antimatter telescopes to verify that astronomical objects visible in the former are not visible
in the latter; 7) we conducted a number of night views of the same region of the sky via
the so mounted and aligned Galileo and the antimatter telescopes; 8) we obtained a number
of pictures from both telescopes via the selected camera; and 9) we nally conducted a
comparative inspection of the pictures from both telescopes under a variety of enlargements
and contrasts to see whether the pictures from the antimatter telescope contained focused
images absent in the pictures from the Galileo telescope under the same enlargement and
Fig. 8 Enlarged view of one of the streaks of matter light representing a far away matter star or galaxy
identied in the main picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky near Vega obtained on
November 7, 2013, via the Galileo telescope .
Along the above nine steps, we requested the astronomer Nilesh Vayada from India to
design for us two identical straight refracting Galileo telescopes with 100 mm eective primary
lenses, 900 mm focal length and with ratio 8.82, each having the nder scope, where
straight means without the star diameter viewer to avoid unnecessary de
ections of antimatter
light. Following acceptance of the drawings, the two telescopes were fabricated for us by
Galileo Telescope Makers, 503A, Prem Kunj, Navroji Lane, Ghatkopar Mumbai 400 086,
12 Ruggero Maria Santilli
India (website http://www.galileotelescope.com). Fig. 3 shows the two identical Galileo refracting
telescopes on arrival to our laboratory at the Institute for Basic Research, 150 Rainville Rd,
Tarpon Springs, FL 34689, U.S.A. It should be indicated that the telescopes were ordered
under the assurance by the manufacturer that they could see galaxies.
Fig. 9 The rst focused streak of light detected in the antimatter telescope in the Epsilon Alpha and Beta
region of the night sky on November 7, 2013, expectedly originated by a far away antimatter galaxy .
Galileo Telescope Makers also supplied the selected camera by Cannon, model EOS 600D
with image sensor of type CMOS, and Bayer Filter. Light from the telescope primary lenses
passes through a Low-Pass lter, then through an IR and a UV Filter, then through a Pixel
Micro-Lens, and nally through a Pixel Color Filter after which light hits the pixel silicon
photo diode where there is the conversion of light into electric signals. The conversion from
analogue to digital allows the storage of raw data or their con- version into visible images
in the LCD screen, as well as for storage in said visible format. A re
ex mirror in front of
the camera sensor used for the viewnder is automatically retracted at the time an image
is captured. In all tests the camera was directly attached to the two telescopes via a T ring
adaptor and housed in lieu of the eyepieces. A picture of the camera is available in Figs. 4
We then purchased an Orion Sky View Pro Equatorial Telescope Tripod model number
09829 equipped with an Orion Narrow Side-by-Side Plate model number 07956 for the housing
of the two telescopes in a parallel fashion (see also Figs. 4 and 5). The tripod is equipped
with three manually operated means for positioning the direction of the telescopes, one for
the altitude, one for for right ascention, and one for declination.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 13
Fig. 10 The second streak of light detected in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region with the
antimatter telescope also expectedly due to another antimatter galaxy .
We then contacted the optician Jianmin Guo from China who designed the conversion
of the two lenses per our specications (Figs. 6 and 7). Following their approval
by us, we shipped one of the two telescopes to Guos company, Zhengzhou Union Optics
Co. LTD, No.10 ChenXu Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou City, China 450011 (web site
http://www.unionoptics.com) to perform the transformation of the telescope from the Galileo
form with 100 mm eective convex primary lenses, to our antimatter telescope with features
identical to those the Galileo one but conjugated as described above. Since the camera is
directly attached to the telescope without the eyepiece, this conversion essentially consisted
in the fabrication and assembly of concave lenses as per the data of Fig. 6. Fig. 7 provides a
comparative view of the Galileo and the antimatter telescope.
Following reception in late October 2013 from China of the telescope modied for antimatter,
we assembled the two telescopes in the above described tripod with parallel dual mount
and conducted their alignment during the daytime as follows: we rst aligned the nder scope
to the Galileo telescope via the view of a far object (a transformer in a far electric pole);
then we aligned the nder scope of the antimatter telescope to the same view of the Galileo
telescope; and nally aligned optically the antimatter telescope to the Galileo one. It should
be indicated that extreme accuracy in alignment of the two telescopes was of no relevance
for our initial tests. Our primary objective was to see whether or not antimatter galaxies can
be detected with our concave lens telescope, since the identication of their precise location
was quite unrealistic for these initial tests due to our current complete lack of knowledge of
the optics of antimatter light.
