a Colloidal / IONIC Silver Guide
USE OF THIS INFORMATION IS THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHO CHOOSE TO UTILIZE IT FOR PERSONAL HEALTH
None of the data or information mentioned or contained in this booklet is intended to be used or construed as a substitute for professional medical care and advise by your health practitioner. The author assumes no responsibility for readers use of the material and opinions expressed.
- History of Colloidal Silver
- TITRATION : Determining the amount needed.
- Colloidal Silver, an Exceptional Antibiotic
- COMPARE WITH OTHER ANTIBIOTICS
- HOW DOES COLLOIDAL SILVER WORK?
- HOW COLLOIDAL SILVER WORKS AGAINST FUNGUS & VIRUSES
- Care and Storage of Colloidal Silver
- RECOMMENDATION FOR PURIFYING FOOD & WATER
- Medical Studies and Other Testing
- HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN COLLOIDAL SILVER
A.)History of Colloidal Silver
Silver is a powerful, natural antibiotic that has been used for thousands of years, with no harmful side effects ever having being observed.
Great Grandma put a silver dollar in the milk to keep if from spoiling as it sat on the back porch in summertime. Also it is well known that the ancient Greeks knew the medical value of silver. It was observed that those ancient families who ate from silver utensils rarely were sick and had few infections. This knowledge passed on to kings, emperors, sultans and their families and members of their royal courts. They ate from silver plates, drank from silver cups, used silver utensils and stored their food in silver containers. As a result of this use, silver was ever so slightly rubbed off and mixed in their foods. And after a generation or two, they received the full benefit from the silver particles which found their way into the body of these people, hence had little chance of getting any infectious illness. These royals were called Blue Bloods because their skin had a blue tint, due to the accumulation of minute traces of pure metallic silver. The common red blooded folk, however, ate from earthenware dishes with iron utensils and frequently were sick, whilst the royals enjoyed the freedom from infectious disease as early as from birth.
There are many historical references on Colloidal Silver. One of the most complete is published in The Lancet dated Dec. 12, 1914. Colloidal Silver was in common use in America from the late 1800s until 1938. It was prescribed for a great variety of diseases and infections. There were none of today’s antibiotics available, and Colloidal Silver was used for just about everything. Colloidal Silver was relatively expensive back then, just as today’s man made antibiotics are expensive.
CURRENT MEDICAL INTEREST
Today, Colloidal Silver is rapidly gaining favor in the medical community, reflecting a kind of revival in the public health sector. Dr. Richard L Davies, executive director of the Utah Silver Institute, which monitors silver technology in 37 countries, reported in 1978: In four years we have described 87 important new medical uses for silver. We are just beginning to see to what extent silver can relieve suffering and save lives.
Some contemporary references from which this information is drawn include Dr. Harry Margraf of the St. Louis University, Dr. Charles Fox of the Columbia University; Dr. Carl Moyer, Dept. of Surgery at Washington University and the literature of Dr. Robert Becker- The Body Electric and Crosscurrents
[Other sources are listed in the references chapter of this booklet.]
b.)TITRATION Determining the amount needed.
Begin with the recommended amount of one teaspoon per day.
Use half the recommended amount for young children and one fourth for babies.
—After taking one teaspoon of Colloidal Silver daily for four days, adults may cut back to one -half teaspoon daily ( and proportionally, by body weight, for children) —
The accepted method is for an adult to consume a 125 ml to 200 ml bottle of Colloidal Silver monthly, in any convenient increment any time during the month. (there is SOME DEBATE about EVERYDAY USE ….BE PRUDENT IN THIS )
In the event a person begins taking Colloidal Silver while having a cold or flu or for any other virus, bacteria or fungus, – the daily amount should begin with triple the dosage ( one teaspoon three times a day) for three days, then follow the above regimen.
Some people will feel achy and sluggish on the third or fourth day after beginning Colloidal Silver daily. This is called a healing crisis.
When the body sloughs off a great many entrenched toxins at once, the eliminatory organs can become overloaded, in which case it is recommended to drink lots of extra water.
this extra water will lessen the symptoms rapidly.
If a person, taking the daily amount, finds that he or she will still occasionally have an infection, one may even quadruple the RDD. There should be no danger of overdosing; however, very few people ever need four times the RDD.
Since prevention is the idea here, one may err on the side of safety by taking slightly more than a perfect minimum because one never knows when there may be a sudden major outbreak of some germ in such numbers so as to overwhelm the combined defenses of an immune system fortified with only a minimum level of Colloidal Silver.
If an attack of germs happens to be stronger than the immediate combined defense level of the body’s natural immune system plus a particular level of daily Colloidal Silver, one may feel some illness, or worse.
RECOMMENDED DAILY AMOUNTS:
Individual response may vary from the average amount of Colloidal Silver needed for optimum benefit for most people. About 17 per cent, or one sixth of the population will find maximum benefit from a less than recommended daily amount. And about another sixth will find they need to take more.
BODY BUILDUP AND ELIMINATION:
Five to seven days is average for the initial benefit of Colloidal Silver to begin. Colloidal Silver will build up in the tissues to at least a concentration of five parts per million (5 ppm) at, on the average, by the tenth day.
This is the minimum effective concentration.
Higher concentrations are desirable, due to the risks of illness from major exposure to a disease outbreak or major burn injury.
One to three weeks after cessation ( again this varies with each individual) the Colloidal Silver effectiveness is finally lost and is eliminated through the kidneys, the lymphatic system and the bowel.
Applied kinesiology is one other means of determining one’s own individual need for Colloidal Silver, especially if the individual does not have a cold or other infection to begin with.
Recheck from time to time, but always err on the side of excess. Kinesiology can be the most effective way to determine the optimum amount for infants, and very young children also.
Colloidal Silver, an Exceptional Antibiotic
Colloidal Silver is the only antibiotic reportedly known to kill all types of viruses, funguses and bacteria.
Colloidal Silver is also the only antibiotic known to be perfectly harmless to all parts of the body.(INCREASING PRO-BIOTIC USE IS REQUIRED, as Colloidal Silver WILL ALSO REMOVE HEALTHY FLORA IN THE INTESTINAL TRACT)
While the liver and kidneys can be harmed by other antibiotics, Colloidal Silver promotes healing.
COMPARE Colloidal Silver WITH OTHER ANTIBIOTICS
Colloidal Silver is non-toxic to mammals, reptiles, plants and all living things that are not of a one celled structure.
One-celled life uses a different method of Oxygen metabolism. herein lies its weakness.
Since Colloidal Silver acts only as a catalyst, it influences a change in the rate or occurrence of a reaction of one-celled organisms, but does not enter into any chemical reaction with the body tissues.
The mere presence of Colloidal Silver near any virus, fungus or bacterium (one-celled disease causing pathogens) will immediately cripple their oxygen-metabolizing enzyme, or chemical lung, which suffocates and dies usually within six minutes.
The dead organism is subsequently cleared out of the body by the immune and lymphatic system.
Each of the other man made antibiotics will kill only five or six types of germs. Increasingly more and more bacteria is becoming resistant to these antibiotics. These bacterium are commonly referred to as Super Bugs, however they are unable to form a resistance to Colloidal Silver which will kill not only the bacteria but also all forms of viruses, a feat no man made antibiotic has managed to date ! A further draw-back of all other antibiotics is that they will destroy a variety of the body’s essential enzymes, but Colloidal Silver doesn’t, disable or harm in any way the many different human body enzymes, as these enzymes are particularly different to the enzymes of single-celled life.
