Editing the (human) genome with high precision! new technology. But what about those ‘edited’ against their will?

Editing-the-human-genome-with-high-precision-But-what-about-those-‘edited’-against-their-will?

Authors note: This information is re-posted from the:

McGovern Institute for Brain Research at M.I.T.

PLEASE visit their website directly for all information.

As a targeted individual being used in covert human experimentation involving radio interconnection and control/monitoring of the human brain, I find these scientific developments direct conformation of some fragments of my theories regarding the “what was done/is being done” to us and others as well as the “how is it done” questions I have.

It is my contention and supposition that manipulation of genetics, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, bio-geneses, micro & terahertz electromagnetics, access to a computer controlled global network of phased-array antenna systems, satellite broadcast and monitoring systems, Scalar wave energy science, time-domain modulated information and particle spin resonance systems , fractal-modulated pulsed microwaves,  Viral-vectoring of genetic sequence materials into our human genome, light-control of genetic material, new sequencing, transcription, coherent biophotonic energy, and many many more developments in technology have been fused together to create a global, functioning, ubiquitous, covert, ‘MIND CONTROL and MONITORING system.

Witness the creation,testing, and operation of one of humanities worst programs ever!  A network accessible, bio-telemetric transponding, interactive ‘remote neural monitoring and control’ system in-vivo(in ME and in my partner Petra U Schiller). A system using meta-materials tuned to specific bandpass frequencies, implanted/infected into the human being that would receive and transduce the complex waveform data being ‘narrow-casted’ to each ‘target’ allowing for an ever expanding range of emotional and physiological responses to be stimulated and created and enhanced in anyone. remotely.

There will be no secrets in the new world. A world where your every thought, deed, action, dream,hope, and shame will be public knowledge, accessible by authorities charged with stopping any ‘deviant’ behavior before it occurs.  before you are even old enough to act out your genetics will be sequenced, quantified, and then changed to ensure there will be no freedom of thought nor action in this new world order..

so have a peek at what science is doing now. and remember, what they tell you is NOW has already been done in black labs and dark side science with no oversight and unlimited funding. Yes, the x-files may have had some truth in them.

Read on.
Timothy trespas

Editing the genome with high precision

by Anne Trafton

Pymol21

Pymol21

Researchers at MIT, the Broad Institute and Rockefeller University have developed a new technique for precisely altering the genomes of living cells by adding or deleting genes. The researchers say the technology could offer an easy-to-use, less-expensive way to engineer organisms that produce biofuels; to design animal models to study human disease; and to develop new therapies, among other potential applications.

To create their new genome-editing technique, the researchers modified a set of bacterial proteins that normally defend against viral invaders.

Using this system, scientists can alter several genome sites simultaneously and can achieve much greater control over where new genes are inserted, says Feng Zhang, an assistant professor of brain and cognitive sciences at MIT and leader of the research team.

“Anything that requires engineering of an organism to put in new genes or to modify what’s in the genome will be able to benefit from this”, says Zhang, who is a core member of the Broad Institute and MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research.

Zhang and his colleagues describe the new technique in the Jan. 3 online edition of Science. Lead authors of the paper are graduate students Le Cong and Ann Ran.

Early efforts

The first genetically altered mice were created in the 1980s by adding small pieces of DNA to mouse embryonic cells. This method is now widely used to create transgenic mice for the study of human disease, but, because it inserts DNA randomly in the genome, researchers can’t target the newly delivered genes to replace existing ones.

In recent years, scientists have sought more precise ways to edit the genome. One such method, known as homologous recombination, involves delivering a piece of DNA that includes the gene of interest flanked by sequences that match the genome region where the gene is to be inserted. However, this techniques success rate is very low because the natural recombination process is rare in normal cells.

More recently, biologists discovered that they could improve the efficiency of this process by adding enzymes called nucleases, which can cut DNA. Zinc fingers are commonly used to deliver the nuclease to a specific location, but zinc finger arrays can’t target every possible sequence of DNA, limiting their usefulness. Furthermore, assembling the proteins is a labor-intensive and expensive process.

Complexes known as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) can also cut the genome in specific locations, but these complexes can also be expensive and difficult to assemble.

Precise targeting

The new system is much more user-friendly, Zhang says. Making use of naturally occurring bacterial protein-RNA systems that recognize and snip viral DNA, the researchers can create DNA-editing complexes that include a nuclease called Cas9 bound to short RNA sequences. These sequences are designed to target specific locations in the genome; when they encounter a match, Cas9 cuts the DNA.