14 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 11 The third streak of light detected in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region with the
antimatter telescope also expectedly due to a third antimatter galaxy .
Following the availability of the so mounted and aligned pair of telescopes, we initiated
night views by rst conrming that, as expected, any celestial object visibly focused by the
Galileo telescope was not focused at all with the antimatter telescope. In particular, the view
of details of our Moon, which were very nicely focused by the Galileo telescope, resulted in
a diuse light when seen from the antimatter telescope without any possible identication.
The same occurred for planets and nearby matter stars.
Following the above preparatory steps, we nally initiated preliminary views of the sky at
night with said pair of telescopes. Among a variety of tests not indicated here for brevity, we
report the tests conducted between 10 and 11 pm of November 7, 2013, at the Gulf Anclote
Park, Holiday, Florida, GPS Coordinates: Latitude = 28.193 , Longitude = -82.786.
The camera was set at the exposure of 15 seconds for the specic intent of having streaks
of light from far away matter stars caused by Earth rotation, since streaks can be better
identied with the limited capabilities of the available telescopes compared to individual dots
of light in the pictures. Additionally, streaks from matter stars have a clear orientation as well
as length that are important for the identication of possible streaks from antimatter light.
Following various tests, we selected the setting of the camera at ISO 1600 because various
tests with smaller and bigger ISO resulted inconclusive and ambiguous for various reasons.
Detailed values of the various additional settings of the camera are available from Ref. .
All pictures were analyzed by the expert photographer Scott Randall of Night Fox Productions,
P. O. Box 252, Dunedin, Florida 34697,U.S.A.(websitewww.NightFoxProductions.com)
who conducted extensive analyses with particular reference to the identication of the background
as well as impurities in the camera sensors that are evidently present in both pictures
from the Galileo and the antimatter telescope.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 15
Fig. 12 The rst streak of darkness identied in the picture of the Epsilon Alpha ane Beta region of the
night sky taken on November 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope  providing possible evidence of a far
away antimatter star or galaxy as an alternative for the streaks of light.
Fig. 13 Another representative streak of darkness present in the antimatter telescope  but absent in the
Galileo telescope that may constitute an alternative to the streak of light.
16 Ruggero Maria Santilli
The camera was rst focused in the Galileo telescope via the rack and pinion of the
telescope terminal and via the sharpness of the view in the camera optical view nder. The
position of the rack and pinion was marked. When the camera was used in the antimatter
telescope, the only possible focus was to assure that the position of the rack and pinion was
the same as that of the Galileo telescope due to the identity of the foci (Figs. 6 and 7).
Following these preliminaries, we oriented the telescopes at the indicated location and
time toward the star Vega, and then specialized the orientation for the pair of matter stars
Epsilon Alpha and Epsilon Beta near Vega. In order to properly interpret expected anomalies
Fig. 14 Seemingly connected streaks of darkness identied in a picture of the Vega region of the night
sky on November 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope that could be due to the annihilation of a shower of
small antimatter asteroids in our atmosphere, in a way much similar but the conjugate of the frequent view
in the night sky of the streaks of light caused by the annihilation of a shower of small matter asteroids in our
in the pictures, we should recall the following properties of the isodual theory of antimatter
As indicated in Sect. 3, isodual mathematics predicts that antimatter possesses negative
energy according to Dirac’s original conception , although referred to a negative units of
energy when considered in the antimatter world.
When antimatter is considered in the matter world represented with a conventional Hilbert
state j >, a rst line of current thinking is that the energy of antimatter is positive. This view
can be represented via the isodual eigenvalue equation
Hd d j >= E j >; E > 0;
where d is the product in the antimatter world. In this case, antimatter light hitting the
pixels of the camera should produce the same voltage and, therefore, the same image as those
of matter light. Hence, we rst looked for ordinary streaks of light that are present in the
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 17
pictures from the antimatter telescope but absent in the Galileo telescope. In particular, we
used a camera exposure causing a streak of light (due to Earth’s rotation) suciently long
to be clearly distinguishable from the background.