Colloidal Silver actually promotes healing with less resulting scar tissue. No other antibiotic will do that.
Colloidal Silver is claimed to work relatively fast – mostly within six minutes or less, upon contact within the body– that these disease causing pathogens have no time to mutate into a resistant strain as such a mutation requires far longer than the time silver needs to kill the pathogen.
In fact to date no pathogen or strain thereof, has ever been known to mutate and develop resistance to silver in several thousand years of the use of this remarkable substance.
no one celled organism or plant will ever be able to develop immunity to silver
NO DRUG INTERACTION WITH ANY OTHER MEDICINES OR HERBS
There has never known to have been a silver/drug interaction of any kind. The aliphatic prescription pharmaceuticals of today are no more likely to react with silver in the body than did the surprisingly powerful herbs from which they were developed and used for thousands of years, right along with the silver.
The chemical nature of silver is such that inside the body it behaves to as to form no compounds that are toxic, and when already in the colloidal and stabilized state, is even further removed from any possibility of problems.
Colloidal Silver simply does not react with anything in the body except a germs oxygen metabolizing enzyme.
HOW DOES COLLOIDAL SILVER WORK
Body tissues having 5 parts per million (5 ppm) of Colloidal Silver will be free of virus, fungus and bacterium.
Silver particles are long lived in the body because they do not enter into a reaction, but act as a catalyst.
A catalyst is a best described as a substance that brings about, or causes a reaction or occurrence without itself being consumed.
The Colloidal Silver acts as a catalyst in disabling a particular enzyme, best described as chemical lung, as it transfers oxygen and nutrients through the cell walls of the disease causing organism.
The disease causing organism suffocates !
The mere proximity of silver will cripple the activity of a particular enzyme common to all viruses, funguses and bacteria.- while not affecting the enzymes of tissue type cells.
WHY IS COLLOIDAL SILVER NON ALLERGENIC?
There have been no allergenic reactions to silver reported in recorded history of the medicinal use of Colloidal Silver, because Colloidal Silver only affects the rate and occurrence of a pathogens oxygen – metabolism activity as described in the previous section.
Colloidal Silver does not react chemically within the body.
Over use of Colloidal Silver has one effect, that is so called Argyria which is the development of gray blue tinge of the fingernails and the skin. What happens is simply that the body starts to store the excess silver in the tissue and collagen, which make up the major part the finger nails. However,This condition has no known detrimental effect and will disappear once the Colloidal Silver intake is reduced or discontinued for a while.
HOW HEALING IS ACCELERATED
Mitosis – the usual cell division in body tissue- is when two new, identical cells are formed. When Colloidal Silver is present in the body tissue, some of the divisions will be different. One duplicate cell and one undifferentiated cell are formed. The undifferentiated cell is like a baby cell that can change into any type of cell in the body. It will naturally migrate to a part of the body where there is tissue damage, where the cell changes to a local tissue type cell, adding to the normal cell repair in the injured area and greatly lessening scar tissue formation.
This accelerated healing benefit of Colloidal Silver was discovered by Robert O. Becker, MD and was reported in his book, The Body Electric.
DR and his research colleagues observed a variety of cells which are primitive in appearance, looking just like the active cells in bone marrow of children. These cells grew fast, reproducing a diverse and surprising assortment of primitive cell forms including fully undifferentiated cells and rounded fibroblasts. Positive Silver Becker states, produces large numbers of undifferentiated cells, overcoming the main problem of mammalian regeneration. Positive Silver accelerates the healing process by over 50 percent. It is obvious that in the aggregate they profoundly stimulate soft tissue healing in a way unlike any known natural process He further stated in his book: positive Silver kills all types of bacteria exiting because no other single antibiotic worked uniformly against all types of bacteria. Positive Silver he says, : offers several advantages over previous antibiotic substances. There are no ions beside silver to burden the tissues. It works against all kinds of bacteria simultaneously and even kills antibiotic resistant strains and fungus infections.
HOW SILVER WORKS AGAINST FUNGUS & VIRUSES
A fungus is a series of single cells having tiny tubes of material on the cell wall stretched between the cells. Whether more linear in its spread and expand mode or alternatively more like a fabric in its reproductive mode, a fungus still will exhibit that same characteristic of a one celled bacterium, namely that particular type of chemical lung which is immediately, completely and permanently disabled by the presence of Colloidal Silver. Any fungus is killed within six minutes of contact with silver in the body. The Colloidal Silver Simply suffocates it!
HOW SILVER WORKS AGAINST VIRUSES
A single virus will invade a living cell of body tissue, then this insidious pathogen will take over the nucleus of the cell and alter its re-productive mechanism to replicate the virus, instead of the enzyme, hormone or other chemical the cell would normally have produced for the body within that cell. Later, the newly produced virus will be released from that cell into the bloodstream. However another interesting process happens. As the virus affects the cell for its own purpose, part of the response of that living cell is that it reverts back to a more primitive cell structure and chemistry. The oxygen metabolizing enzyme in the cell wall reverts to a more primitive form also. This more primitive form of enzyme is vulnerable to the effect of Colloidal Silver. The catalytic effect of the Colloidal Silver simply by being near the enzyme of this cell results in that enzyme becoming permanently disabled. It cannot function to bring oxygen into the cell and that virus host cell now dies. This process will take no more than six minutes and the body will dispose of it as it would any other of the millions of cells that end their usefulness each day.
DOES SILVER WORK AGAINST AIDS ?
AIDS is caused by a particular type of virus attacking and destroying the body’s immune system. Once that virus invaded a cell in the body, the cell will respond in exactly the same way as described before, reverting back to the primitive type structure and enzyme responsible to act as its chemical lung, which is promptly crippled by the mere presence of Colloidal Silver as stated before, the cell suffocates and dies thus denying the virus to replicate. The Colloidal Silver kills the mutated cell, virus and all! Colloidal Silver kills not only present types of viruses, but future forms of any viruses as well. YES, future ! Because no matter how the virus mutates, it cannot influence and change the way living body cells will respond to its invasion.
Colloidal Silver kills all viruses, precluding future mutations as it also kills the virus invaded cell within six minutes, and because of its catalytic nature Colloidal Silver is not affected in the reaction, continuing to kill other single celled pathogens nearby.
DOES SILVER WORK AGAINST CANCER ?
The mutation of healthy cells into cancer cells occur continuously, even in healthy bodies. But such cancer cells are destroyed by the body’s natural immune system at a rate about the same as they occur, and when the body condition is stable, there is nothing manifest that a healthy person would experience as cancer.
Some types of Cancer are reported to be caused by a virus. Like with any virus, upon invading a body tissue cell it will take over the cells reproductive chemical factory thereby forcing the cell to replicate the virus instead, the cell will revert to the primitive state thus enabling the Colloidal Silver to be effective and kill the cancerous cell.
A higher concentration of Colloidal Silver means more immediate contact with any virus or other pathogen.
3. COLLOIDAL SILVER AS A PREVENTATIVE
Colloidal Silver, as a preventative is unsurpassed. Sufficient Colloidal Silver taken daily precludes infection, disease, contagion and serious burn toxicity.