This approach can be used either to disrupt the function of a gene or to replace it with a new one. To replace the gene, the researchers must also add a DNA template for the new gene, which would be copied into the genome after the DNA is cut.

Each of the RNA segments can target a different sequence. That’s the beauty of this ” you can easily program a nuclease to target one or more positions in the genome” Zhang says.

The method is also very precise — if there is a single base-pair difference between the RNA targeting sequence and the genome sequence, Cas9 is not activated. This is not the case for zinc fingers or TALENs. The new system also appears to be more efficient than TALEN, and much less expensive.

The new system “is a significant advancement in the field of genome editing and, in its first iteration, already appears comparable in efficiency to what zinc finger nucleases and TALENs have to offer,” says Aron Geurts, an associate professor of physiology at the Medical College of Wisconsin. “Deciphering the ever-increasing data emerging on genetic variation as it relates to human health and disease will require this type of scalable and precise genome editing in model systems.”

The research team has deposited the necessary genetic components with a nonprofit called Addgene, making the components widely available to other researchers who want to use the system. The researchers have also created a website with tips and tools for using this new technique.

Engineering new therapies

Among other possible applications, this system could be used to design new therapies for diseases such as Huntington’s disease, which appears to be caused by a single abnormal gene. Clinical trials that use zinc finger nucleases to disable genes are now under way, and the new technology could offer a more efficient alternative.

The system might also be useful for treating HIV by removing patients’ lymphocytes and mutating the CCR5 receptor, through which the virus enters cells. After being put back in the patient, such cells would resist infection.

This approach could also make it easier to study human disease by inducing specific mutations in human stem cells. “Using this genome editing system, you can very systematically put in individual mutations and differentiate the stem cells into neurons or cardiomyocytes and see how the mutations alter the biology of the cells,” Zhang says.

In the Science study, the researchers tested the system in cells grown in the lab, but they plan to apply the new technology to study brain function and diseases.

The research was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health; the W.M. Keck Foundation; the McKnight Foundation; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation; the Searle Scholars Program; and philanthropic support from MIT alumni Mike Boylan and Bob Metcalfe, as well as the newscaster Jane Pauley.

– See more at: http://mcgovern.mit.edu/news/news/editing-the-genome-with-high-precision/#sthash.r460mJ7u.dpuf

 

Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, which identified nearly 20,000 protein-coding genes, scientists have been trying to decipher the roles of those genes. A new approach developed at MIT, the Broad Institute, and the Whitehead Institute should speed up the process by allowing researchers to study the entire genome at once.

The new system, known as CRISPR, allows researchers to permanently and selectively delete genes from a cell’s DNA. In two new papers, the researchers showed that they could study all the genes in the genome by deleting a different gene in each of a huge population of cells, then observing which cells proliferated under different conditions.

“With this work, it is now possible to conduct systematic genetic screens in mammalian cells. This will greatly aid efforts to understand the function of both protein-coding genes as well as noncoding genetic elements,” says David Sabatini, a member of the Whitehead Institute, MIT professor of biology, and a senior author of one of the papers, both of which appear in this week’s online edition of Science.

Using this approach, the researchers were able to identify genes that allow melanoma cells to proliferate, as well as genes that confer resistance to certain chemotherapy drugs. Such studies could help scientists develop targeted cancer treatments by revealing the genes that cancer cells depend on to survive.

Feng Zhang, the W.M. Keck Assistant Professor in Biomedical Engineering and senior author of the other Science paper, developed the CRISPR system by exploiting a naturally occurring bacterial protein that recognizes and snips viral DNA. This protein, known as Cas9, is recruited by short RNA molecules called guides, which bind to the DNA to be cut. This DNA-editing complex offers very precise control over which genes are disrupted, by simply changing the sequence of the RNA guide.

“One of the things we’ve realized is that you can easily reprogram these enzymes with a short nucleic-acid chain. This paper takes advantage of that and shows that you can scale that to large numbers and really sample across the whole genome,” says Zhang, who is also a member of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research and the Broad Institute.

Genome-wide screens

For their new paper, Zhang and colleagues created a library of about 65,000 guide RNA strands that target nearly every known gene. They delivered genes for these guides, along with genes for the CRISPR machinery, to human cells. Each cell took up one of the guides, and the gene targeted by that guide was deleted. If the gene lost was necessary for survival, the cell died.