Fig. 15 The rst of numerous circular traces identied in a picture of Vega regions of the night sky on Nov
ember 7, 2013, with the antimatter telescope that could be due to the annihilation of an antimatter cosmic
However, our current knowledge of antimatter is extremely limited. Therefore, we have
to consider for completeness the possibility that antimatter light is received by the camera
pixels as having a negative energy from the alternative eigenvalue equation
Hd j >= E j >; E > 0;
where “” is now the product in our matter world as requested by isodual mathematics. In
this second case, antimatter light hitting the pixels of the camera are expected to produce
a voltage opposite that of matter light, thus causing a streak of darkness, rather than light.
This suggested the additional search for streaks of darkness that are present in the pictures
from the antimatter telescope but absent in those from the Galileo telescope.
In regard to the alternative of streaks due to positive or negative energies, we should
recall that the invariance under isoselfduality (veried by Diracs equation ) requires that
matter-antimatter annihilation jointly produces matter and antimatter liht. This can be seen
from the conventional particle reaction
e+ + e !
which isoselfduality is veried in the left but not in the right side. The verication of isoselfduality
for both sides then requires the revised formulation
18 Ruggero Maria Santilli
e+ + e !
resulting in the indicated production of two lights (see Ref.  for apparent insuciencies of
Feynman’s diagrams for particle-antiparticle annihilation due to violation of the isoselfdual
invariance, impossibility of representing annihilation via the notion of particle exchange, and
Consequently, any conrmation that antimatter light has a negative energy, either via the
pictures of this paper or via the possible experimental detection of gravitational repulsion for
antimatter light in a matter eld, would conrm Dirac’s original conception of antiparticles
as having negative energy [5[ while isomathematics would resolve known inconsistencies.
Following the above clarications for a tentative interpretation of expected anomalies, we
provide in Ref.  the main picture of the indicated Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the
sky from the Galileo telescope in both compiled and raw forms, where one can easily identify
the Epsilon Alpha and Epsilon Beta pair of matter stars near Vega.
Fig. 8 provides the typical view of a far away matter star or galaxy in the indicated region
of the sky which view can be easily identied in the main picture of Ref.  under suitable
magnication. One should note the length and orientation of the streak of light of Fig. 8
due to Earths rotation during the 15 second exposure, as well as its weakness due to the
fact that the sky was inspected in an essentially urban area with consequential unavoidable
diuse luminescence. An additional reason for the weakness of the streak is that the tests
were conducted at the Gulf Anclote Park which is at the edge of the Gulf of Mexico, thus
implying signicant humidity of the air, with ensuing additional weakness of the streaks of
light due to water absorption of light. The reader should keep in mind these limitations so
as to avoid the expectation of the detection of brilliant streaks of light in the antimatter
Ref.  provides the compiled and raw forms of the corresponding pictures of the same
region of the sky from the antimatter telescope.
As indicated above, in our analysis of the latter picture we rst identied streaks of light
reported in Figs. 9 to 11 that are present in the antimatter telescope but can arguably be
conceived as being absent in the Galileo telescope. The magnication has been obtained via
the Gimp 2.8 software. The position of the anomalous streaks of light of Figs. 9 to 11 is
indicated with squares in the main picture visible under no magnications. The anomalous
streaks of light will then appear under suitable magnication.
It should be noted that streaks of light are of dicult identication, particularly for their
corresponding absence in the Galileo telescope, thus being unsettled at this writing, since the
background is also made up of light. We have indicated them in representation of the current
rst line of thinking that antimatter light, and therefore antiparticles, have positive energy.
It should also be noted that the focal position of the camera was accurately marked in the
transition from the Galileo to the antimatter telescope, but not its angular orientation due to
the primitive character of the available equipment, thus implying possible small dierences
in orientation of the streaks in the Galileo and antimatter telescopes. Hence, expectations of
extreme accuracy in the orientation of the matter and antimatter streaks would be unrealistic
for these rst tests.