IT SERVES AS A SECOND IMMUNE SYSTEM
Taking Colloidal Silver daily is like having a second immune system. It lessens the load on the body’s natural immune system and effectively kills the many bugs present throughout the body.
In addition, it lessens the toxicity due to the average amount of germ, virus and fungus activity that occurs naturally in the body.
However, tests prove that, due to the high absorption of silver in the small intestine, the friendly bacteria in the large intestine are not affected. The second immune system acts parallel to, and independent of the body’s own first in line defense – a major advantage in warding off outbreaks of influenza or any germ plague or pestilence.
IT HELPS IN SEVERE BURN CASES
Sufficient daily Colloidal Silver is to have greater than five parts per million. Recommended is a higher dose titration, as determined by kinesiology, to an indication toward protection from all infection. To charge tissues with large amounts of Colloidal Silver is to be ready for any attack of germ and the inevitable bio-toxins resulting from severe burn injury!
When obtaining Colloidal Silver preparation the strength of the product must be taken in consideration. Tests have shown that preparations containing less than 30 parts per million of silver are not effective, as the amount of Colloidal Silver needed to bring the body’s silver to an effective level would ( with some 5ppm Ag products) require the consumption of two liters of undiluted product a day! Fortunately, advances in the manufacturing technology of Colloidal Silver allow the manufacture of Colloidal Silver with 30 and 50 + mg. of Silver per Liter.
Colloidal Silver, as a preventative is unsurpassed. Sufficient Colloidal Silver taken daily precludes infection, disease, contagion and serious burn toxicity.
OTHER ESTABLISHED USES OF COLLOIDAL SILVER
An amazing, yet still only partial list of more than 650 diseases that Colloidal Silver has been used against include
(in alphabetical order): Acne, AIDS, allergies, appendicitis, arthritis and athletes foot, bladder infection, blood parasites, blood poisoning, boils, bubonic plagues and burns; cancer, candida, canine parvovirus, chilblains, cholera, colitis, conjunctivitis and cystitis; dandruff dermatitis, diabetes and dysentery; eczema and encephalitis; fibrositis; gastritis and gonorrhea; hay fever and herpes; impetigo and indigestion; keratitis, leprosy, leukemia, lupus, lymphangitis and lyme disease; malaria and meningitis. Also, neurasthenia; parasitic infection, pleurisy, pneumonia, prostate infection. pruritis ani, psoriasis and purulent ophtalmia; rheumatism, rhinitis and ringworm; scarlet fever, septic conditions (eyes ears, mouth and throat), seborrhea, septicemia, shingles, staph and strep infections, stomach flu and syphilis; thrush (yeast infection), thyroid infections, tonsillitis, toxemia, trachoma, trench foot and tuberculosis; ulcerated stomach; virus (all forms) ; warts and whooping cough and yeast infection (females).
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SKIN PROBLEMS
While Colloidal Silver is used as a preventative against viruses, bacteria and funguses through daily oral use; Colloidal Silver has been also applied directly to open wounds and sores to eliminate surface infections. Apart from its beneficial effect Colloidal Silver does not sting or burn. Other antiseptics sting when applied to a wound because they are killing the surrounding tissue cells as well as killing the germs. But whilst Colloidal Silver kills the topical germs within six minutes, it does not harm any surrounding tissues.
Acne: In addition to omitting sugars,fats and chocolate from the diet, any person with acne should wash and rinse the face thoroughly four times a day; and after each rinsing, use a small amount of Colloidal Silver and massage it onto the problem areas two to three times with a finger or a tiny piece of cotton or tissue. This wash- rinse-massage activity may be continued throughout an acne breakout, or better, as a continuous prevention through the teen years. This continuous habit precludes breakouts, leaving the skin continuously clear. Most people find it helpful to carry a 50ml or 200ml bottle of Colloidal Silver with them for availability throughout the day.
Cuts and abrasions: Apply Colloidal Silver directly to the open wound and onto any dressing used. Colloidal Silver may be used as the only medication on the dressing, or it may be used with another medication.
Eczema and skin rash: Dab Colloidal Silver directly onto affected area, rubbing slightly. Repeat often to keep the area moist. Bandage lightly, if desired, keeping the bandage moist with Colloidal Silver. Change bandage daily.
yCover the wart with a small adhesive bandage saturated with a few drops of Colloidal Silver. Keep the bandage moist. The wart should disappear within a few days. Large warts may take a few days longer to disappear.
RECOMMENDATION FOR INTESTINAL PROBLEMS
Optimum digestion: Put all, or a fraction of the recommended daily amount of Colloidal Silver, as determined by titration, into the beverage of choice accompanying any meal. As the food is digested, the presence of Colloidal Silver will keep the food from putrefying in the digestive tract, killing any germs ingested with the food, and leaving the food more useable. Also there will be no flatulence. Parasitic infections: To take an amount of Colloidal Silver, again as determined by titration to preclude parasitic diseases caused by tiny, worm like animals that burrow through a particular organ, or in some cases throughout the entire body. In every case, these parasites reproduce by laying eggs and these eggs have the same characteristics of the oxygen-metabolising enzyme as the single celled bacterium. These eggs cannot hatch when there is sufficient Colloidal Silver in the surrounding body tissue. They are killed within a short time and subsequently eliminated by the immune system. Diarrhea diseases: A number of diseases such as cholera, canine parvovirus or other diseases, where the pathogen resides mainly in the large intestine, can be fatal. The fatality is mostly due to the dehydration of the body resulting from severe and prolonged diarrhea and vomiting. The pathogen causing the problem is active in the large intestine, the one place where Colloidal Silver when used correctly will not penetrate. There are two different methods to overcome this barrier. The first is to take a 200 ml glass dosed with Colloidal Silver together with three or four big glasses of water on an empty stomach. This way the Colloidal Silver will get into the large intestine and should within a short time take care of the problem. The other method is by way of colonic irrigation the dose rate using a 50mg. Colloidal Silver preparation is 15 ml per 200ml. of sterile water. This method in fact brings the fastest relief from the disease, Medical literature reports that Cholera has been cured with Colloidal Silver. Healing crisis: This is a condition wherein the Colloidal Silver is killing the pathogens very rapidly. The body’s five eliminatory systems, the kidney, liver, skin, bowel and lungs become temporarily overloaded. This especially is true in the case of overcoming AIDS with Colloidal Silver. One may feel as though he or she has the flu. It is recommended to continue the silver regimen, yet drink up to 4 liters of water a day, take five or six grams of vitamin C and a high enema. Repeat for two or three days. Please note if the healing crisis persists see your local practitioner for additional advise.