“This is the first work that really introduces so many mutations in a controlled fashion, which really opens a lot of possibilities in functional genomics,” says Ophir Shalem, a Broad Institute postdoc and one of the lead authors of the Zhang paper, along with Broad Institute postdoc Neville Sanjana.

This approach enabled the researchers to identify genes essential to the survival of two populations of cells: cancer cells and pluripotent stem cells. The researchers also identified genes necessary for melanoma cells to survive treatment with the chemotherapy drug vemurafenib.

In the other paper, led by Sabatini and Eric Lander, the director of the Broad Institute and an MIT professor of biology, the research team targeted a smaller set of about 7,000 genes, but they designed more RNA guide sequences for each gene. The researchers expected that each sequence would block its target gene equally well, but they found that cells with different guides for the same gene had varying survival rates.

“That suggested that there were intrinsic differences between guide RNA sequences that led to differences in their efficiency at cleaving the genomic DNA,” says Tim Wang, an MIT graduate student in biology and lead author of the paper.
From that data, the researchers deduced some rules that appear to govern the efficiency of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. They then used those rules to create an algorithm that can predict the most successful sequences to target a given gene.

“These papers together demonstrate the extraordinary power and versatility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system as a tool for genomewide discovery of the mechanisms underlying mammalian biology,” Lander says. “And we are just at the beginning: We’re still uncovering the capabilities of this system and its many applications.”

Efficient alternative

The researchers say that the CRISPR approach could offer a more efficient and reliable alternative to RNA interference (RNAi), which is currently the most widely used method for studying gene functions. RNAi works by delivering short RNA strands known as shRNA that destroy messenger RNA (mRNA), which carries DNA’s instructions to the rest of the cell.

The drawback to RNAi is that it targets mRNA and not DNA, so it is impossible to get 100 percent elimination of the gene. “CRISPR can completely deplete a given protein in a cell, whereas shRNA will reduce the levels but it will never reach complete depletion,” Zhang says.

Michael Elowitz, a professor of biology, bioengineering, and applied physics at the California Institute of Technology, says the demonstration of the new technique is “an astonishing achievement.”

“Being able to do things on this enormous scale, at high accuracy, is going to revolutionize biology, because for the first time we can start to contemplate the kinds of comprehensive and complex genetic manipulations of cells that are necessary to really understand how complex genetic circuits work,” says Elowitz, who was not involved in the research.

In future studies, the researchers plan to conduct genomewide screens of cells that have become cancerous through the loss of tumor suppressor genes such as BRCA1. If scientists can discover which genes are necessary for those cells to thrive, they may be able to develop drugs that are highly cancer-specific, Wang says.

This strategy could also be used to help find drugs that counterattack tumor cells that have developed resistance to existing chemotherapy drugs, by identifying genes that those cells rely on for survival.

The researchers also hope to use the CRISPR system to study the function of the vast majority of the genome that does not code for proteins. “Only 2 percent of the genome is coding. That’s what these two studies have focused on, that 2 percent, but really there’s that other 98 percent which for a long time has been like dark matter,” Sanjana says.

The research from the Lander/Sabatini group was funded by the National Institutes of Health; the National Human Genome Research Institute; the Broad Institute, and the National Science Foundation. The research from the Zhang group was supported by the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award; the NIH; the Keck, McKnight, Merkin, Vallee, Damon Runyon, Searle Scholars, Klingenstein, and Simon Foundations; Bob Metcalfe; the Klarman Family Foundation; the Simons Center for the Social Brain at MIT; and Jane Pauley

About Timothytrespas

I am a victim of human experimentation MK-ultra mind control Morgellons nanotechnology syndrome & remote neural connectivity. I am an artist, inventor, musician, thinker, lover, human being who cares for all humanity & all life. I believe people should endeavor to live in peaceful cooperation rather than brutal waring survival of the most brutal. We live in a forced false-paradigm and I desire to wake people up from the 'trance hypnotic mind control programming' to the 'TRUTH of light and love'! Blessing and peace. Justice to all who suffer under tyranny. Compassion for all beings. May GOD have mercy on us all.
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One Response to Editing the (human) genome with high precision! new technology. But what about those ‘edited’ against their will?

  1. geoross123 says:

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