As indicated above, we additionally conducted a search for streaks of darkness in the main
pictures of the indicated Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky from the antimatter
telescope under the conditions that: 1) said streaks are present in the antimatter telescope
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 19
Fig. 16 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Deneb regions of the night sky with the antimatter
but not in the Galileo telescope; 2) the streaks have approximately the same orientation and
length of the streak of matter light of Fig. 8; and 3) the streaks are clearly distinguished from
the background. Note that, since the background is predominantly that of light, streaks of
darkness are more distinguishable than those of light, thus being less controversial.
Two representative streaks of darkness verifying these requirements are reported in Figs.
12 and 13. Note the apparent clear organization of dark pixels over illuminated ones with
a low statistical probability if occurring at random. The streaks of Figs. 12 and 13 are
here tentatively presented as providing possible evidence, following due verications, that
antimatter light may cause fpcused images of darkness when hitting the pixels of the selected
camera (that was evidently produced to detect matter light).
In Fig. 14 we present seemingly correlated streaks of darkness of unknown origin, but
which could be arguably due to a shower of small antimatter asteroids annihilating in or
passing through our upper atmosphere. This is due to the fact that their orientation is not
compatible with that caused by the fteen second exposure of the camera as set by the streak
of Fig. 8, thus solely allowing for interpretation an essentially instantaneous event.
It should be noted that the author could locate no additional, clearly identied streaks
of light or darkness in pictures of various regions of the sky obtained with the antimatter
telescope besides the streaks reported in Figs. 9 to 14, although the search was at random
and denitely not systematic. Arguably, the absence of additional streaks besides those of
the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region could be due to the fact that possible antimatter galaxies
are too much far away for the very limited possibilities of the used 10 cm telescopes, thus
suggesting the construction of a bigger pair of Galileo and antimatter telescope for their
20 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Besides said linear streaks, the author has identied numerous, completely unexpected
circular traces in pictures of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region as well as in other regions
of the night sky, which traces are present in the antimatter but not in the Galileo telescope.
Representative examples of these circular traces are reproduced in Figs. 15 to 19. As one can
see, these circular traces all have approximately the same diameter for a given magnication;
and are clearly distinct from the background.
Fig. 17 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Altair regions of the night sky with the antimatter
After due analysis, it is possible that these circular traces might be due to the annihilation
of antimatter cosmic rays in the upper region of our atmosphere, thus yielding approximately
the same diameter of the trace at sea level due to the same travel in air. This interpretation
is also suggested by the fact that the circles show no motion during the fteen seconds of
exposure, thus implying extremely fast events. An additional aspect supporting the indicated
interpretation is the variety of the circular traces identied by the author in numerous regions
of the sky.
It can be argued that, during the annihilation, of possible antimatter cosmic rays in our
atmosphere matter light may quickly dissipate in the atmosphere, while antimatter light may
continue its path along the original direction. The detected circles might then characterize,
in reality, a cone of antimatter light.
In the event conrmed, these circular traces would be the rst detection at sea level of the
ashes of light seen by astronauts and cosmonauts in the upper dark side of our atmosphere.
Note that, again in case of verications, the
ashes seen by astronauts and cosmonauts would
only be originated by matter light due to the convex character of our iris, while our view at
sea level would be due to antimatter light seen via concave lenses.
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 21
Note that the circular traces could also be due to antimatter gamma rays, their arrival
at sea level in the forms of cones being possibly due to eects inherent in the yet unknown
optics of antimatter light.
As one can see, the circular traces appear to be predominantly, but not denitely due to
circles of darkness, rather than light. Consequently, the circular traces of darkness of Figs.
15 to 19 support the hypothesis that antimatter light causes images of darkness, rather than
light, in a camera built for matter light.
A resolution of the alternative between images of light or darkness suggests the of a
special camera with inverted sign of the pixel voltage, or other means under which matter
light is detected as darkness in order to see whether antimatter light produces visible images.
Needless to say, the construction of such a special camera should be complemented with the
construction of bigger and more accurate pair of Galileo and antimatter telescopes.
There is no doubt that, besides the above proposed special camera and bigger telescopes,
a considerable amount of additional mathematical, theoretical and experimental research is
needed for the resolution of the background central issues: whether matter-antimatter annihilation
veries the symmetry of isoselfduality; whether annihilation jointly produces distinct
matter and antimatter light; and whether antimatter and/or light experiences gravitational
repulsion in a matter eld.