RECOMMENDATION FOR PURIFYING FOOD & WATER
Water purification: Colloidal Silver is an excellent water purifier. Water stored with one or two tablespoons of Colloidal Silver per 5 litres will be safe and sweet tasting for a very long time. Water containing germ contaminants (not toxic chemicals) can be made drinkable by adding two to three tablespoons of Colloidal Silver per every 5 litres of water. The Silver whilst purifying the water is also beneficial to the body, unlike the commercial tablets containing toxic chlorine bleach! To guard against such water-borne diseases such as dysentery, the following airlines now use either silver water filters or a well known Hydrogen Peroxide/Colloidal Silver combination. British Airways, Swiss Air, Scandinavian Airlines, Lufthansa, Air France, Canadian Pacific Airlines, Alitalia, KLM, Japan Airlines and Pan Am. The Swiss and Australian Government has approved either or both the silver water filters or the hydrogen Peroxide/Colloidal Silver preparation which are now used in homes offices and town water supplies. After testing 23 methods of purifying water, NASA selected a silver system for its space shuttle. Home-canned foods: One-half teaspoon of Colloidal Silver per 1 liter in home-canned foods precludes the growth of all bacteria, virus and fungus. As the food is consumed, the presence of silver will aid in the digestion process by not allowing fermentation of starches contained in the food, and will prevent the putrefaction of protein or rancification of fats in the digestive tract. Neither will there be a formation of gas in the bowel, nor food decay from toxins to diminish a sense of well being. Most commercial food processing operations to date have elected to use preservatives which, unlike Colloidal Silver, are toxic and poisonous to people. were these commercial food processors to use Colloidal Silver instead, it would yield the triple benefit mentioned above.
Questionable refrigeration: In addition to keeping prepared foods cool and well sealed, add about one table spoon of Colloidal Silver per 1 liter (volume) to picnic foods containing mayonnaise, dairy products, or anything that has a potential for Salmonella growth and poisoning. Stir in very well. Leftovers and Condiments: Mix about one quarter tablespoon of Colloidal Silver into each container of mustard, ketchup or pickle relish. Mix one half teaspoon into items that spoil more easily, i.e. mayonnaise, milk etc. They will store longer, remain fresher and benefit digestion.
5. VETERINARY USES OF COLLOIDAL SILVER
The following conditions in animals, birds and fish have been successfully treated with Colloidal Silver:
* Bacteria and parasites in house pets, farm animals and birds.
* Parvovirus in dogs.
* Revival of belly-up goldfish.
* Scours and undulant fever in cattle.
FIGHT AIR POLLUTION
Silver can fight deadly poisons also. Japanese firms have announced the following startling technologies that use silver to purify air: One company converts 50 parts per million of carbon monoxide into harmless carbon dioxide by passing the gas through a stack of screens coated with silver compounds. Another uses silver compounds to remove vinyl cyanide, methyl cyanide and hydrocyanic acid from its discharges. Finally a gas chemical company removes all the 200 parts per million of nitric oxide by passing the gas through its silver compounds.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLOIDAL SILVER
Colloidal Silver will react chemically with many of the 92 natural elements and compounds. While many of these compounds are toxic, pure silver is non-toxic. It acts only catalytically with the enzyme, or chemical lung of single celled organisms. Pure Silver won’t dissolve in water, however if pure silver is by some process divided into single atoms of micro-clusters of fewer than 15 atoms each, given a positive electrical charge and attached to a molecule of simple protein, it will float in and throughout the pure water indefinitely, creating a so called colloidal suspension. The force of electric charge is stronger than the force of gravity, thus the particle remains suspended. Much has been written and claimed by people displaying a fair amount of ignorance of the workings of a colloidal substance mainly with regard to the color of colloidal silver. True colloidal silver is a colorless liquid because the micro-clusters of the silver are simply too small for light to reflect back to the human eye ( the particular wave length of the reflected light determines the color we perceive) Many manufacturers not being able to make a true colloidal silver preparation resort to using food or other coloring agents to give the liquid a yellow appearance because they somewhere have read that colloidal silver should have a color to its liquid.
Color will be noticed if one of the following conditions are present:
* The Silver used is of a silver sulfide type and not very healthy (yellow, mainly used in the ceramic industry)
* The Silver used is Silver Oxide (brownish, black in color)
* The particles are too big in size
* Food or other coloring dyes were used
* If the silver loses its colloidal state and precipitate out of solution (mainly black) in this case the product will have lost its efficacy and should be disposed of as contrary to some advise to shake the bottle will not revert the silver particles to a colloidal state.
People are best advised to stay clear of these products as they are in many cases of dubious quality and most certainly have little or no beneficial effect. If you have any doubt regarding the actual colloidal silver content, ask the vendor for a Batch Sample Silver Analyses. Reputable manufacturers will have Health Department approval for their manufacturing facilities and have their Colloidal Silver batches analyzed and the result of same available for their customers.
CARE AND STORAGE OF COLLOIDAL SILVER
Keep Colloidal Silver in the food storage, store it in glass containers only and away from electrical appliances. Although glass breaks easier, glass is the only material that will keep Colloidal Silver for any length of time. DO NOT accept Colloidal Silver packaged in plastic as its shelf life is minimal and the silver particles most likely will plate out on the surface and hence are no longer in suspension. There is an inherent electric charge in the hydrocarbon molecule that will draw the charged silver particle out of solution, bonding it to the side wall of the plastic container! You may not see it but it’s there all right. The preparation is then unusable. Do not store Colloidal Silver in a refrigerator or freezer, as the long term electric charge of the appliance can have the same effect on colloidal silver as does storing it in a plastic container.
WHEN IT MAY BE THE ONLY THING AVAILABLE
Some people believe there may be a time in the foreseeable future when food storage may be the only means of antibiotic/disinfectant for any of us. Life would be very different then, with many items unavailable, and a storage of Colloidal Silver could be life saving. A very different condition in the future could be rampant diseases, plagues from contamination’s of the water and air through man made Bio-toxins of germ warfare (as seen in the Strecker Memorandum video) Whatever the source, either invasion or local error any military activity can result in a major outbreak of anthrax or lesser causes resulting in Salmonella poisoning. Another extreme threat for our immediate future is the emergence of so called Super Bugs. Because of the current over-use of pharmaceutical antibiotics today, many virus and bacteria organisms will be immune to the conventional medicines! Colloidal Silver is not only a way of prevention now, but may possible be our best choice to store for future use.
8. MEDICAL STUDIES AND OTHER TESTING
Colloidal Silver and illness: The author of body Electric Dr. R. Becker, noted in his studies a correlation between low silver levels and illness: Those who had low silver levels frequently were sick more often with colds, flu, fever and other illnesses. He said he believes a silver deficiency is the reason for the improper functioning of the immune system and that silver is critical for the destruction of bacteria and viruses. Becker’s experiments conclude that silver works on a wide range of bacteria without any side effects and without any damage to the cells of the body. Colloidal Silver and healing: Becker also states that the silver ion was doing something more than killing disease causing organisms. It was, he observed, facilitating major growth stimulation of injured tissues. When human fibroblast cells, which are common throughout the body, were exposed to silver, they differentiated. That is, they changed into an embryonic general cell, able to multiply at a great rate and then change into the specialized cells of the organ or tissue that had been injured. Even in patients over the age of 50 years, tissues healed as easily as a child’s tissues. Colloidal State and Cancer: Again Becker concluded that in the presence of silver ion, cancer cells change back to normal cells regardless of their location in the body. He concluded that the presence of silver ion regenerates tissues and eliminates cancerous cells as well as eliminating other abnormal cells.
Dr. Bjorn Nordstrom of Sweden’s Karolinska Institute has used silver in his cancer cure methods for many years. he records that he has successfully cured patients who had been diagnosed by other doctors as terminally ill. Swimming pool water purification: Silver is widely used to purify swimming pool water, and it does not sting as does chlorine. A dramatic demonstration in Nebraska recently placed 250 liters of raw sewage into a pool containing no disinfectant. A standard measure of fecal contamination is the count of Escheri coli ( E. coli) and organism found in the human intestinal tract. The count soared to 7000 colony forming E coli cells per milliliter of water. Subsequently the water was flushed through a silver electrode array, which totally eliminated the E.coli within three hours. Follow-up tests also shown the water to be completely free of other one-celled organisms. Hydroponics testing: Tests in a hydroponics greenhouse showed that Colloidal Silver is absorbed and used by the living plant as are any other minerals.
Hydroponics is an ideal gardening method having only one problem: Viruses, funguses and bacteria tend to thrive in the plant nutrient fluid. Colloidal Silver is proven to kill every one of the pathogens, and without any consequence to the nutrient medium or to the delicate plants. In addition, the plants ingested the silver through their roots, thus becoming a source of the silver minerals for human consumption.
Overdose testing: In laboratory tests since 1985 researchers knew that overdose testing needed to be performed. One lab technician involved in the project from the beginning, volunteered himself as a guinea pig for the first project. He consumed 1 liter of water dosed with a high concentration of Colloidal Silver for a period of several weeks. The chemistry of his body fluids was monitored, as was his general well being (colds flu headaches etc. ). He was especially observed for any change in skin color to see if the technicians skin would develop a gray pallor of Argyria. He had no change of color in his skin, felt more vigorous and alert and experienced no aches or colds etc. Others in the laboratory repeated the test themselves finding the same results. UCLA study: It is claimed that some years ago an independent research laboratory sent to the University of California in Los Angeles a sample of Colloidal Silver to be tested against AIDS and anthrax. UCLA undertook the tests and proved conclusively that Colloidal Silver was highly effective in remedial applications against both disease pathogens. The independent researcher has obtained the same results in his own laboratory, and sought confirmation from UCLA. When the UCLA laboratory director called to confirm those findings, the director of the independent laboratory asked to have as the test results on a letter bearing the UCLA letterhead. However he was advised that a payment of U$ 10,000 was required for this letter. The UCLA lab report confirming the effectiveness remains unofficial.
Argyria or Argyrosis: a condition of skin having a gray blue pallor caused by excess silver being stored in the skin Bacteria: Morphologically simplest group of organisms of various species concerned in fermentation, putrefaction and the production of disease
Collagen: the protein contained in connective tissue and bones and finger nails.
Colloidal state: a system of particles in a dispersion medium in which the particle diameters are between 10-7 and 10-9m, i.e. between true molecular solution and a coarse suspension.
Enzyme: a protein capable of catalyzing a chemical reaction necessary of the cell
Fibroblast: is the nucleus cell responsible to manufacture the cells and enzymes of the body’s immune system.
Lymphatic System: are vessels within our body conveying the so called lymph, a clear to yellow slightly alkaline fluid derived from the tissue of the body (primary part of the body’s sanitation system.)
Silver: Ag precious metal one of the earliest known metals contained in earth’s crust at a concentration of 0.1ppm and in seawater at 0.01 PPM.
Titration: to ascertain the required quantity of a substance by volume or weight which exactly fulfills certain given requirements.
Virus: infective disease agent, smaller than a micro-organism and requiring living cells for multiplication.
HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN COLLOIDAL SILVER
Do-It-Yourself Colloidal Silver Generator.
One of my favorite mega-medicines is colloidal silver. I’ve used it to cure everything from herpes to spider bite. But I hated spending $20 for two ounces at the health food store. So I was delighted to buy a small silver colloidal generator that ran off three 9 volt batteries for about $80. I used it for about two years. Then I built my own. So can you.
- Go to the local bargain store and buy three 9 volt batteries (I got them for fifty cents apiece at Pic n Save).
- Wire them together in the manner above (positive to negative to positive to negative to positive with two wires free). Alligator clips work good.
- Get some pure silver. (Surely, you know some jewelry artist. Or buy a bit of silver wire at a jewelry store. You only need about four inches of silver wire.)
- Attach two pieces of silver to the two free wires coming from the batteries.
- Dip the silver into a glass of water. (Warm, distilled water works best.) Watch science in action as the electrical current destabilizes the water. Water molecules are torn apart. Free-ranging oxygen atoms bond into unstable triads (ozone!) and pull helpless microns of silver into ionized suspension. Tiny bubbles of pure hydrogen gas fizz up from one wire, as ionized silver streams off the other wire in ghostlike clouds. Beautiful, actually. Wait about five minutes or less. If you start getting brown stuff, that’s silver dioxide and you’ve left it too long. (Brush the silver dioxide off the silver bits after you use them.)
- Drink up. If it has a strong, yukky metallic taste, almost unbearable, you’ve got the right stuff. Make hundreds of dollars worth of silver collidal for mere pennies.
COLLOIDAL SILVER MAKER INSTRUCTIONS
|PARTS & MATERIALS||INSTRUCTIONS|
|(1 pkg) Radio Shack part #270-325 9v Battery Snap Connectors(1 pkg) Radio Shack part #270-380 Mini Alligator clips(3) 9v batteries(2) 6″ .999 pure (or better) fine silver wiressilver solder & soldering iron|
|Embellishments, part 2
NOT RESPONSIBLE !!!!! for anyone else’s use of colloidal silver water!
- Okan D, Woo K, Sibbald RG (2007). “So what if you are blue? Oral colloidal silver and argyria are out: safe dressings are in”. Adv Skin Wound Care 20 (6): 326–30. doi:10.1097/01.ASW.0000276415.91750.0f. PMID 17538258.
Colloidal silver suspensions are solutions of submicroscopic metallic silver particles suspended in a colloid base. These products deliver predominantly inactive metallic silver, not the antimicrobial ionized form.
In order for silver to have any antimicrobial properties, it must be in its ionized form (Lok et al., 2007; Rai et al., 2009). Silver in its non-ionized form is inert (Guggenbichler et al., 1999), but contact with moisture leads to the release of silver ions (Radheshkumar and Munstedt, 2005). Thus, all forms of silver or silver containing compounds with observed antimicrobial properties are in one way or another sources of silver ions (Ag+); these silver ions may be incorporated into the substance and released slowly with time as with silver sulfadiazine, or the silver ions can come from ionizing the surface of a solid piece of silver as with silver nanoparticles.
[http://www.westga.edu/~chem/facultydocs/stuart.htm Figure 1. Dark-field micrograph of wavelength selective scattering from silver nanoparticles (http://www.westga.edu/~chem/facultydocs/stuart.htm).]]]
The antimicrobial properties of silver have been known to cultures all around the world for many centuries. The Phonecians stored water and other liquids in silver coated bottles to discourage contamination by microbes ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver Wikipedia: Silver]). Silver dollars used to be put into milk bottles to keep milk fresh, and water tanks of ships and airplanes that are “silvered” are able to render water potable for months ([http://www.saltlakemetals.com/Silver_Antibacterial.htm Saltlakemetals.com]). In 1884 it became a common practice to administer drops of aqueous silver nitrate to newborn’s eyes to prevent the transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from infected mothers to children during childbirth (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007).
In 1893, the antibacterial effectiveness of various metals were noted and this property was named the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligodynamic_effect oligodynamic effect]. It was later found that out of all the metals with antimicrobial properties, silver has the most effective antibacterial action and the least toxicity to animal cells (Guggenbichler et al., 1999).
Silver became commonly used in medical treatments, such as those of wounded soldiers in World War I, to deter microbial growth ([http://www.saltlakemetals.com/Silver_Antibacterial.htm Saltlakemetals.com]).