Among the needed research, we indicate: the great need to develop the antimatter optics,
also called by the author isodual optics ; the measurement of the gravity of the positron
ight in a supervacuum and supercooled tube [22,26,27]; and the experimental
resolution whether the two photons emitted in the electron positron annihilation
e+ + e !
both experience gravitational attraction, or one experience attraction and the other repulsion.
Until all this basic knowledge is achieved, any resolution of the origin of the anomalous
streaks and circles reported in this paper, whether in favor or against, will be purely illusory.
It should be noted that the cap[ability by a telescope with concave lenses to focus images
appears to be an experimental verication of the novel isodual dierential calculus [10,38[.
Additional information in the above measurements can be found in Ref. [39[.
5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
Following a rather long scientic journey for the construction of the isodual theory of neutral
or charged antimatter applicable at all levels of treatment, from classical mechanics to second
quantization, the author has presented in this paper apparently for the rst time pictures
of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky via a telescope with concave primary
lenses as suggested by isodual mathematics.
These pictures show anomalous streaks and circles that are absent in pictures of the same
region of the sky from a Galileo telescope, thus suggesting antimatter as their origination,
and their main common feature is that of being streaks and circles of darkness, rather than
light, as it should be after all expected under matter-antimatter conjugation, by therefore
supporting the negative energy of light predicted by the isodual theory of antimatter.
In the event conrmed, the anomalous traces presented in this paper may emerge as being
the rst experimental detection of antimatter galaxy, antimatter asteroids and antimatter
22 Ruggero Maria Santilli
Fig. 18 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Sadr regions of the night sky with the antimatter
The main result of this paper is an apparent conrmation of Dirac’s  original 1928
conception of antiparticles as possessing negative energy because necessary for consistency
with negative energy of light in the electron-positron annihilation, the inconsistencies of
negative energies being apparently assured by their treatment via the isodual mathematics.
The author would like to close this paper with a call of the physics community to balance
experiments at very high energies with complementary experiments at very low energies,
because the former do not appear to have new objectives worth the use of large public funds,
while only the latter can yield fundamental new advances in virtually all scientic elds.
In particular, we recommend the measurement of the gravity of the positron in horizontal
ight [22,26,27] (with caution in the use of antiprotons expressed in Appendix A due their
possible confusion with the pseudoproton and other reasons), as well as the complementary
measurement of the gravity of the photons produced in electron-positron annihilation .
Only these tests can yield the necessary scientic knowledge to prevent that Earth is
devasted again by a large antimatter asteroid without the physics community being able to
provide any advance detection.
6 APPENDIX A: Antiprotons or pseudoprotons?
A few words of caution should be voiced in regard to other proposed measurements of the
gravity of antimatter in a matter eld via current production of antiprotons . This is
due to the fact that, in the event the isodual theory of antimatter is conrmed, true matterantimatter
annihilations solely produce light without any residual particles or antiparticles,
as it was the case for the 1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia (since the production of particles
would have destroyed all trees in the ground).
APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES 23
Fig. 19 View of a circular trace identied in a picture of Gienah Cyngi regions of the night sky with the
But the currently claimed proton-antiprotons annihilations, such as that of the Bose-
Einstein correlation, produce a large number of particles, as well known (see Ref.  for
a review and quotations), thus casting shadows as to whether the particles currently called
“antiprotons” are truly characterized by antimatter or they are at least in part the “pseudoprotons”
predicted by hadronic mechanics.
In essence, at the time a proton beam hits a matter target as it is the case for the currently
production of apparent antiprotons, we have all the necessary energy for the synthesis of the
neutron from a proton and an electron
p+ + e ! n + ;
as occurring in the core of a star. This synthesis is quantitatively represented solely by
hadronic mechanics due to 0.782 excess rest energy of the neutron over the sum of the rest
energies of the proton and the electron that would require, for the use of quantum mechanics,
a “positive binding energy” under which the Schrodinger’s equation becomes inconsistent in
favor of its non-unitary covering equation of hadronic mechanics (for brevity the review and
quotations, see also Chapter 6 of Ref. ).
Following the quantitative representation of the neutron synthesis, hadronic mechanics
quite easily predicts the “pseudoproton” which is characterized by the synthesis of the proton
and an electron pair in singlet coupling (as normally existing in atomic orbitals of the target),
p+ + (e
” ; e
# )J=0 ! ~p
(without any need to emit the hypothetical neutrino), yielding a fully “matter” particle
without any antiparticle content, with a negative elementary charge, a meanlife similar to
24 Ruggero Maria Santilli
that of the isolated neutron (about fteen minutes) and a mass close to that of the proton
due to the apparent balance between the negative energy of the strongly attractive Coulomb
interactions at very short distances with the positive energy due to the isorenormalization of
rest energies under deep wave overlapping as necessary for the synthesis of the neutron (see
Ref.  for here inessential calculations mostly similar to those for the neutron synthesis).
It is evident that the pseudoproton can quickly capture a positron to form a kind of
“hybrid Hydrogen atom” composed by a matter nucleus and an orbiting antimatter particle,
thus being predominantly constituted by matter. Consequently,experiments via the use of the
currently produced “antiprotons” and related “anti-Hydrogen atoms” are predicted by hadronic
mechanics to yield a full gravitational attraction, thus being potentially insidious for basic
advances in antimatter, unless the claimed antiprotons are truly proved to be as such via
consistent annihilation processes and not via the sole measurement of the charge and mass.
In view of these and other ambiguities, the author has stressed in Ref.  the need that
the rst test of the gravity of antimatter be done with positrons in our matter eld, since
positrons are the only certain antiparticle known at this writing.
The author has no words to thank Alex Nas of Thunder Fusion Corporation and Scott Randall
of Night Fox Computer Services for invaluable technical assistance without which this
paper would not have been completed within a reasonable period of time. Additional thanks
are due for penetrating criticisms and comments to all participants of the following meetings
where the isodual theory of antimatter was discussed in detail: the International Conference
on Antimatter held in Sepino, Italy. in June 1996; the Third International Conference on the
Lie-admissible Treatment of Irreversible Systems of Matter and Antimatter held on January
2011 in Nepal; the International Conference on Antimatter Astrophysics held at the Republic
of San Marino in September 2011; the International Workshop on Hadronic Mechanics
for Matter and Antimatter held in September 2012 in Kos. Greece, as part of 2012 ICNAAM;
the Workshop on Santillis New Mathematics for 21st Century Sciences held in April
2013 in India; the International Conference on Iso-, Geno- Hyper- and Isodual Mathematics
held in Rhodes, Greece, in September 2013 as part of 2013 ICNAAM: and the International
Workshop on Hadronic Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics held in October 2013 India.
Prior to this paper, the author solely presented the antimatter telescope at the above indicated
2013 meeting in Rhodes via power point available from the link http://www.santillifoundation.
org/docs/antimatter-telescope-2013.pptx The author would like to thank the audience
for not so frequent grace and interest shown in being exposed to such an unusually
dierent telescope, which are a sign of serious commitment to research intended as the pursuit
of new knowledge. Additional thanks are due to the referees of this paper for its in depth
critical analysis, and to Dorte Zuckerman for its editorial control, although the author is
solely responsible for the content due to various subsequent nalizations.
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DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES,
ASTEROIDS AND COSMIC RAYS
Dr. R. M. Santilli, Chief Scientist of Thunder Energies Corporation (see his Curriculum , Prizes and Nominations , Publications in antimatter , and the General Archives ) has conducted three decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies on antimatter initiated in the early1980s when he was at at Harvard University under DOE support.
This extended research has produced basically new telescopes, today known as Santilli telescopes, which have been conceived, designed, constructed, tested and produced to detect antimatter galaxies, antimatter cosmic rays and antimatter asteroids (international patent pending irrevocably owned by TEC without royalty payments).
Since matter and antimatter annihilate at contact into light, as a condition for its existence at the classical macroscopic level, antimatter must have all characteristics opposite to those of matter. For instance, matter-light has a positive index of refraction while, as a condition for its existence, antimatter-light must have a negative index of refraction (Figure 1).
Consequently, the focusing of images of matter-light require convex lenses as occurring in the Galileo telescopes, while the focusing of images of antimatter-light requires concave lenses, as occurring in Santilli telescopes (Figure 2).