Once antibiotics were discovered, the use of silver as a bactericidal agent decreased. However, with the discovery of antibiotics came the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains such as [http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Community-Acquired_Methicillin-Resistant_Staphylococcus_Aureus_(CA-MRSA) CA-MRSA] and [http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Hospital-acquired_Methicillin_Resistant_Staphylococcus_Aureus_(MRSA) HA-MRSA], the flesh-eating bacteria. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, there has recently been a renewed interest in using silver as an antibacterial agent. The availability of new laboratory technologies such as radioactive isotopes and electron microscopy has greatly enabled us to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of silver in recent years (Fox and Modak, 1974; Feng et al., 2000).
==Mechanism of action==
Although the antimicrobial properties of silver have been known for centuries, we have only recently begun to understand the mechanisms by which silver inhibits bacterial growth. It is thought that silver atoms bind to thiol groups (-SH) in enzymes and subsequently cause the deactivation of enzymes. Silver forms stable S-Ag bonds with thiol-containing compounds in the cell membrane that are involved in transmembrane energy generation and ion transport (Klueh et al., 2000). It is also believed that silver can take part in catalytic oxidation reactions that result in the formation of disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R). Silver does this by catalyzing the reaction between oxygen molecules in the cell and hydrogen atoms of thiol groups: water is released as a product and two thiol groups become covalently bonded to one another through a disulfide bond (Davies and Etris, 1997). The silver-catalyzed formation of disulfide bonds could possibly change the shape of cellular enzymes and subsequently affect their function.
The silver-catalyzed formation of disulfide bonds can lead to changes in protein structure and the inactivation of key enzymes, such as those needed for cellular respiration (Davies and Etris, 1997). 30S ribosomal subunit protein, succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, maltose transporter (MalK), and fructose bisphosphate adolase were identified with high probability as proteins with decreased expression once cells are treated with a 900 ppb Ag+ solution (Yamanaka et al., 2005; Figure 2). It is hypothesized that silver ions bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit, deactivating the ribosome complex and preventing translation of proteins (Yamanaka et al., 2005). The proteins that were found to be downregulated upon treatment with Ag+ serve important functions to the cell: succinyl-coenzyme A synthetase, an enzyme involved in the TCA cycle, catalyzes the conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate while phosphorylating ADP to produce ATP (Slonczewski and Foster, 2009); fructose bisphosphate adolase is an enzyme involved in glycolysis that catalyzes the breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (Slonczewski and Foster, 2009); MalK is a cytoplasmic membrane-associated protein involved in the transport of maltose (Bavoil et al., 1980). In one way or another, all of these proteins play a role in energy and ATP production for the cell, so the decreased expression of any one of these proteins could lead to cell death (Yamanaka et al., 2005).
Another one of the suggested mechanisms of the antimicrobial activity of silver was proposed by Klueh et al., (2000). It was proposed that Ag+ enters the cell and intercalates between the purine and pyrimidine base pairs disrupting the hydrogen bonding between the two anti-parallel strands and denaturing the DNA molecule (Klueh et al., 2000). Although this has yet to be proved, it has been shown that silver ions do associate with DNA once they enter the cell (Fox and Modak, 1974).
===Entering the cell===
Most of the proposed mechanisms involve silver entering the cell in order to cause damage. How would a metal like silver, or its ionized form Ag+, get across the hydrophobic cellular membrane to access the cytoplasm? From the perspective of a transmembrane protein, the silver ion simply appears to be a particle of certain size with a +1 charge. It is possible that silver ions get access to the interior of cells through transmembrane proteins that normally function to transport ions other than silver ions. Transmembrane proteins such as CopB-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae have been shown to be able to transport silver ions although its putative function is a copper transporter (Solioz and Odermatt, 1995). This proves that there are ways for silver to be transported across the cell membrane even though specific silver transporters may not exist
===Observed effects of silver exposure===
Feng et al. (2000) conducted a study to observe the effects of silver ions on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. They treated cells with AgNO3, which is a source of Ag+ in aqueous environments, and looked at the structural and morphological effects of these silver ions
on the cells. The cells were exposed to AgNO3 for 4-12 hours before being prepared for microscopy. The cell were then fixed and sliced with an ultramicrotome to produce ultrathin sections for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They observed that cells exposed to the Ag+ ions seemed to have activated a stress response that led to the condensation of DNA in the center of the cell. They also observed cell membrane detachment from the cell wall, cell wall damage, and electron dense granules outside and, in some instances, inside the cell (Figure 3). It was proposed that condensation of DNA occurred as a protective measure in order to protect the genetic information of the cell (Feng et al., 2000), however condensation of DNA could also prevent cell replication by preventing the DNA from being accessed by transcriptional enzymes such as DNA polymerase. The electron dense granules that formed inside and outside the cell were extracted and subjected to X-ray microanalysis to determine their composition. It was discovered that the granules were in part composed of silver and sulfur. This finding supports the idea that silver inactivates proteins by binding to sulfur-containing compounds (Klueh et al., 2000). It was also observed that when treated with Ag+, E. coli, a gram-negative bacterium, sustained more structural damages than the gram-positive S. aureus (Feng et al., 2000).
It has also been shown that treating cells with silver leads to cell shrinkage and dehydration (Figure 4) (Guggenbichler et al., 1999). The TEM images from Feng et al. (2000) (Figure 4) show that cells that sustained extensive damage eventually ended up with cell wall and cell membrane damage. Damage to the cell membrane could lead to the leaking of cytoplasm from the cell, which would result in dehydrated and shrunken cells as shown by the SEM images from Guggenbichler et al. (1999).
Attack on Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative
There are two explanations as to why gram-positive bacteria are less susceptible to Ag+ than gram-negative bacteria. The first involves the charge of peptidoglycan molecules in the bacterial cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria have more peptidoglycan than gram-negative bacteria because of their thicker cell walls, and because peptidoglycan is negatively charged and silver ions are positively charged, more silver may get trapped by peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria than in gram-negative bacteria (Kawahara et al., 2000). The decreased susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria can also simply be explained by the fact that the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria is thicker than that of gram-negative bacteria.
Fox and Modak (1974) explored the mechanism of prevention of burn wound infections by silver sulfadiazine. At the time of publication, it had been known for quite a while that silver sulfadiazine (Figure 5) delivered in the form of a topical cream was effective at preventing infections in burn wounds, however it was not known if the antimicrobial activity was due entirely to the silver ions or if the sulfadiazine anion also contributed to the bactericidal effect. Tests from the study showed that sulfadiazine from silver sulfadiazine does not get transported into cells as much as silver. Silver isotopes (110Ag+) were also used to show that silver ions that enter cells complex with DNA. Additionally, the rate at which certain silver containing compounds release silver ions into solution was measured by adding silver compounds to human serum and measuring the amount of unreacted silver compound with increasing time (Figure 6). Notice in Figure 6 how silver sulfadiazine (Ag sulfadiazine) gradually releases the majority of its silver ions into solution over an extended period of time whereas silver nitrate immediately released all of its silver ions into solution (Fox and Modak, 1974). Therefore, silver sulfadiazine’s effectiveness as an antimicrobial agent for preventing burn wound infections is due to its tendency to dissociate in solution: silver sulfadiazine provides a steady supply of silver ions over a long period of time where as other silver salts such as silver nitrate release a large amount of silver ions all at once. If silver is employed as the primary antimicrobial agent in burn wound creams, the burn wound needs a steady supply of silver ions over a long period of time to kill off any microbes that could possibly infect the wound until it heals. Compounds that release silver ions all at once would need to be applied very frequently in order to kill off invading bacteria and prevent infection, and sometimes highly frequent application isn’t always practical or possible for individuals, so compounds that constantly release a bactericidal amount of silver ions, such as silver sulfadiazine, are the most effective at preventing burn wound infections.