The above features imply that none of the refractive Galileo-type telescopes existing on Earth or in space can detect antimatter-light because they are all based on convex lenses.
Similarly, we will never see images of antimatter-light with our naked eyes because our cornea is convex, and as such, it disperses images of antimatter-light all over our retina. The sole possibility to detect images of antimatter-light is via images on a digital or film camera.
2. Detection of antimatter galaxies
The Santilli telescopes should always be used in pair with optically aligned conventional Galileo telescopes, both telescopes having the same diameter of the primary lenses. the same curvature of the primary lenses and the same focal distances, with the understanding that curvature and focal distances become negative for the Santilli telescopes (Figure 3).
Under these conditions, the detection of antimatter galaxies with a pair of the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes can be made according to the following rules (consult TEC for more technical information):
1) All alignments in the night sky are done with the Galileo telescope which is generally equipped with an eyepiece;
2) All images are taken from equal digital or film cameras in both the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes as shown in Figure 3;
3) Whether digital or film, the images from the two telescopes are subjected to the same magnification, until faint images become detectable over the background;
4) Digital cameras are sufficient for initial scans of the night sky, although much more detailed views can be obtained via a film camera; and
5) Images focused by the Santilli telescope are considered valid, if and only if, they do not exist in the images from the Galileo telescope under the same magnification.
Since antimatter galaxies cannot exist in our galactic environment and can only exist far away, their images are faint. Consequently, the detection of their images are suggested to be done with long camera exposures, such as exposures for 15 seconds.
This long exposure generates streaks in the digital cameras that, as such, can be clearly distinguished from the background as well as from impurities or imperfections of the cameras since said impurities and imperfections remain stationary.
The tracking of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope is discouraged at the moment. This is due to the fact that, in case of tracking, antimatter galaxies will produce small stationary dots in the camera that, as such, cannot be distinguished with certainty from camera impurities or anomalies.
Matter-Antimatter annihilation also requires that antimatter-light must have energy opposite that of matter-light, as predicted by P. A. M. Dirac in 1932 and verified by R. M. Santilli in his decades of research on antimatter (see the the theoretical confirmation and the experimental confirmation).
Under 15 second exposure, the Galileo telescope creates an image of matter galaxies consisting of streaks of light over the conventional background (Figure 4) while, by contrast, the detection of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope creates streaks of darkness (Figure 5) over the conventional background.
This is essentially due to the fact that the negative energy of antimatter-light annihilates in the camera pixel the positive energy due to matter-light of the background, resulting in this way in streaks of darkness.
It then follows that a conventional matter-light background is necessary (under our current knowledge) for the detection of antimatter galaxies because, in its absence, no image of far away antimatter galaxies could be visible in the camera due to darkness of the background.
This is the reason all detections of the night sky with the Santilli telescope have been done to date at sea level where the conventional matter-light background is sufficient to distinguish streaks of darkness.
3. Detection of antimatter asteroids
The detection of antimatter asteroids follows rules different than those for antimatter galaxies. Since matter and antimatter repel each other gravitationally (antigravity), antimatter asteroids are repelled by Earth’s gravitation and can impact Earth only when they have certain value of kinetic energy computed by Dr. S. Beghella-Bartoli in the scientific work
Therefore, antimatter asteroids hitting Earth must have said minimal impact kinetic energy or more; they annihilate at contact with our matter atmosphere; and they produce instantaneous streaks of darkness (under 15 second exposure) in the digital or film camera generally in the downward direction of penetration in our atmosphere. Streaks of darkness over the matter-light background in the Santilli telescope under 15 second exposure are candidates for the detection of antimatter asteroids when they have a direction different than those of the streaks of matter and antimatter galaxies (Figure 6).
It should be indicated that, at this stage of our knowledge, we do not know how to detect antimatter asteroids in space prior to their impact on Earth, because our matter-light (whether from our Sun or from our lasers) could be absorbed without reflection when hitting antimatter asteroids that generally are at absolute zero degree temperature.
One of the reasons Thunder Energies Corporation is involved in the study of antimatter light is precisely due to the need to develop new technologies for the advance detection of antimatter asteroids because, in the event we are hit by a small antimatter asteroid the size of a football, all our military, industrial and civilian communications will be disrupted for days due to the extreme excitation of our atmosphere from the radiations emitted by the matter-antimatter annihilation, as suggested by Dr. R. Anderson et al. in the scientific work
4. Detection of antimatter cosmic rays
The detection of antimatter cosmic rays follows rules different than those for the detection of antimatter galaxies and antimatter asteroids. As it is the case for conventional cosmic rays of matter, antimatter cosmic rays are the result of primordial explosions in the universe.
Consequently, antimatter cosmic rays reach our atmosphere at very high speeds; they annihilate in the upper layer of our atmosphere; and their sole detection is that via the antimatter-light produced by their annihilation that reaches us at the ground level.
The detection of antimatter cosmic rays via the Santilli telescope is then provided by dots of darkness over the matter-light background despite the 15 seconds exposure, which feature confirm the virtually instantaneous propagation in our atmosphere of antimatter-light originated by the antimatter cosmic rays (Figure 7).
It should be clarified that the instantaneous dots of darkness created by antimatter cosmic rays by the Santilli telescope are not caused by ordinary light since the same dots are absent in the Galileo telescope. Also, antimatter-light is physically different than ordinary matter-light (see Figure 1 for the different refraction).
5. Expected new technologies
Due to the democracy between matter and antimatter requested by physical laws (such as the PCT theorem), the above advances predict the possible future development of a basically new digital camera with pixels detecting photons with negative energy, as a complement of current pixels that solely detect photons with positive energy. In the eventuality, the indicated new camera is developed, the matter-light background is not needed for the detection of antimatter images.
REFERENCES ON ANTIMATTER GALAXIES, ASTEROIDS, & COSMIC RAYS
General treatise on antimatter
R.M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Application to Antigravity, Grand Unification and the Spacetime Machine, Springer (2006)
Experimental references suggested for technical details
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses,” Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications vol. 3, 2014, pages 1-26 (Cambridge, UK),
P. Bhujbal, J. V. Kadeisvili, A. Nas, S Randall, and T. R. Shelke Preliminary confirmation of the detection of antimatter galaxies via Santilli telescope with concave lenses, Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications Vol. 3, pages 27-39, 2014 (Cambridge, UK) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Con-Ant-Tel-2013.pdf
S. Beghella-Bartoli, Prashant M. Bhujbal, Alex Nas, Confirmation of antimatter detection via Santilli telescope with concave lenses, American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 4, pages 34-41 (2015)
P. M. Bhujbal, Santilli’s Isodual Mathematics and Physics for Antimatter, International Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2015),
DETECTION OF INVISIBLE TERRESTRIAL ENTITIES (ITE)
OF THE FIRST AND SECOND KIND
While it’s deep space capabilities are well documented in scientific journals, it was only by chance that our telescope detected invisible terrestrial entities within the earth’s atmosphere. Scientifically, this should be impossible because when ordinary matter and anti-matter come into contact, the annihilate one another.
So, what are these invisible terrestrial entities (ITE) that have been observed and photographed? These entities defy our current scientific knowledge. Some appear to move at highly erratic speeds while others appear to be almost stationary. Some ITE appear as dark entities (Figure 8) while others give off a luminous glow (Figure 9). To say anything beyond this would be speculation. What I can say is that these entities are invisible to the human eye and to conventional telescopes and binoculars; they can only be observed with our telescope.
Dr. Santilli has developed his telescope with concave lenses also for the study of other forms of light besides antimatter light. Thunder Energies Corporation is supporting research for the possible conversion of matter-light, from its conventional form with positive index of refraction, into a form with negative index of refraction without its necessary origination from antimatter (TEC international patent pending).
REFERENCES ON ITE
BTV original release
Business Television Announces Thunder Energies’ Discovery via the Revolutionary Telescope with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE)
BTV YouTube Video
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent Detection via New Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE)” American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 5, issue 3, pages 45-53, 2016
K. Brinkman, “Santilli Refractors,” power point from a lecture delivered at the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club on September 25, 2015
Additional detection of bright ITE
Thunder Energies report on the bright ITE detected on 01-15-16
Additional ITE detections and independent confirmations