It has also been shown that when silver treatment is combined with other antimicrobial methods such as UV light, copper ions, or oxidizers, a synergistic effect is observed, that is bacterial growth is inhibited more by treatment with silver and an additional antimicrobial method than would be expected if the inhibition effects of silver and that additional antimicrobial method were summed (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007).
Because silver can inflict a fair amount of damage to the cell only once it gains access to the cytoplasm, it is believed that if some other antimicrobial method can give silver ions access to the cytoplasm sooner than if silver ions were working alone, a synergistic effect of the two methods would be observed (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007).
Different forms effective at microbial inhibition
Silver can be administered to cells in a various number of ways. Silver salts such as silver nitrate (AgNO3) are effective at providing a large quantity of silver ions all at once. Because silver binds to thiol groups, it has been proposed that although one of the antimicrobial mechanisms of Ag+ is binding to sulfur-containing compounds, thiol-containing compounds such as proteins with cysteine residues can also serve to absorb the silver ions and neutralize their antibacterial activity by preventing the silver ions from attacking DNA (Liau et al., 1997). For this reason, prolonged antimicrobial activity from silver is best achieved by continuously releasing a moderate amount of silver ions.
Silver zeolite is also a commonly used form of antibacterial silver. Zeolite (Figure 7) is a porous matrix of sodium aluminosilicate that can bind a large amount of silver ions in its micropores (Monteiro et al., 2009). Silver ions are released from the zeolite matrix by exchange with other cations in solution and the amount released is proportional to the concentration of other cations in the solution (Breck, 1974 as cited in Kawahara et al., 2000). Kawahara et al., (2000) ran experiments to test the antimicrobial properties of silver zeolite in anaerobic conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed using silver zeolite, and it was found that depending on the species tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of silver zeolite ranged from 256 to 2048 µg/ml, which corresponded to a range of 4.8 to 38.4 µg/ml of Ag+. Because zeolite is already used in some toothpastes as a polishing material and the lack of silver toxicity to humans at concentrations such as those found in the MIC assays, the authors believed that silver zeolite would be a good compound to incorporate into dental materials, even those used in anaerobic conditions such as in periodontal pockets (Kawahara et al., 2000).
Silver nanoparticles have been heavily studied as antimicrobial materials. Their simple synthesis (Figure 8) and highly effective observed antibacterial activity make them a very attractive form of silver administration.
Martinez-Castanon et al. (2008) studied the effect of nanoparticle size on antibacterial effectiveness. To begin, nanoparticles with 7-nm, 29-nm, and 89-nm diameters were synthesized. The syntheses of the three different sized nanoparticles all used silver nitrate as a supply of silver ions and gallic acid as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The different sizes were produced by simply either altering the pH or irradiating the solutions with UV light. Transmission electron microscopy was used in the characterization of the nanoparticles to determine their average sizes (Figure 9).
Once the sizes of the nanoparticles were confirmed, MIC assays were performed on E. coli and S. aureus using the synthesized nanoparticles. The results of the MIC assays showed that smaller nanoparticles have more of an inhibitory effect than larger nanoparticles and that S. aureus is more resistant to silver nanoparticles than E. coli. The result that S. aureus is more resistant than E. coli to silver agrees with findings obtained by Kawahara et al. (2000).
Gallic acid was used as a control in the MIC assays (Figure 10); the silver nanoparticles were added to cell cultures in the MIC assays in the same solution in which they were produced, so it needed to be tested whether or not the gallic acid produced as a byproduct of the nanoparticle synthesis would have an effect on cell growth. For the MIC assay using E. coli, the difference between the minimum inhibitory concentration of the 29-nm nanoparticles and that of the 89-nm nanoparticles was statistically insignificant (Figure 10).
The increased antimicrobial activity of the smaller nanoparticles could be due to the fact that smaller particles have an easier time getting through the cell membrane and cell wall and that relative to larger nanoparticles, smaller particles have a greater surface area to volume ratio (Martinez-Castanon et al., 2008). The greater surface area to volume ratio of smaller nanoparticles means that per unit mass of silver, the smaller nanoparticles have more silver atoms in contact with the solution than do larger nanoparticles. For smaller nanoparticles, this means that more of the silver atoms contained in the nanoparticle are able to take part in cell destruction processes. If only the outer layer of silver atoms of a silver nanoparticle are able to be ionized to silver ions, then a few large nanoparticles should produce less silver ions than a lot of small nanoparticles. Because silver ions are what impart antibacterial properties to a given silver-containing material, it makes sense that smaller silver nanoparticles have more antimicrobial effectiveness than larger silver nanoparticles.
In addition to size, nanoparticle shape also plays a role in antibacterial activity. Pal et al. (2007) synthesized spherical, rod-shaped, and triangular silver nanoparticles and tested each of them for antimicrobial activity using E. coli. E. coli was streaked onto agar plates, and 1 µg, 12.5 µg, 50 µg, or 100 µg of each of the three types of synthesized silver nanoparticles as well as AgNO3 were added to the streaked plates. The number of colonies that formed for each of the conditions was counted and graphs relating the number of formed colonies and silver concentration for each of the four types of silver tested were constructed (Figure 11). It was determined that the order of most antibacterial to least antibacterial of the four silver-containing compounds was triangular, spherical, rod-shaped, and AgNO3. This order of antibacterial activity is explained by the different types of facets on the nanoparticles. The triangular nanoparticles had more active facets (electron dense facets) than did the spherical nanoparticles. The spherical nanoparticles, which weren’t perfectly spherical, had more active facets than the rod-shaped nanoparticles (Pal et al., 2007). Thus, shape does have an effect on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles and nanoparticles with more active facets have more antibacterial activity.
Novel wound dressings have been developed that use silver to help prevent wound infections. Silver nanoparticles are incorporated into the wound dressing, and the silver-enhanced wound dressings were found in vitro to consistently kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures entirely and kill Staphylococcus aureus cultures with >99.99% efficiency (Ong et al., 2008). In mice, the silver-enhanced wound dressings were also found to reduce mortality from Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infections from 90% to 14.3% (Ong et al., 2008).
Among hospital patients that require ventilator-assisted breating, ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common illness (Olson et al., 2002). Endotracheal tubes are used by patients needing ventilator-assisted breathing. Silver coatings on the inside of endotracheal tubes have been shown to delay the appearance of bacteria on the insides of these tubes, and subjects that used the silver-coated tubes also showed decreased lung colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Olson et al., 2002). Kollef et al. (2008) showed that silver-coated endotracheal tubes actually do reduce the incidence or increase the onset time of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients using a ventilator.
Silver nanoparticles have been used to impart antimicrobial activity to cotton fibers. Cotton samples were immersed in silver nanoparticle solutions and then subjected to a curing process to allow the nanoparticles to adhere to the cotton (El-Rafie et al., 2010). A chemical binder was then applied to the fabric to help maintain nanoparticle-cotton binding. Cotton samples prepared in this manner were able to reduce S. aureus and E. coli cell counts by 97% and 91% respectively. Even after subjecting the fabric to 20 laundry cycles, the cotton samples were still able to reduce S. aureus and E. coli cell counts by 94% and 85% respectively (Figure 13). Cotton prepared in this manner could be used by individuals working in the medical field or those who often work with microbes to prevent the spread of infectious bacteria (El-Rafie et al., 2010).
Although chlorine has long been used as the primary drinking water disinfectant, it has been shown that the chlorination of water can lead to the formation of many hazardous compounds (Moudgal et al., 2000). Based on its low known toxicity to humans, silver has been suggested as a possible disinfectant of drinking water (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007). Water recycling systems on the Mir space station and NASA shuttles have used silver as an effective water disinfectant, and in the United States, faucet-mounted and pitcher home water purification units contain carbon filters that are supplemented with silver (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007).
AGC Flat Glass Europe has developed a glass with antimicrobial properties (AGC: Antibacterial glass). Silver ions incorporated into the glass are responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The company reports that 99.9% of bacteria that come in contact with the surface of the glass are killed. The glass was produced to help prevent the spread of pathogens in a hospital setting. It could also be used to maintain the integrity of sterile workspaces.
Various types of food packaging have been supplemented with silver-containing compounds to deter microbial growth and extend product shelf life. Some of these packaging types include bulk food storage containers, paperboard cartons, plastic or paper food wraps, and milk containers (Appendini and Hotchkiss, 2002). Silver zeolite is the silver-containing compound used in food packaging (Appendini and Hotchkiss, 2002). Although few silver-containing compounds are approved by the FDA for direct food contact, silver-incorporated food packaging is quite widespread in Japan (Appendini and Hotchkiss, 2002).
Recent studies have revealed that the antimicrobial properties of silver are due to its ionized form, Ag+, and its ability to cause damage to cells by interacting with thiol-containing proteins and DNA. These effects have been visualized (Feng et al., 2000) as well as quantified through many experiments. Silver nanoparticles are a form of silver of particular interest because of their easy production, high antimicrobial activity, and ability to be incorporated into a diverse range of products. With the ever increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria and silver’s low toxicity to humans, the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent is an exciting topic with a great deal of relevance to many fields of study and industry.
“AGC Flat Glass Europe launches world’s first antibacterial glass.” AGC Glass Europe, 9 April 2007. http://www.agc-flatglass.eu/AGC+Flat+Glass+Europe/English/Homepage/News/Press+room/Press-Detail-Page/page.aspx/979?pressitemid=1031.
“Argyria.” Wikipedia, 19 March 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argyria.
Bavoil, P., Hofnung, M., Nikaido, H. “Identification of a Cytoplasmic Membrane-associated Component of the Maltose Transport System of Escherichia coli.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1980. Volume 255, No. 18. p. 8366-8369.
Breck D.W. Ion exchange reactions in zeolites, zeolite molecular sieves, structure, chemistry and use, New York: Wiley, 1974. p. 529.
El-Rafie, M.H., Mohamed, A.A., Shaheen, T.I., Hebeish, A. “Antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles produced by fungal process on cotton fabrics.” Carbohydrate Polymers. 2010. Volume 80, issue 3. p. 779-782.
Feng, Q.L., Wu, J., Chen, G.Q., Cui, F.Z., Kim, T.N., Kim, J.O. “A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2000. Volume 52, issue 4. p. 662-668.
Guggenbichler, J.P., Boswald, M., Lugauer, S., Krall, T. “A New Technology of Microdispersed Silver in Polyurethane Induces Antimicrobial Activity in Central Venous Catheters.” Infection. 1999. Volume 27. p. 16-23.
Klueh, U., Wagner, V., Kelly, S., Johnson, A., Bryers, J.D. ” Efficacy of Silver-Coated Fabric to Prevent Bacterial Colonization and Subsequent Device-Based Biofilm Formation.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2000. Volume 53. p. 621-631.
Kollef. M.H, Afessa, B., Anzueto, A., Veremakis, C., Kerr, K.M., Margolis, B.D., Craven, D.E., Roberts, P.R., Arroliga, A.C., Hubmayr, R.D., Restrepo, M.I., Auger, W.R., Schinner, R. “Silver-Coated Endotracheal Tubes and Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008. Volume 300, No. 7. p. 805-813.
Liau, S.Y., Read, D.C., Pugh, W.J., Furr, J.R., Russell, A.D. “Interaction of silver nitrate with readily identifiable groups : relationship to the antibacterial action of silver ions.” Letters in Applied Microbiology. 1997. Volume 25, issue 4. p. 279-283.
Lok, C., Ho, C., Chen, R., He, Q., Yu, W., Sun, H., Tam, P.K., Chiu, J., Che, C. “Silver nanoparticles: partial oxidation and antibacterial activities.” Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 2007. Volume 12, No. 4. p. 527-534.
Martinez-Castanon, G.A., Nino-Martinez, N., Martines-Gutierrez, F., Martinez-Mendoza, J.R., Ruiz, F. “Synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles with different sizes.” Synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles with different sizes. 2008. Volume 10, No. 8. p. 1343-1348.
Monteiro, D.R., Gorup, L.F., Takamiya, A.S., Ruvollo-Filho, A.C., de Camargo, E.R., Barbosa, D.B. “The growing importance of materials that prevent microbial adhesion: antimicrobial effect of medical devices containing silver.” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2009. Volume 34, issue 2. p. 103-110.
Moudgal, C.J., Lipscomb, J.C., Bruce, R.M. “Potential health effects of drinking water disinfection by-products using quantitative structure toxicity relationship.” Toxicology. 2000. Volume 147, issue 2. p. 109-131.
Ong, S., Wu, J., Moochhala, S.M., Tan, M., Lu, J. “Development of a chitosan-based wound dressing with improved hemostatic and antimicrobial properties.” Biomaterials. 2008. Volume 29, issue 32. p. 4323-4332.
Pal, S., Tak, Y.K., Song, J.M. “Does the Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Depend on the Shape of the Nanoparticle? A Study of the Gram-Negative Bacterium Escherichia coli.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007. Volume 73, No. 6. p. 1712-1720.
Radheshkumar, C. and Munstedt, H. “Antimicrobial polymers from polypropylene/silver composites—Ag+ release measured by anode stripping voltammetry.” Reactive & Functional Polymers. 2006. Volume 66. p. 780-788.
“Seconday Drinking Water Regulations: Guidance for Nuisance Chemicals.” Ground Water & Drinking Water. United States Environmental Protection Agency, November 2006. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/consumer/2ndstandards.html.
“Silver.” Wikipedia, 16 April 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver.
Slonczewski, J. and Foster, J. Microbiology: An Evolving Science. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009.
“The antibacterial effects of silver and its compounds.” Salt Lake Metals, November 2008. http://www.saltlakemetals.com/Silver_Antibacterial.htm.
“ToxFAQs for Silver.” Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, July 1999. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts146.html.
Yamanaka M., Hara, K., Kudo, J. “Bactericidal Actions of a Silver Ion Solution on Escherichia coli, Studied by Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron Microscopy and Proteomic Analysis.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2005. Volume 71, No. 11. p. 7589-7593.